5,773 results match your criteria vzv herpes

Emergence of varicella-zoster virus resistance to acyclovir: epidemiology, prevention, and treatment.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa 920-1180, Japan.

Introduction: Acyclovir has led to the development of successful systemic therapy for herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir has improved treatment. Additionally, the use of a helicase-primase (HP) inhibitor (HPI), amenamevir, is changing the treatment of herpes zoster (HZ).

Area Covered: VZV infection is prevented by vaccines and is treated with antiviral agents. Read More

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Classification criteria for varicella zoster virus anterior uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

the Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Purpose: To determine classification criteria for varicella zoster virus (VZV) anterior uveitis DESIGN: Machine learning of cases with VZV anterior uveitis and 8 other anterior uveitides.

Methods: Cases of anterior uveitides were collected in an informatics-designed preliminary database, and a final database was constructed of cases achieving supermajority agreement on the diagnosis, using formal consensus techniques. Cases were split into a training set and a validation set. Read More

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"Maske und Abstand schützen nicht vor Gürtelrose".

Beate Schumacher

MMW Fortschr Med 2021 04;163(7):11

Springer Medizin, München, Deutschland.

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Herpes Zoster in Solid Organ Transplantation: Incidence and Risk Factors.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:645718. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Internal Medicine-Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Studies on herpes zoster (HZ) incidence in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients report widely varying numbers. We investigated HZ incidence, severity, and risk factors in recipients of four different SOTs, with a follow-up time of 6-14 years.

Methods: Records of 1,033 transplant recipients after first heart (HTx: n = 211), lung (LuTx: n = 121), liver (LiTx: n = 258) and kidney (KTx: n = 443) transplantation between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed for VZV-PCR, clinical signs of HZ, and complications. Read More

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Immunogenicity of Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein E Formulated with Lipid Nanoparticles and Nucleic Immunostimulators in Mice.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.

Theoretically, the subunit herpes zoster vaccine Shingrix could be used as a varicella vaccine that avoids the risk of developing shingles from vaccination, but bedside mixing strategies and the limited supply of the adjuvant component QS21 have made its application economically impracticable. With lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were approved by the FDA as vectors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines, we designed a series of vaccines efficiently encapsulated with varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV-gE) and nucleic acids including polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and the natural phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN), which was approved by the FDA as an immunostimulator in a hepatitis B vaccine. Preclinical trial in mice showed that these LNP vaccines could induce VZV-gE IgG titers more than 16 times those induced by an alum adjuvant, and immunized serum could block in vitro infection completely at a dilution of 1:80, which indicated potential as a varicella vaccine. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Neurons Derived from Neural Stem Cells.

Viruses 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, and, following a variable period of ganglionic latency in neurons, it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles). An analysis of VZV infection in cultures of neural cells, in particular when these have been obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or neural stem cells consisting of highly purified neuronal cultures, has revealed much data that may be of neurobiological significance. Early studies of VZV infection of mature cultured neural cells were mainly descriptive, but more recent studies in homogeneous neural stem cell cultures have used both neuronal cell markers and advanced molecular technology. Read More

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Varicella Zoster Virus-Associated Meningitis as a Rebound Varicella Zoster Disease after Antiviral Discontinuation.

Case Rep Dermatol 2021 Jan-Apr;13(1):148-153. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Dermatology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated meningitis is usually progressive and can be fatal, and early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with intravenous antivirals such as acyclovir (ACV) are required in immunocompromised patients. Patients receiving corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy have a significantly higher risk of VZV-associated meningitis. In this report, we describe an unusual case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a young woman who was first diagnosed during tapering of prednisone for dermatomyositis. Read More

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February 2021

The evaluation of Human papilloma virus and human herpes viruses (EBV, CMV, VZV HSV-1 and HSV-2) in semen samples.

Andrologia 2021 Mar 28:e14051. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are a number of risk factors, especially viral diseases, which can lead to infertility. Among the various viral infections, much attention has been given to the role of the Papillomaviridae and Herpesviridae. After collecting 82 semen samples (37 teratospermia, 2 asthenozoospermia, 2 oligoasthenospermia, 1 oligospermia, 6 asthenoteratospermia and 34 normal semen samples), and washing them, the DNA from both freshly ejaculated spermatozoon and washed spermatozoa was extracted. Read More

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Distinguishing Features of Anterior Uveitis Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella-Zoster Virus and Cytomegalovirus.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Miyata Eye Hospital. 6-3 Kurahara, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki 885-0051, Japan; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine distinguishing features of the clinical characteristics of anterior uveitis (AU) caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Design: Retrospective, multicenter, case series.

Methods: Consecutive patients with herpetic AU examined at 11 tertiary centers in Japan between January 2012 and December 2017 and who were followed for 3 months or longer were evaluated. Read More

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Comparative antibody responses to the live-attenuated and recombinant herpes zoster vaccines.

