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[PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MEASURES TAKEN IN RESPONSE TO THE THREAT OF THE SPREAD OF COVID-19: FOREIGN PRACTICE].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):795-798

Belgorod National State Research University, 30801585, Belgorod, Russia.

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus challenges governments to act in ways that are usually reserved for war or natural disasters. The pandemic has caused massive global upheaval that could last for months, or longer. Governments are taking extreme measures to limit economic shocks and human costs. Read More

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Meniscal Regenerative Scaffolds Based on Biopolymers and Polymers: Recent Status and Applications.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:661802. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Institute of Orthopedics, Beijing, China.

Knee menisci are structurally complex components that preserve appropriate biomechanics of the knee. Meniscal tissue is susceptible to injury and cannot heal spontaneously from most pathologies, especially considering the limited regenerative capacity of the inner avascular region. Conventional clinical treatments span from conservative therapy to meniscus implantation, all with limitations. Read More

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Long-term prescription opioid use among US military service members injured in combat.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Aug;91(2S Suppl 2):S213-S220

From the Center for Surgery and Public Health, Department of Surgery (M.K.D., A.M., M.P.J., J.S.W., Z.C., A.J.S.) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery (A.J.P., A.J.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Surgery (P.A.L.) and Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics (T.P.K.), F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.

Introduction: During the Global War on Terrorism, many US Military service members sustained injuries with potentially long-lasting functional limitations and chronic pain. We sought to understand the patterns of prescription opioid use among service members injured in combat.

Methods: We queried the Military Health System Data Repository to identify service members injured in combat between 2007 and 2011. Read More

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D-Day to December 1944: The odyssey of the third auxiliary surgical group in World War II.

Authors:
Richard E Burney

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Aug;91(2S Suppl 2):S9-S18

From the Department of Surgery, Section of General Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Abstract: As a Major in the US Army Medical Corps, Darrell A. Campbell, MD, led Team 13 of the Third Auxiliary Surgical Group in Europe in World War II. The team began work on June 7, 1944, in a clearing station tent near the beach at Normandy. Read More

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Arsenic speciation in fish from Baltic Sea close to chemical munitions dumpsites.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 1;284:131326. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Department of Food and Environmental Chemistry, Kołłątaja1, 81-332, Gdynia, Poland.

Chemical weapons that were dumped in seas and oceans after World War II, including the Baltic Sea, are sources of pollution of marine areas. Sunken containers can corrode, unseal, and numerous compounds pass into the environment, including toxic forms of arsenic, which are then taken up by marine animals. This study aims to quantify concentration of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic (III + V), and organic compounds arsenobetaine, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid in the muscle tissues of cod, herring, sprat, and flounder and the associated risk to consumer health. Read More

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Prevalence of trauma among young adults exposed to stressful events of armed conflicts in South Asia: Experiences from Kashmir.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Applied Psychology.

There is dearth of studies regarding the exposure of traumatic conflicts in Kashmir, India, because of limited research undertaken in this area. Therefore, the main intent of this study was to estimate the prevalence of trauma among young adults exposed to violent and stressful events of armed conflict. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on the prevalence of trauma in all the 10 districts of Kashmir Valley using multistage sampling technique. Read More

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Will rheumatologists ever pick up the arthroscope again?

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Conditions prompting physicians and surgeons first adapting endoscopes to peer into joints were mainly the sort of synovial conditions that would concern today's rheumatologists. Rheumatologists were among the pre-World War II pioneers developing and documenting arthroscopy. The post-War father of modern arthroscopy, Watanabe, found rheumatologists among his early students, who took back the technique to their home countries, teaching orthopedists and rheumatologists alike. Read More

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Community perceptions of the impact of war on unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in Protection of Civilian sites in Juba, South Sudan.

Glob Public Health 2021 Jul 29:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

International Medical Corps, Washington, DC, USA.

