14,719 results match your criteria water equivalent


Effect of water stress on the physiological and biochemical responses of two different Coleus (Plectranthus) species.

Biol Futur 2019 Dec 1;70(4):312-322. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Biotechnology, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Effect of water stress on the physiology and biochemistry of two different Coleus species, Coleus forskholii and Coleus amboinicus, was studied.

Materials And Methods: Drought stress was imposed by withholding the water supply until leaf water potentials reached -0.4, -0. Read More

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December 2019

Assessment of the value of ecosystem services in water sources of the South-North Water Diversion Central Project: the case of Dengzhou City, Henan Province.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Sep 23;193(10):670. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, 450046, China.

Dengzhou City is the first ecological water recharge city after the commissioning of the South-North Water Diversion Project. A study on the ecological service value of Dengzhou City and its evolutionary characteristics can provide a theoretical basis for the water supply security of the Central Line Project and regional ecological environmental protection. Based on the ecosystem service value equivalent factor method, GIS, ENVI and GeoSOS-FLUS software were used to monetize the ecosystem service values of Dengzhou City in 2007, 2011, 2014, 2015 and 2020; analyze the spatial and temporal change characteristics under its land use change conditions and predict the regional ecosystem service values of Dengzhou City in 2025. Read More

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September 2021

Fast Dynamics of Inverse Wormlike Micelles Probed Using Mechanical and Dielectric Spectroscopy.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

The rheology of wormlike micelle (WLM) solutions is tunable by engineering the micellar structure and topology. While much is known about how microscopic properties influence the rheological characteristics, questions remain regarding the quantification of fast relaxation processes, including Rouse and rotational modes. These fast processes are challenging to access using mechanical spectroscopy as bending modes dominate high-frequency mechanical measurements. Read More

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September 2021

What You Net Depends on if You Grab: A Meta-analysis of Sampling Method's Impact on Measured Aquatic Microplastic Concentration.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

Microplastic pollution is measured with a variety of sampling methods. Field experiments indicate that commonly used sampling methods, including net, pump, and grab samples, do not always result in equivalent measured concentration. We investigate the comparability of these methods through a meta-analysis of 121 surface water microplastic studies. Read More

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September 2021

Chemical elements in sediments and in bivalve mollusks from estuarine regions in the south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil.

Braz J Biol 2021 20;83:e249641. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais - DCAA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil.

Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. Read More

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September 2021

Honey-based trap for Pseudomonas: a sustainable prototype for water disinfection.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur, 303007, India.

This paper introduces a novel prototype for the removal of Pseudomonas from water samples. Bacterial cells have the tendency to get attracted towards specific chemicals (chemotaxis); a 'honey-based trap' (henceforth, addressed as 'honey-trap') strip was conceptualized by integrating a combination of serine, pseudomonas-specific chemoattractant and honey to attract and inhibit the bacteria in situ. Honey, a natural antimicrobial agent, has garnered the attention as an effective inhibitor for Pseudomonal biofilms and wound infections. Read More

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September 2021

Gut-associated cGMP mediates colitis and dysbiosis in a mouse model of an activating mutation in GUCY2C.

J Exp Med 2021 Nov 21;218(11). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Activating mutations in receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), the target of gastrointestinal peptide hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins cause early-onset diarrhea and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GC-C regulates ion and fluid secretion in the gut via cGMP production and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. We characterize a novel mouse model harboring an activating mutation in Gucy2c equivalent to that seen in an affected Norwegian family. Read More

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November 2021

Clinical study on the effects of the applied volume of moisturizer in patients with asteatosis.

J Dermatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Clinical Development Department, Kyoto R&D Center, Maruho Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan.

Asteatosis is characterized by decreased stratum corneum water content, and the basic treatment is to keep the skin moisturized. Poor application of moisturizers by patients may reduce treatment efficiency, so it is important to continue application as instructed by dermatologists. Application instructions based on the finger-tip unit are useful for patients, but there is no clear evidence of its efficacy. Read More

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September 2021

Dosimetric characteristics of a thin bolus made of variable shape tungsten rubber for photon radiotherapy.

