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The evaluation of Human papilloma virus and human herpes viruses (EBV, CMV, VZV HSV-1 and HSV-2) in semen samples.

Andrologia 2021 Mar 28:e14051. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are a number of risk factors, especially viral diseases, which can lead to infertility. Among the various viral infections, much attention has been given to the role of the Papillomaviridae and Herpesviridae. After collecting 82 semen samples (37 teratospermia, 2 asthenozoospermia, 2 oligoasthenospermia, 1 oligospermia, 6 asthenoteratospermia and 34 normal semen samples), and washing them, the DNA from both freshly ejaculated spermatozoon and washed spermatozoa was extracted. Read More

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Life-long passion for antiviral research and drug development: 80th birthday of Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Mar 20;185:114485. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China. Electronic address:

Since the 1950s, great efforts have been made to develop antiviral agents against many infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Among the list of nearly 106 antiviral agents approved in the past five decades, Prof. Erik De Clercq has contributed to the development of 7 antiviral drugs: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread®) for HIV and HBV treatment, tenofovir alafenamide (Vemlidy®) for HIV and HBV treatment, brivudine (Zostex®) for HSV-1 and VZV treatment, valacyclovir (Valtrex®) for HSV and VZV treatment, adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera®) for HBV treatment, stavudine (Zerit®) for HIV treatment, and cidofovir (Vistide®) for treating HCMV retinitis in AIDS patients. Read More

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Evidence that Ginkgo Biloba could use in the influenza and coronavirus COVID-19 infections.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Pharmacy College, University of Basra, Basrah, Iraq.

Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic invades the world. Public health evaluates the incidence of infections and death, which should be reduced and need desperately quarantines for infected individuals. This article review refers to the roles of Ginkgo Biloba to reduce the risk of infection in the respiratory tract, the details on the epidemiology of corona COVID-19 and influenza, and it highlights how the Ginko Biloba could have been used as a novel treatment. Read More

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February 2021

Drug Discovery of Nucleos(t)ide Antiviral Agents: Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq on Occasion of His 80th Birthday.

Molecules 2021 Feb 9;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are essential antivirals in the treatment of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). To celebrate the 80th birthday of Prof. Dr. Read More

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February 2021

Multiplex PCR for Detection of Herpes Simplex Viruses Type-1 and Type-2, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-zoster Virus, and Adenovirus in Ocular Viral Infections.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):3-11. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Ophthalmology, Dr. R P Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Most common viruses causing ocular infections are Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella-zoster Virus (VZV), and few strains of Adenovirus. Diagnosis of these infections through clinical manifestations and using conventional methods has a number of limitations. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of all pathogenic viruses from ocular infections. Read More

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January 2021

Detection of human papillomavirus genotypes, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and cytomegalovirus in breast cancer patients.

Virol J 2021 01 22;18(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The role of viruses as a cause of breast cancer (BC) has been significantly investigated in recent years. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in invasive breast carcinomas, while most studies have only focused on the detection of viral DNA, we aimed to examine the prevalence and genotypes of HPV among Iranian BC patients. We also examined the presence of herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex-2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in these samples. Read More

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January 2021

Varicella-Zoster Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis: An Understated Cause of Central Nervous System Infections.

Cureus 2020 Nov 20;12(11):e11583. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Internal Medicine, University of Sucre, Sincelejo, COL.

Background Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes zoster cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS) manifesting as meningitis or encephalitis. As compared to enterovirus (EV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), it is not often tested in CNS infections due to VZV and herpes zoster. There is a certain tendency to think that the findings in the cerebrospinal fluid in infections of the CNS by viruses are comparable among themselves. Read More

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November 2020

Simultaneous VZV and HSV-1 Reactivation after Minor Head Injury.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2020 21;7(12):001746. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland and University of Basel, Switzerland.

An 81-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with a dark lesion on his forehead and swelling of his left eye, 3 days after a minor forehead injury and skin laceration. He also showed singular papules on his chin, upper chest, upper arms and back, later evolving into vesicles. Polymerase-chain reaction testing of vesicle content was positive for VZV and HSV-1, confirming a diagnosis of disseminated cutaneous herpes virus infection and concomitant HSV-1 reactivation. Read More

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Encephalitis with coinfection by Jamestown canyon virus (JCV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).

IDCases 2020 8;22:e00966. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI USA.

We present the case of a 59-year-old Midwestern farmer who presented with altered mental status, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, and a right-sided L5 dermatomal rash; he had recently received a course of oral corticosteroids for treatment of radicular low back pain. Lumbar puncture revealed the presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) and IgM antibodies against a California-group encephalitis virus, later confirmed as Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Unfortunately, the patient's health declined despite aggressive treatment, developing progressive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Read More

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October 2020

Use of a Multiplex PCR Assay To Assess the Presence of Treponema pallidum in Mucocutaneous Ulcerations in Patients with Suspected Syphilis.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jan 21;59(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

INSERM, Institut Cochin U1016-CNRS UMR8104, Université Sorbonne Paris Descartes, Paris, France

We evaluated the utility of the commercial Allplex genital ulcer real-time PCR multiplex assay for detecting , herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), and serovar L (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV]) DNA in mucosal and genital ulcers in the context of suspected syphilis. In total, 374 documented genital and mucosal ulcers from patients with and without syphilis presenting at several sexually transmitted infection (STI) centers in France from October 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed at the National Reference Center (CNR) for Bacterial STIs at Cochin Hospital in Paris. subsp. Read More

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January 2021

Performance characteristics of the SpeeDx PlexPCR VHS assay for the molecular detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, and Treponema pallidum in lesion swabs.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 21;99(2):115221. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.