Conflict and mass displacement into Protection of Civilian (POCs) sites in South Sudan led to the breakdown of community and family structures, increasing women and girls' vulnerability to gender-based violence and exacerbating already poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. As one component of a study on post-abortion care, this study explores community perceptions of unintended pregnancy and abortion in a POC in Juba. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 36 women and married men aged 18-45 living in the POC. Read More

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Through Her Eyes: The Impact of War on Syrian Refugee Families.

J Transcult Nurs 2021 Jul 29:10436596211026367. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: The Syrian war conflict ended with devastating impact on Syrian refugee women and their children. A few studies have been done that explored the impact of the civil war and displacement of Syrian families from a cultural perspective. The purpose of this study was to highlight the experiences of the Syrian war-refugee families who have sought shelter in a host country. Read More

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First direct human-to-cat transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant.

Aust Vet J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

DESAM Institute, Near East University, Nicosia, 99138, Cyprus.

A highly transmissible severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which resulted the highest morbidity and mortality rates among SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 B.1. Read More

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High expression of protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B'' alpha predicts poor outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after liver transplantation.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Jul;13(7):716-731

Clinical College of General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China.

Background: Protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B'' alpha () gene has been reported in other tumors, but the influence of gene expression on the occurrence, development, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.

Aim: To investigate whether the gene could be used to predict tumor recurrence and survival of HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT).

Methods: Diseased liver tissues of HCC patients after LT were collected as well as their clinical data and follow-up information. Read More

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Blood Glucose and Renal Function Evaluation in Patients with Viral Hepatitis.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 20;14:3337-3344. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Armed Force General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Purpose: To evaluate the blood glucose and renal function, determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal disease (nephropathy), and investigate the association between hyperglycemia/DM and renal disease in patients with viral hepatitis (VH).

Patients And Methods: A total of 491 subjects were included in the study. Patients with VH were further divided into the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and HBV-HCV co-infection subgroups. Read More

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Global burden of post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression in countries affected by war between 1989 and 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jul;6(7)

Institute of Psychology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Objective: Extensive research has demonstrated high prevalences of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) in war-surviving populations. However, absolute estimates are lacking, which may additionally inform policy making, research and healthcare. We aimed at estimating the absolute global prevalence and disease burden of adult survivors of recent wars (1989-2019) affected by PTSD and/or MD. Read More

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Endoscopic Endonasal Removal of Stray Bullets in the Fossa Pterygopalatine in Innocent Young Bystanders of Conflicts in Somalia in a Period of Six Months.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, University Hospital UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels Health Campus, Brussels, Belgium Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Somalia Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan Education and Research Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia Department of Otorhinolaryngology El-Hussein University Hospital, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: In Somalia, which is located in the horn of Africa, a fragile and insecure state structure allowed the strengthening of terrorist groups provoking armed conflicts. Stray bullet injuries can be defined as an accidental bullet wound caused by an anonymous attacker and are usually associated with celebratory gunfire or urban violence. The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is complex and penetrating foreign body injuries pose even a greater challenge for the surgeon to operate in this area. Read More

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Improving Self-Confidence of Military Medical Providers With Joint Procedure Simulation: A Pilot Study.

Mil Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Rheumatology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859, USA.

Introduction: Military medical providers are a unique population that encounter different environments across the world. From hospital clinics to war zones, these providers must perform procedures and rely on their training and skill to help their patients. This pilot study aimed to assess the self-confidence of military medical providers performing joint aspiration and injection before and after a simulation workshop in both clinical and austere settings. Read More

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Moving Ahead: Building a Strong Network Among Female Cardiovascular Clinician Scientists and Researchers in Africa.

JACC Case Rep 2019 Jun 19;1(1):40-43. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Instituto Nacional de Saúde and Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.

This case reports on the authors' successes building a strong network among female cardiovascular clinician scientists and researchers in Africa provides examples of collaborations and mentorship. (). Read More

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The Spectrum of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Endocrine Profile of Male Infertility with Nonobstructive Semen Abnormality: A Case-Control Study.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):175-183. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Community Medicine, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagara, Karnataka, India.