Phys Eng Sci Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, 377-2 Onohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 5898511, Japan.

In this study, we aim to clarify the dosimetric characteristics of a real time variable shape rubber containing tungsten (STR) as a thin bolus in 6-MV photon radiotherapy. The percentage depth doses (PDDs) and lateral dose profiles (irradiation field = 10 × 10  cm) in the water-equivalent phantom were measured and compared between no bolus, a commercial 5-mm gel bolus, and 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 3-mm STR boluses. Read More

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September 2021

Cutting-edge approach using dual-channel chromatography to overcome the sensitivity issues associated with polarity switching in pesticide residues analysis.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 26;1180:338875. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruit & Vegetables, University of Almería, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), Ctra. Sacramento S/n. La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120, Almería, Spain. Electronic address:

A fast and sensitive method was validated for the analysis of pesticide residues in baby food. After an QuEChERS-based extraction, the samples were analysed with a dual-channel liquid chromatography instrument coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method consisted of two independent injections per sample. Read More

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October 2021

Is the development of desalination compatible with sustainable development of the Arabian Gulf?

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 16;173(Pt A):112940. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences (Cefas), Lowestoft, NR33 0HT, UK.

The development of desalination has been essential to the rapid economic development of the countries bordering the Arabian Gulf. The current production capacity of sea water desalination plants drawing water from Gulf is over 20 million m day, which may rise to 80 million m day by 2050. Whilst supporting aspects of sustainable development related to water and sanitation, desalination impacts the marine environment through impingement and entrainment of organisms in intakes, and through thermal, brine and chemical discharges. Read More

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September 2021

Size-segregated physicochemical properties of inhalable particulate matter in a tunnel-ventilated layer house in China.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 15;204(Pt B):112064. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the physicochemical properties of the particles in a typical commercial laying hen barn in Southeast China. Mass concentrations and size distributions of the particulate matter (PM) and the key components (incl. organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and the water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs)) were analyzed. Read More

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September 2021

Estimating primary vehicular emission contributions to PM using the Chemical Mass Balance model: Accounting for gas-particle partitioning of organic aerosols and oxidation degradation of hopanes.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 8;291:118131. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Division of Environment & Sustainability, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Particulate matter emitted from vehicles (PM) represents a major air pollution source in urban areas. Ambient measurements of hopanes and elemental carbon have traditionally been coupled with the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to quantify the contributions to fine PM from diesel and gasoline vehicular emissions (VE). The organic carbon part of PM, however, undergoes gas-particle partitioning and oxidation degradation as VE move from exhaust pipe to receptor sites. Read More

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September 2021

Removal of nitrate and phosphate from simulated agricultural runoff water by Chlorella vulgaris.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 28;802:149988. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Engineering, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Microalgae such Chlorella vulgaris can effectively absorb nitrate and phosphate from contaminated water. This work characterized nitrate and phosphate removal from simulated agricultural runoff using C. vulgaris. Read More

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Spectral Signatures of Oxidation States in a Manganese-Oxo Cubane Water Oxidation Catalyst.

Chemistry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Vienna, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Währinger strasse 17, 1090, Vienna, AUSTRIA.