This study compares the performance of a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Treponema pallidum with laboratory-developed assays. A panel of 250 samples, previously tested using in-house assays, was tested on the PlexPCR® VHS assay. The panel consisted of 202 positive specimens [HSV-1 (n=51); HSV-2 (n=51); VZV (n=51); T. Read More

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February 2021

[Ocular manifestations of viral diseases].

Rev Med Interne 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Service d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Bicêtre, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, université Paris-Saclay, CRMR OPHTARA (maladies rares en ophtalmologie), 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Département d'immunologie des maladies virales, auto-immunes, hématologiques et bactériennes (IMVA-HB/IDMIT) CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Electronic address:

Viral infections may involve all ocular tissues and may have short and long-term sight-threatening consequences. Among them, ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are the most frequent. HSV-1 keratitis and kerato-uveitis affect approximately are the leading cause of infectious blindness in the Western world, mainly because of corneal opacification caused by recurrences. Read More

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November 2020

Seroprevalences of antibodies against ToRCH infectious pathogens in women of childbearing age residing in Brazil, Mexico, Germany, Poland, Turkey and China.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 10 30;148:e271. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Institute for Experimental Immunology, EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Lübeck, Germany.

Determination of antibodies against ToRCH antigens at the beginning of pregnancy allows assessment of both the maternal immune status and the risks to an adverse pregnancy outcome. Age-standardised seroprevalences were determined in sera from 1009 women of childbearing age residing in Mexico, Brazil, Germany, Poland, Turkey or China using a multiparametric immunoblot containing antigen substrates for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, parvovirus B19, Treponema pallidum and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Seroprevalences for antibodies against HSV-1 were >90% in samples from Brazil and Turkey, whereas the other four countries showed lower mean age-adjusted seroprevalences (range: 62. Read More

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October 2020

The incidence and influence of the donor corneas positive for herpesviridae DNA in keratoplasty.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Dec 24;258(12):2767-2774. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: We detected the DNA of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in donor corneas and assessed the clinical outcomes of recipients who received virus-positive grafts.

Method: All donor corneas were analyzed for the presence of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV, and EBV by real-time PCR from April 2017 to July 2019. The medical records of the transplant patients who received virus-positive grafts were reviewed. Read More

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December 2020

Oral shedding of CMV and HSV-1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Oral Dis 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the oral shedding of herpesviruses in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and correlate it with oral mucositis (OM).

Methods: Saliva samples were collected before the HSCT and on day D + 8. Multiplex Polymerse Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Variella-zoster virus (VZV), and human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8. Read More

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October 2020

A survey of RNA secondary structural propensity encoded within human herpesvirus genomes: global comparisons and local motifs.

PeerJ 2020 10;8:e9882. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

The Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States of America.

There are nine herpesviruses known to infect humans, of which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most widely distributed (>90% of adults infected). This ubiquitous virus is implicated in a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous analyses of the EBV genome revealed numerous regions with evidence of generating unusually stable and conserved RNA secondary structures and led to the discovery of a novel class of EBV non-coding (nc)RNAs: the stable intronic sequence (sis)RNAs. Read More

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September 2020

Alphaherpesvirus Vaccines.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021 23;41:469-508. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for the alphaherpesviruses including varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 have been the focus of enormous preclinical and clinical research. A live viral vaccine for prevention of chickenpox and a subunit therapeutic vaccine to prevent zoster are highly successful. In contrast, progress towards the development of effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HSV-1 and HSV-2 has met with limited success. Read More

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September 2020

Detection of multinucleated giant cells in differentiated keratinocytes with herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections by modified Tzanck smear method.

J Dermatol 2021 Jan 17;48(1):21-27. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Dermatology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections induce the formation of intraepidermal vesicles containing acantholytic cells and multinucleated giant cells in the skin. The Tzanck smear is most commonly used to diagnose cutaneous herpetic infections, but it leads to many false-positive and -negative results. This study aimed at establishing a method detecting much larger multinucleated giant cells using the Tzanck smear because these cells characterize the viral cytopathic effect in skin infections. Read More

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January 2021

Varicella Zoster Virus: An under-recognised cause of central nervous system infections?

Intern Med J 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland, 4032, Australia.