J Virol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines licensed in the United States are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): 1) live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL) using vOka strain varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and 2) recombinant adjuvanted vaccine (RZV) containing recombinant VZV glycoprotein E (gE). Two phase 3 clinical trials of RZV led the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to recommend it with preferred status.VZV T cell-mediated immunity (CMI), but not humoral immunity, are considered essential for protection against HZ. Read More

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The Pathogenesis and Immune Evasive Mechanisms of Equine Herpesvirus Type 1.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:662686. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus related to pseudorabies virus (PRV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This virus is one of the major pathogens affecting horses worldwide. EHV-1 is responsible for respiratory disorders, abortion, neonatal foal death and equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Read More

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Hypertensive and HLA-B27 negative uveitis: Disease course and complications.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Departamento de Oftalmología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, España.

Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis on patients with HLA-B27 negative hypertensive acute anterior uveitis. Aqueous humor samples were obtained on which a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was performed. The patients were then classified into 3 groups depending on whether they were positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) or herpesvirus (HSV-VZV) or negative for both. Read More

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Chronic Headache and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Due to Varicella Zoster Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 17;22:e927699. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

BACKGROUND Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection causes 2 clinically distinct forms of the disease: varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection results in the diffuse vesicular rash of varicella, or chickenpox. Endogenous reactivation of latent VZV typically results in a localized skin infection known as herpes zoster, or shingles. Read More

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Safety and reactogenicity of the recombinant zoster vaccine after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1585-1593

Department of Infectious Disease and.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients are at increased risk for varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and associated complications. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has been developed to prevent herpes zoster (HZ), but there are no recommendations for use in this population. In this single-center prospective observational cohort study, we assessed the safety and reactogenicity of RZV, as well as incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and confirmed cases of HZ after vaccination. Read More

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Advances and Perspectives in the Management of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections.

Molecules 2021 Feb 20;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a common and ubiquitous human-restricted pathogen, causes a primary infection (varicella or chickenpox) followed by establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. The virus can reactivate, causing herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) and leading to significant morbidity but rarely mortality, although in immunocompromised hosts, VZV can cause severe disseminated and occasionally fatal disease. We discuss VZV diseases and the decrease in their incidence due to the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella or HZ. Read More

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February 2021

Life-long passion for antiviral research and drug development: 80th birthday of Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Mar 20;185:114485. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China. Electronic address:

Since the 1950s, great efforts have been made to develop antiviral agents against many infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Among the list of nearly 106 antiviral agents approved in the past five decades, Prof. Erik De Clercq has contributed to the development of 7 antiviral drugs: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread®) for HIV and HBV treatment, tenofovir alafenamide (Vemlidy®) for HIV and HBV treatment, brivudine (Zostex®) for HSV-1 and VZV treatment, valacyclovir (Valtrex®) for HSV and VZV treatment, adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera®) for HBV treatment, stavudine (Zerit®) for HIV treatment, and cidofovir (Vistide®) for treating HCMV retinitis in AIDS patients. Read More

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Herpesvirus infections, antiviral treatment, and the risk of dementia-a registry-based cohort study in Sweden.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 14;7(1):e12119. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine Umeå University Umeå Sweden.

Introduction: Herpesviruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and varicella zoster-virus (VZV), have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Likewise, antiviral treatment has been suggested to protect against dementia development in herpes-infected individuals.

Methods: The study enrolled 265,172 subjects aged ≥ 50 years, with diagnoses of VZV or HSV, or prescribed antiviral drugs between 31 December 2005 and 31 December 2017. Read More

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February 2021

Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy following Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus and Steroid-Related Intraocular Pressure Spike.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021 Jan-Apr;12(1):11-15. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

A 61-year-old woman presented with sudden vision loss from a left anterior optic neuropathy in the context of severely elevated intraocular pressure after starting topical steroids for anterior uveitis related to herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The strong temporal relationship between the vision loss and elevated IOP suggested the vision loss was related to nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Anterior chamber paracentesis did not detect varicella zoster virus (VZV) and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits was normal. Read More

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January 2021

Serum interleukin-10 level increases in patients with severe signs or symptoms of herpes zoster and predicts the duration of neuralgia.

J Dermatol 2021 Apr 20;48(4):511-518. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia, with spread of the virus along the sensory nerve to the dermatome. Postherpetic neuralgia is a feared complication of HZ and impairs patients' quality of life enormously. However, there is no predictor of the duration of neuralgia. Read More

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Evidence that Ginkgo Biloba could use in the influenza and coronavirus COVID-19 infections.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Pharmacy College, University of Basra, Basrah, Iraq.

Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic invades the world. Public health evaluates the incidence of infections and death, which should be reduced and need desperately quarantines for infected individuals. This article review refers to the roles of Ginkgo Biloba to reduce the risk of infection in the respiratory tract, the details on the epidemiology of corona COVID-19 and influenza, and it highlights how the Ginko Biloba could have been used as a novel treatment. Read More

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February 2021

Necrotizing Stomatitis in Varicella Zoster Infection.

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2020 Apr-Jun;18(70):210-213

Department of Periodontology, Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal.

Necrotizing periodontal disease are acute periodontal conditions which can present with simple gingivitis to more complex life threatening condition where it can perforate the skin of cheek. They are found in patients with severe illness, stress and reduced immunity. The prevalence of this whole group of disease is usually very low and is stated frequently as the first manifestation in HIV infection. Read More

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February 2021

Oral manifestations of COVID-19: Brief review.

Dent Med Probl 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):123-126

Division of Dentofacial Anomalies, Department of Maxillofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

The infection with a new type of virus - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first described in December 2019, in Wuhan, China. Due to the gastrointestinal mucosa tropism of the virus, an attempt was made to describe the oral manifestations of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which permits the attachment of the virus, is present also in the oral cavity. Read More

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Drug Discovery of Nucleos(t)ide Antiviral Agents: Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq on Occasion of His 80th Birthday.

Molecules 2021 Feb 9;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are essential antivirals in the treatment of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). To celebrate the 80th birthday of Prof. Dr. Read More

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February 2021

Modelling a cost-effective vaccination strategy for the prevention of varicella and herpes zoster infection: A systematic review.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 4;39(9):1370-1382. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, G40 8.83, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Queensland 4222, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and its re-emergence as herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While studies show that VZV vaccination is effective in reducing VZV incidence, many decision makers have not added VZV to their vaccination schedule, largely due to uncertainty surrounding the effect of VZV vaccination on HZ incidence (exogenous boosting, EB), and the cost-effectiveness (CE) of vaccination.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify the current published evidence of CE of VZV vaccination strategies where both VZV and HZ incidence were modelled. Read More

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A Rare Case of Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation Following Recovery From COVID-19.

Cureus 2021 Jan 1;13(1):e12423. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Graduate Medical Education, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad, IND.

In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), various cutaneous symptoms have been observed. Herpes zoster (HZ) is an infectious skin disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that, after a primary chickenpox infection, persists dormant in the dorsal root ganglia of cutaneous nerves. Unusual prolonged dermatological symptoms from recovered COVID-19 patients have rarely been recorded. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of Recombinant Herpes Zoster Vaccine for Primary Immunization of Varicella-seronegative Transplant Recipients.

Transplantation 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

1 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland 2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse 18, 3010 Bern, Switzerland 3 Ajmera Transplant Centre, University Health Network, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2, Canada 4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral Diseases, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Background: Immunization of VZV-seronegative solid organ transplant (SOT) patients using the live-attenuated varicella vaccine is generally contraindicated, leaving no widely applicable immunization option. The recombinant subunit herpes zoster vaccine (RZV) is indicated for VZV seropositive persons to prevent shingles but could potentially also protect VZV-seronegative persons against varicella. We performed a safety and immunogenicity evaluation of RZV in VZV-seronegative SOT recipients as an option for protection. Read More

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January 2021

Multiplex PCR for Detection of Herpes Simplex Viruses Type-1 and Type-2, Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-zoster Virus, and Adenovirus in Ocular Viral Infections.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):3-11. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Ophthalmology, Dr. R P Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Most common viruses causing ocular infections are Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella-zoster Virus (VZV), and few strains of Adenovirus. Diagnosis of these infections through clinical manifestations and using conventional methods has a number of limitations. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of all pathogenic viruses from ocular infections. Read More

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January 2021

Thermographic follow-up of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) subsequent to Ramsay Hunt syndrome with multicranial nerve (V, VII, VIII and IX) involvement: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Jan 28;21(1):39. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210006, China.

Background: Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is caused by a reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and it is characterized by the symptoms of facial paralysis, otalgia, auricular rash, and/or an oral lesion. Elderly patients or immunocompromised patients, deep pain at the initial visit and no prompt treatment are significant predictors of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). When PHN occurs, especially involved cranial polyneuropathy, multiple modalities should be administered for patients with the intractable PHN. Read More

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January 2021

Pneumonia and central nervous system infection caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in a living-donor kidney transplantation patient: case report and review of the literature.

CEN Case Rep 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) typically causes herpes zoster in the elderly due to reactivation, but immunocompromised individuals may develop organ damage such as pneumonia with a poor prognosis. We herein report a case of pneumonia and central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by reactivation of VZV in a 50-year-old man who had received a living-donor kidney transplant. We also conducted a literature review of adult cases with pneumonia or CNS infection caused by VZV after kidney transplantation. Read More

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January 2021