We report IR and UV/Vis spectroscopic signatures that allow discriminating among the oxidation states of the manganese-based water oxidation catalyst [(Mn 4 O 4 )(V 4 O 13 )(OAc) 3 ] 3 - . Simulated IR spectra show that V=O stretching vibrations in the 900-1000cm - 1 region shift consistently by about 20cm - 1 per oxidation equivalent. Multiple bands in the 1450-1550cm - 1 region also change systematically upon oxidation/reduction. Read More

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September 2021

Bimetallic FeNi nanoparticles immobilized by biomass-derived hierarchically porous carbon for efficient removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 4;423(Pt A):127098. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, PR China. Electronic address:

Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an effective material for Cr(VI) treatment, however excessive agglomeration and surface oxidation limit its application. Herein, straw derived hierarchically porous carbon supported FeNi bimetallic nanoparticles ([email protected]) was prepared for effective removal of Cr(VI) from water. FeNi nanoparticles were successfully loaded onto HPC with good dispersibility, and HPC caused an increase in specific surface area of FeNi nanoparticles. Read More

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September 2021

Size-specific dose estimates of adult, chest computed tomography examinations: Comparison of Chinese and updated 2017 American College of Radiology diagnostic reference levels based on the water-equivalent diameter.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(9):e0257294. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Radiology, Chengdu First People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Rationale And Objectives: This study aimed to compare the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE), with the China and updated 2017 American College of Radiology (ACR) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in chest CT examinations of adults based on the water-equivalent diameter (Dw).

Materials And Methods: All chest CT examinations conducted without contrast administration from January 2020 to July 2020 were retrospectively included in this study. The Dw and SSDE of all examinations were calculated automatically by "teamplay". Read More

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September 2021

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Efficacy, and Safety of OPC-61815, a Prodrug of Tolvaptan for Intravenous Administration, in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure - A Phase II, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trial.

Circ J 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Clinical Development Headquarters, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

Background: Tolvaptan is an orally administered aquaretic drug indicated for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) to remove excess fluid. OPC-61815, a prodrug of tolvaptan with improved water solubility, is considered suitable for intravenous (IV) administration. This Phase II study investigated the OPC-61815 dose that would result in an exposure equivalent to tolvaptan 15 mg. Read More

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September 2021

Economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare facilities and systems: International perspectives.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2021 Oct 17;35(3):293-306. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA. Electronic address:

International hospitals and healthcare facilities are facing catastrophic financial challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Hospital Association estimates a financial impact of $202.6 billion in lost revenue for America's hospitals and healthcare systems, or an average of $50. Read More

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October 2021

Deuterium-depleted water stimulates GLUT4 translocation in the presence of insulin, which leads to decreased blood glucose concentration.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

HYD LLC for Cancer Research and Drug Development, Villányi út 97, 1118, Budapest, Hungary.

Deuterium (D) is a stable isotope of hydrogen (H) with a mass number of 2. It is present in natural waters in the form of HDO, at a concentration of 16.8 mmol/L, equivalent to 150 ppm. Read More

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September 2021

Estimation of total flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons facilitated by methane ebullition into water column from global lake sediments.

Water Res 2021 Aug 28;204:117611. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037 China. Electronic address:

Methane ebullition and contamination are two typical characteristics from lakes, however, these two are generally studied independently. In fact, the exchange of matter and energy between methane bubbles and their surrounding environment can be very active to enhance the contaminant transport. There is limited research on understanding the characteristics and trends of gas ebullition facilitated contaminant emissions in large areas considering water and air as receptors. Read More

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Modeling and validation of delivered fluence of a continuous Dean flow pilot scale UV system: monitoring fluence by biodosimetry approach.

Food Res Int 2021 Oct 22;148:110625. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Food Biosciences and Technology Program, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville 37209, TN, USA. Electronic address:

The inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in water and high transmittance liquid foods has been studied extensively. The efficiency of the process is relatively low for treating opaque liquid foods using traditional UV systems. This study evaluated the ability of UV-C light to inactivate foodborne pathogens in a simulated opaque fluid (6. Read More

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October 2021

Longitudinal assessment of quality assurance measurements in a 1.5T MR-linac: Part I-Linear accelerator.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: To describe and report longitudinal quality assurance (QA) measurements for the mechanical and dosimetric performance of an Elekta Unity MR-linac during the first year of clinical use in our institution.