Background: Primary infertility is a common occurrence which affects approximately 15% of couples who desire to begin their family. Chromosomal abnormalities are well-established causes of pregnancy loss but may also have a role in explaining the cause of male infertility, especially with nonobstructive semen abnormalities. Hence, awareness regarding safety of artificial reproductive technology in these individuals due to underlying sperm aneuploidy is required. Read More

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Traumatic brain injury and sight loss in military and veteran populations- a review.

Mil Med Res 2021 07 28;8(1):42. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Research & Innovation, Blind Veterans UK, 12-14 Harcourt Street, London, W1H 4HD, UK.

War and combat exposure pose great risks to the vision system. More recently, vision related deficiencies and impairments have become common with the increased use of powerful explosive devices and the subsequent rise in incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Studies have looked at the effects of injury severity, aetiology of injury and the stage at which visual problems become apparent. Read More

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Experiential avoidance is associated with medical and mental health diagnoses in a national sample of deployed Gulf War veterans.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:17-24. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Durham VA Health Care System, 508 Fulton Street, Durham, NC, 27705, USA; VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3022 Croasdaile Dr., Durham, NC, 27705, USA; Duke University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, DUMC 3625, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A substantial minority of deployed Gulf War veterans developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and several chronic illnesses. Although military combat and exposure to certain nuclear, biological, and chemical agents (NBCs) increase risk for post-deployment health problems, they do not fully explain many Gulf War veteran health diagnoses and are not viable treatment targets. Experiential avoidance (EA; one's unwillingness to remain in contact with unpleasant internal experiences) is a modifiable psychosocial risk factor associated with PTSD and depression in veterans as well as pain and gastrointestinal diseases in the general population. Read More

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Single-molecule imaging of chromatin remodelers reveals role of ATPase in promoting fast kinetics of target search and dissociation from chromatin.

Elife 2021 Jul 27;10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

Conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers establish and maintain genome-wide chromatin architectures of regulatory DNA during cellular lifespan, but the temporal interactions between remodelers and chromatin targets have been obscure. We performed live-cell single-molecule tracking for RSC, SWI/SNF, CHD1, ISW1, ISW2, and INO80 remodeling complexes in budding yeast and detected hyperkinetic behaviors for chromatin-bound molecules that frequently transition to the free state for all complexes. Chromatin-bound remodelers display notably higher diffusion than nucleosomal histones, and strikingly fast dissociation kinetics with 4-7 s mean residence times. Read More

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Racism, healthcare access and health equity for people seeking asylum.

Nurs Inq 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Monash Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University Clayton Campus, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

People seeking asylum are at risk of receiving poorer quality healthcare due, in part, to racist and discriminatory attitudes, behaviours and policies in the health system. Despite fleeing war and conflict; exposure to torture and traumatic events and living with uncertainty; people seeking asylum are at high-risk of experiencing long-term poor physical and mental health outcomes in their host country. This article aims to raise awareness and bring attention to some common issues people seeking asylum face when seeking healthcare in high-income countries where the health system is dominated by a Western biomedical view of health. Read More

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The artificial intelligence (AI) role for tackling against COVID-19 pandemic.

Mater Today Proc 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Computer Techniques Engineering Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Babil, Iraq.

COVID-19 gains from the research and technology component's establishment of information science, artificial intelligence, and computer understanding. The article aims to discuss the numerous facets of today's modern technology utilized to combat COVID-19 emergencies on various scales, such as medicinal picture handling, illness tracking, expected outcomes, computational science, and medications. Techniques: A complex search of the knowledge base associated with existing COVID-19 innovation is conducted. Read More

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Hypoxia - as a Possible Regulator of the Activity of Epicardial Mesothelial Cells After Myocardial Infarction.

