9,405 results match your criteria vzv

Classification criteria for varicella zoster virus anterior uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

the Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Purpose: To determine classification criteria for varicella zoster virus (VZV) anterior uveitis DESIGN: Machine learning of cases with VZV anterior uveitis and 8 other anterior uveitides.

Methods: Cases of anterior uveitides were collected in an informatics-designed preliminary database, and a final database was constructed of cases achieving supermajority agreement on the diagnosis, using formal consensus techniques. Cases were split into a training set and a validation set. Read More

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Immunity to Varicella, Measles, and Mumps in Patients Evaluated for Lung Transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Duke University, Medical Center Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Vaccine-preventable viral infections are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in post-transplant patients on immunosuppression regimens. Therefore, we studied rates of immunity against vaccine-preventable viruses in lung transplantation (LTx) candidates and their associations with underlying lung disease and clinical characteristics. We retrospectively studied 1025 consecutive adult patients who underwent first-time evaluation for LTx at a single center between January 2016 and October 2018. Read More

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From virus to diabetes therapy: Characterization of a specific insulin-degrading enzyme inhibitor for diabetes treatment.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21374

Department of Neurobiology, School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics School, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Inhibition of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a possible target for treating diabetes. However, it has not yet evolved into a medical intervention, mainly because most developed inhibitors target the zinc in IDE's catalytic site, potentially causing toxicity to other essential metalloproteases. Since IDE is a cellular receptor for the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), we constructed a VZV-based inhibitor. Read More

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Frequency of putative enteric zoster diagnosed using saliva samples in patients with abdominal pain: a prospective study.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 Apr 8:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in neurons in the ganglia of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and enteric ganglia. VZV reactivation in enteric neurons (enteric zoster) can cause non-specific abdominal pain and/or serious gastrointestinal dysfunction without cutaneous manifestations. Detection of VZV DNA in saliva may be useful for identifying enteric zoster. Read More

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Estimating the basic reproductive number of varicella in South Korea incorporating social contact patterns and seroprevalence.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Apr 8:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Varicella, which is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), is a common infectious disease affecting children. Varicella vaccines have been used for decades; however, vaccination policies vary across countries because of differences in VZV epidemiology. The basic reproductive number transmissibility measure parameter, also differs from country to country. Read More

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Herpes Zoster in Solid Organ Transplantation: Incidence and Risk Factors.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:645718. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Internal Medicine-Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Studies on herpes zoster (HZ) incidence in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients report widely varying numbers. We investigated HZ incidence, severity, and risk factors in recipients of four different SOTs, with a follow-up time of 6-14 years.

Methods: Records of 1,033 transplant recipients after first heart (HTx: n = 211), lung (LuTx: n = 121), liver (LiTx: n = 258) and kidney (KTx: n = 443) transplantation between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed for VZV-PCR, clinical signs of HZ, and complications. Read More

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Ischemic Cerebellar Stroke in a 4-Year-Old Boy After Chickenpox: An Atypical Vascular Involvement.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 1;30(6):105719. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Child Development Centre, Pediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Cerebrovascular events in pediatric population are very rare. Up to 30% may result from varicella zoster (VZV) arteriopathy, usually as a delayed complication of varicella primary infection. The most typical pattern includes involvement of anterior brain circulation arteries, probably by VZV migration from the trigeminal ganglia. Read More

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Immunogenicity of Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein E Formulated with Lipid Nanoparticles and Nucleic Immunostimulators in Mice.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China.

Theoretically, the subunit herpes zoster vaccine Shingrix could be used as a varicella vaccine that avoids the risk of developing shingles from vaccination, but bedside mixing strategies and the limited supply of the adjuvant component QS21 have made its application economically impracticable. With lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were approved by the FDA as vectors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines, we designed a series of vaccines efficiently encapsulated with varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV-gE) and nucleic acids including polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and the natural phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN), which was approved by the FDA as an immunostimulator in a hepatitis B vaccine. Preclinical trial in mice showed that these LNP vaccines could induce VZV-gE IgG titers more than 16 times those induced by an alum adjuvant, and immunized serum could block in vitro infection completely at a dilution of 1:80, which indicated potential as a varicella vaccine. Read More

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The Comparative Value of Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Lysozyme and the Use of Polyclonal Antibody Activation in the Work-up of Ocular Sarcoidosis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Retinal and Inflammatory Eye Diseases, Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care (COS), 1003 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis (OS) is difficult to establish in the absence of manifest systemic involvement. To help clinicians reach a diagnosis, we convened a group of experts in 2006 (International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis (IWOS)) to set-up clinical criteria for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. In addition, laboratory investigational tests represent a much-needed adjunct to ascertain the diagnosis. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Neurons Derived from Neural Stem Cells.