Materials And Methods: The mechanical and dosimetric performance of the MR-linac was evaluated with daily, weekly, monthly, and annual QA testing. The measurements monitor the size of the radiation isocenter, the MR-to-MV isocenter concordance, MLC and jaw position, the accuracy and reproducibility of step-and-shoot delivery, radiation output and beam profile constancy, and patient-specific QA for the first 50 treatments in our institution. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient Wood Hydrophobization Exploiting Natural Roughness Using Minimum Amounts of Surfactant-Free Plant Oil Emulsions.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 17;6(34):22202-22212. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Wood K plus-Competence Centre for Wood Composites & Wood Chemistry, Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria.

Wood in service requires protection from excessive moisture. Herein, we demonstrate that efficient surface hydrophobization can be provided with small amounts of biobased oils, benefitting from the hierarchical roughness inherent to wood surfaces. The developed technique involves coating spruce wood with surfactant-free emulsions based on tung oil, linseed oil, or a linseed oil-based long oil alkyd resin. Read More

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Abrasiveness and whitening effect of charcoal-containing whitening toothpastes in permanent teeth.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2021 19;18:51. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Dental Research Center, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Charcoal toothpastes can whiten teeth through abrasion. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of whitening and abrasiveness of charcoal toothpastes in permanent teeth.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 30 premolars were polished, sectioned, mounted, and stored for 5 days in a coffee solution at 37°C. Read More

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Ultrasensitive detection of endocrine disruptors via superfine plasmonic spectral combs.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Sep 7;10(1):181. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Photonics Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of detecting endocrine disruptors. However, a long-lasting challenge unaddressed is how to achieve ultrahigh sensitive, continuous, and in situ measurement with a portable device for in-field and remote environmental monitoring. Here we demonstrate a simple-to-implement plasmonic optical fiber biosensing platform to achieve an improved light-matter interaction and advanced surface chemistry for ultrasensitive detection of endocrine disruptors. Read More

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September 2021

Polymer leachates emulate naturally derived fluorescent dissolved organic matter: Understanding and managing sample container interferences.

Water Res 2021 Aug 28;204:117614. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Algae & Organic Matter Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

Fluorescence spectroscopy has become a fundamental tool for the qualitative and quantitative fingerprinting of dissolved organic matter. Due to the inherent sensitivity of the technique, a strict sampling protocol should be followed to ensure sample integrity. A literature survey conducted as part of this research determined that 27% of fluorescence sampling has been conducted in polymeric containers, while 52% did not report. Read More

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Linking Perfluorosulfonic Acid Ionomer Chemistry and High-Current Density Performance in Fuel-Cell Electrodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 7;13(36):42579-42589. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Energy Conversion Group, Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Transport phenomena are key in controlling the performance of electrochemical energy-conversion technologies and can be highly complex, involving multiple length scales and materials/phases. Material designs optimized for one reactant species transport however may inhibit other transport processes. We explore such trade-offs in the context of polymer-electrolyte fuel-cell electrodes, where ionomer thin films provide the necessary proton conductivity but retard oxygen transport to the Pt reaction site and cause interfacial resistance due to sulfonate/Pt interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Simplified approach to estimation of organ absorbed doses for patients undergoing abdomen and pelvis CT examination.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Clinical Physics and Bioengineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

The volumetric computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDIvol) is the measure of output displayed on CT consoles relating to dose within a standard phantom. This gives a false impression of doses levels within the tissues of smaller patients in Southeast Asia. A Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE) can be calculated from the CTDIvol to provide an assessment of doses at specific positions within a scan using size-specific conversion factors. Read More

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September 2021

A field study of dioxins during co-processing of hazardous waste in multicomponent slurry gasifier.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 4;299:113584. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Zibo Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Center, Zibo, 255000, China.

A field test was conducted to study the emission and distribution characteristics of dioxins during co-processing of hazardous waste in a multicomponent slurry gasifier (MCSG). The toxicity equivalent concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in all exhaust gas, waste water, and solid waste under both blank condition (i.e. Read More

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September 2021