Kardiologiia 2021 Jul 1;61(6):59-68. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Angiogenesis Laboratory, National Medical Research Center for Cardiology, Moscow; Moscow State University, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Laboratory of Postgenomic Technologies in Medicine, Moscow.

Aim      To study the effect of hypoxia on the activity of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epicardial cells, which provides formation of a specialized microenvironment.Material and methods   This study used a model of experimental myocardial infarction created by ligation of the anterior descendent coronary artery. The activity of epicardial cells after a hypoxic exposure was studied with the hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, immunofluorescent staining of heart cryosections, and in vitro mesothelial cell culture. Read More

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A Pilot Trial of Universal School-Based Mental Health Screening in El Salvador: Traumatic Stress in an Underresourced School Environment.

J Trauma Stress 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Salvadoran youth have an elevated risk of trauma exposure and related mental health problems. However, investigations of childhood trauma exposure and mental health sequelae in El Salvador are limited. The present study aimed to (a) explore the prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression and (b) evaluate the associations between specific trauma types and emotional functioning among Salvadoran youth. Read More

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Decline of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus detection in facility-based surveillance during the COVID-19 pandemic, South Africa, January to October 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 07;26(29)

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

BackgroundIn South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter.MethodsWe assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019. Read More

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A comparison of alternative selection methods for reporting spirometric parameters in healthy adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14945. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Airborne Hazards and Burn Pits Center of Excellence, War Related Illness and Injury Study Center, VA New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, NJ, USA.

Alternative methods have been proposed to report spirometry indices from test sessions (forced expiratory volume 1 s, FEV; forced vital capacity, FVC). However, most use the American and European Societies' standard (ATS/ERS) which stops sessions once a repeatability threshold is met which may not accurately represent intra-session variability. Our goal was to repeat trials beyond the repeatability threshold and evaluate alternative reporting methods. Read More

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Conflict and COVID-19 in Yemen: beyond the humanitarian crisis.

Global Health 2021 07 22;17(1):83. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Geography, The Royal Holloway University of London. Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.

Background: Yemen has been left in shambles and almost destroyed by its devastating civil war, and is now having to deal with the spread of coronavirus. The Yemeni people have been are left to fend for themselves and faced many problems such as hunger, the ongoing war, infections, diseases and lack of equipment even before the COVID-19 pandemic. All together it is a humanitarian crisis. Read More

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Demonstrating the feasibility of digital health to support paediatric patients in South Africa.

Epilepsia Open 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Aparito Ltd, Wrexham, United Kingdom.

Objective: Resources for management of epilepsy in Africa are extremely limited reinforcing the need to develop innovative strategies for optimising care. Studies have shown that the prevalence of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries is substantially greater than in more resourced countries. The objective of this report was to demonstrate that mobile Health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to improve the management of epilepsy in Africa. Read More

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"We will never give up": A qualitative study of ethical challenges Syrian health workers face in situations of extreme violence.

Disasters 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

JD Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics; Department of Epidemiology and Center for Humanitarian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA.

Active conflict settings present challenging operating environments for humanitarian health organizations and workers. An emerging feature of some conflicts is direct violence against health workers, facilities, and patients. Since the start of the war in 2011, Syria has endured extreme and deliberate violent attacks on health facilities and workers. Read More

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Scientific research and product development in the United States to address injuries from a radiation public health emergency.

Authors:
Andrea L DiCarlo

J Radiat Res 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 5601 Fishers Lane, Room 7B13, Rockville, MD, USA.

The USA has experienced one large-scale nuclear incident in its history. Lessons learned during the Three-Mile Island nuclear accident provided government planners with insight into property damage resulting from a low-level release of radiation, and an awareness concerning how to prepare for future occurrences. However, if there is an incident resulting from detonation of an improvised nuclear device or state-sponsored device/weapon, resulting casualties and the need for medical treatment could overwhelm the nation's public health system. Read More

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