Viruses 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, and, following a variable period of ganglionic latency in neurons, it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles). An analysis of VZV infection in cultures of neural cells, in particular when these have been obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or neural stem cells consisting of highly purified neuronal cultures, has revealed much data that may be of neurobiological significance. Early studies of VZV infection of mature cultured neural cells were mainly descriptive, but more recent studies in homogeneous neural stem cell cultures have used both neuronal cell markers and advanced molecular technology. Read More

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The Effect of a TLR4 Agonist/Cationic Liposome Adjuvant on Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein E Vaccine Efficacy: Antigen Presentation, Uptake, and Delivery to Lymph Nodes.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Integrated Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea.

Adjuvant CIA09, composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)-based cationic liposomes and the toll-like receptor 4 agonist de--acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS), has been shown to enhance antibody and cellular immune responses to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE), recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen, and inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine. In this study, we investigated its modes of action using VZV gE as a model antigen. Liposomes adsorbed gE and cooperatively with dLOS promoted endocytosis-mediated cellular uptake of gE by mouse dendritic cells in vitro. Read More

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Varicella Zoster Viral Retinitis following Chimeric Antigenic Response T-cell Therapy for B-cell Lymphoma.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 2:1-2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

: To describe the first case of varicella zoster virus (VZV) retinitis following chimeric antigenic response (CAR) T-cell therapy.: Case review.: A 53-year-old male was treated with CAR T-cell therapy for refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Read More

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Varicella Zoster Virus-Associated Meningitis as a Rebound Varicella Zoster Disease after Antiviral Discontinuation.

Case Rep Dermatol 2021 Jan-Apr;13(1):148-153. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Dermatology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated meningitis is usually progressive and can be fatal, and early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with intravenous antivirals such as acyclovir (ACV) are required in immunocompromised patients. Patients receiving corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy have a significantly higher risk of VZV-associated meningitis. In this report, we describe an unusual case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a young woman who was first diagnosed during tapering of prednisone for dermatomyositis. Read More

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February 2021

Bilateral acute retinal necrosis during treatment with alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 31:11206721211006576. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody used as a treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It decreases T cell count leading to significant immunosuppression, with increased risk of systemic and ocular infections. Herein, we report a unique case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in a patient affected by MS under treatment with alemtuzumab. Read More

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Multicenter prospective surveillance study of viral agents causing meningoencephalitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7216. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The frequency of bacterial factors causing central nervous system infections has decreased as a result of the development of our national immunization program. In this study, it is aimed to obtain the data of our local surveillance by defining the viral etiology in cases diagnosed with meningoencephalitis for 1 year. Previously healhty 186 children, who applied with findings suggesting viral meningoencephalitis to 8 different tertiary health centers between August 2018 and August 2019, in Istanbul, were included. Read More

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Tacrolimus induced optic neuropathy in post-lung transplant patients: A series of 3 patients.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;22:101056. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Purpose: Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressant medication after lung transplantation. In rare cases, tacrolimus causes a medication-induced optic neuropathy (TON) that can lead to significant vision loss.

Observations: In this series, we describe three cases of TON, 1-10 years after medication use. Read More

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The evaluation of Human papilloma virus and human herpes viruses (EBV, CMV, VZV HSV-1 and HSV-2) in semen samples.

Andrologia 2021 Mar 28:e14051. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are a number of risk factors, especially viral diseases, which can lead to infertility. Among the various viral infections, much attention has been given to the role of the Papillomaviridae and Herpesviridae. After collecting 82 semen samples (37 teratospermia, 2 asthenozoospermia, 2 oligoasthenospermia, 1 oligospermia, 6 asthenoteratospermia and 34 normal semen samples), and washing them, the DNA from both freshly ejaculated spermatozoon and washed spermatozoa was extracted. Read More

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Distinguishing Features of Anterior Uveitis Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella-Zoster Virus and Cytomegalovirus.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Miyata Eye Hospital. 6-3 Kurahara, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki 885-0051, Japan; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine distinguishing features of the clinical characteristics of anterior uveitis (AU) caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Design: Retrospective, multicenter, case series.