Background: Varicella zoster virus causes infections of the central nervous system (CNS) manifesting as meningitis or encephalitis. It is not commonly tested in CNS infections when compared to Enterovirus (EV) and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of viral CNS infections are thought to be comparable. Read More

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September 2020

The presence of herpes simplex-1 and varicella zoster viruses is not related with clinical outcome of Bell's Palsy.

Virology 2020 10 15;549:85-88. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Neuroimmunology Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico, Insurgentes Sur 3877, Mexico City, 14269, Mexico. Electronic address:

Bell's Palsy is the most frequent acute neuropathy of cranial nerves; it has been associated in various reports to herpes viruses. In a prospective study we searched the presence of DNA from five herpes viruses (HSV-1 and 2, VZV, EBV and HHV-6) in 79 patients at the acute phase of Bell's Palsy. Results were related with various parameters; age, gender and clinical outcome. Read More

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October 2020

Commentary: Antibodies to Human Herpesviruses in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients.

Front Immunol 2020 23;11:1400. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

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January 2021

Co-reactivation of the human herpesvirus alpha subfamily (herpes simplex virus-1 and varicella zoster virus) in a critically ill patient with COVID-19.

Br J Dermatol 2020 12 24;183(6):1145-1147. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Dongguan People's Hospital, Southern Medical University, Dongguan, China.

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December 2020

Viral-Attributed Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review.

Dig Dis Sci 2020 Aug 12. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Infectious etiologies are rare cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). We sought to investigate the frequency of viral-attributed AP (VIAP) and describe its natural course and clinical features. Comprehensive review of PubMed and EMBASE in English until December 31, 2019, was performed. Read More

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Intraoral human herpes viruses detectable by PCR in majority of patients.

Oral Dis 2021 Mar 27;27(2):378-387. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Dermatology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Objectives: To identify factors which influence the intraoral prevalence of human herpes viruses (HHVs) using mucosal swabs, saliva samples and qPCR analysis.

Methodology: In this cross-sectional observational study, matched saliva and oral swabs were collected from a total of 115 subjects: 70 immunocompetent subjects with no mucosal abnormalities, 22 with mucosal abnormalities and 23 therapeutically immunocompromised individuals. Extracted DNA was analysed by multiplex qPCR for detection and quantification of HHVs 1-6. Read More

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Analysis of Virus and Host Proteomes During Productive HSV-1 and VZV Infection in Human Epithelial Cells.

Front Microbiol 2020 29;11:1179. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are two closely related human alphaherpesviruses that persistently infect most adults worldwide and cause a variety of clinically important diseases. Herpesviruses are extremely well adapted to their hosts and interact broadly with cellular proteins to regulate virus replication and spread. However, it is incompletely understood how HSV-1 and VZV interact with the host proteome during productive infection. Read More

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Could Respiratory Fluoroquinolones, Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin, Prove to be Beneficial as an Adjunct Treatment in COVID-19?

Arch Med Res 2020 10 6;51(7):741-742. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers have focused on repurposing of existing antibiotics, antivirals and anti-inflammatory drugs to find an effective therapy. Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agents, being chemical derivatives of quinoline, the prodrome of chloroquine. Interestingly, fluoroquinolones may exert antiviral actions against vaccinia virus, papovavirus, CMV, VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2, HCV and HIV. Read More

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October 2020

Epidemiology of herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from meningitis in Iran.

New Microbes New Infect 2020 Jul 30;36:100688. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

From the early 18th century that "meningitis" outbreak was firstly recorded in Geneva, it is one of the alarming health problems worldwide. Different infectious risk factors may contribute to the progression of meningitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are just some noticeable risk factors among many involved in the progression of this disease. Read More

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Exocytosis of Progeny Infectious Varicella-Zoster Virus Particles via a Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor Pathway without Xenophagy following Secondary Envelopment.

J Virol 2020 07 30;94(16). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases/Virology, Children's Hospital, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

The literature on the egress of different herpesviruses after secondary envelopment is contradictory. In this report, we investigated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) egress in a cell line from a child with Pompe disease, a glycogen storage disease caused by a defect in the enzyme required for glycogen digestion. In Pompe cells, both the late autophagy pathway and the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) pathway are interrupted. Read More

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Viruses and atypical bacteria in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with airway infection.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Aug 27;39(8):1581-1592. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Infection Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 4, D-24105, Kiel, Germany.

Respiratory tract infections (RTI) can take a serious course under immunosuppression. Data on the impact of the underlying pathogens are still controversial. Samples from the upper (n = 322) and lower RT (n = 169) were collected from 136 children and 355 adults; 225 among them have been immunocompromised patients. Read More

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Herpesvirus Infections Potentiated by Biologics.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2020 06;34(2):311-339

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue CHS 37-121, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1688, USA.

Herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) maintain lifelong latency in the host after primary infection and can reactivate periodically either as asymptomatic viral shedding or as clinical disease. Immunosuppression, including biologic therapy, may increase frequency and severity of herpesvirus reactivation and infection. Licensed biologics are reviewed regarding their risks of potentiating HSV, VZV, and CMV reactivation and infection. Read More

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