Methods: Consecutive patients with herpetic AU examined at 11 tertiary centers in Japan between January 2012 and December 2017 and who were followed for 3 months or longer were evaluated. Read More

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Comparative antibody responses to the live-attenuated and recombinant herpes zoster vaccines.

J Virol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines licensed in the United States are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): 1) live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL) using vOka strain varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and 2) recombinant adjuvanted vaccine (RZV) containing recombinant VZV glycoprotein E (gE). Two phase 3 clinical trials of RZV led the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to recommend it with preferred status.VZV T cell-mediated immunity (CMI), but not humoral immunity, are considered essential for protection against HZ. Read More

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The Pathogenesis and Immune Evasive Mechanisms of Equine Herpesvirus Type 1.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:662686. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus related to pseudorabies virus (PRV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This virus is one of the major pathogens affecting horses worldwide. EHV-1 is responsible for respiratory disorders, abortion, neonatal foal death and equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Read More

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Hypertensive and HLA-B27 negative uveitis: Disease course and complications.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Departamento de Oftalmología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, España.

Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis on patients with HLA-B27 negative hypertensive acute anterior uveitis. Aqueous humor samples were obtained on which a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was performed. The patients were then classified into 3 groups depending on whether they were positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) or herpesvirus (HSV-VZV) or negative for both. Read More

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Exploring the seasonal drivers of varicella zoster transmission and reactivation.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10025, USA.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. The biological mechanisms underpinning the multi-decadal latency of VZV in the body and subsequent viral reactivation-which occurs in approximately 30% of individuals-are largely unknown. Because chickenpox and shingles are endemic worldwide, understanding the relationship between VZV transmission and reactivation is important for informing disease treatment and control. Read More

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Chronic Headache and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Due to Varicella Zoster Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Mar 17;22:e927699. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

BACKGROUND Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection causes 2 clinically distinct forms of the disease: varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Primary VZV infection results in the diffuse vesicular rash of varicella, or chickenpox. Endogenous reactivation of latent VZV typically results in a localized skin infection known as herpes zoster, or shingles. Read More

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The frequency of interleukin-1β-producing monocytes is significantly associated with varicella-zoster responses of nursing home residents.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Health Sciences North Research Institute, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the status of the T cell compartment and inflammation-related factors are associated with the immunogenicity of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine in older adults; however, little is known about the roles of other immune cell subsets known to influence the generation and maintenance of immunological memory. Responses to a live-attenuated VZV vaccine were studied in relation to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) composition and function in a sample of 30 nursing home residents (aged 80-99 years). Interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) was used to measure VZV responses at baseline and 6 weeks following vaccination, and associations were sought with the frequencies of monocytes and T, B and natural killer (NK) cells and the production and secretion of cytokines following their ex-vivo stimulation with different agents. Read More

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Safety and reactogenicity of the recombinant zoster vaccine after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(6):1585-1593

Department of Infectious Disease and.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients are at increased risk for varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and associated complications. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has been developed to prevent herpes zoster (HZ), but there are no recommendations for use in this population. In this single-center prospective observational cohort study, we assessed the safety and reactogenicity of RZV, as well as incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and confirmed cases of HZ after vaccination. Read More

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An Adult Patient with Suspected of Monkeypox Infection Differential Diagnosed to Chickenpox.

Infect Dis Rep 2020 Jul 6;12(11):33-35. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Indonesia.

: Monkeypox is a zoonosis. The disease has a similar appearance to chickenpox caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). On May 9th 2019, there was one laboratory-confirmed case of monkeypox reported in Singapore. Read More

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Zoster Brachial Plexopathy as a Presenting Manifestation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Nov-Dec;23(6):804-807. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Brachial plexopathy is an uncommon neurologic complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. VZV is not an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness, but human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for atypical and severe complications of VZV reactivation. Here, we present a 70-year-old male, who presented with left upper-limb weakness, preceded by painful dermatomal vesicular eruption, and was diagnosed to have zoster brachial plexopathy. Read More

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Advances and Perspectives in the Management of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections.

Molecules 2021 Feb 20;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a common and ubiquitous human-restricted pathogen, causes a primary infection (varicella or chickenpox) followed by establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. The virus can reactivate, causing herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) and leading to significant morbidity but rarely mortality, although in immunocompromised hosts, VZV can cause severe disseminated and occasionally fatal disease. We discuss VZV diseases and the decrease in their incidence due to the introduction of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent varicella or HZ. Read More

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February 2021