1,581 results match your criteria vp1 vp2

Genetic variability in VP1 gene of infectious bursal disease virus from the field outbreaks of Kerala, India.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jul 22;53(3):407. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookode, Lakkidi P.O., Thrissur, Kerala, India, 673576.

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is considered as menace as it affects poultry industry globally causing immunosuppression, high mortality and heavy economic loss. Outbreaks of IBD were reported in many states of India including Kerala. VP1 gene acts as an important factor in the process of virus encapsidation and its involvement in viral virulence and viral replication indicates its importance in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Read More

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AAV9 Structural Rearrangements Induced by Endosomal Trafficking pH and Glycan Attachment.

J Virol 2021 Jul 14:JVI0084321. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Center for Structural Biology, The McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are small non-enveloped ssDNA viruses, that are currently being developed as gene therapy biologics. After cell entry, AAVs traffic to the nucleus using the endo-lysosomal pathway. The subsequent decrease in pH triggers conformational changes to the capsid that enables the externalization of the capsid protein (VP) N-termini, including the unique domain of the minor capsid protein VP1 (VP1u), which permits phospholipase activity required for the capsid lysosomal egress. Read More

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The role of conformational epitopes in the evolutionary divergence of enterovirus D68 clades: A bioinformatics-based study.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 7;93:104992. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathological and Physiological Technology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), as one of the major pathogens of paediatric respiratory disease, has been widely spread in the population in recent years. As the basis of virus antigenicity, antigenic epitopes are essential to monitoring the transformation of virus antigenicity. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the antigenic epitopes of EV-D68. Read More

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Recent Advances in Molecular Biology of Human Bocavirus 1 and Its Applications.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:696604. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States.

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) was discovered in human nasopharyngeal specimens in 2005. It is an autonomous human parvovirus and causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children. HBoV1 infects well differentiated or polarized human airway epithelial cells . Read More

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Synthesis and Antiviral Evaluation of Nucleoside Analogues Bearing One Pyrimidine Moiety and Two D-Ribofuranosyl Residues.

Molecules 2021 Jun 16;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Federal Research Center "Kazan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences", Arbuzov 8, 420088 Kazan, Russia.

A series of 1,2,3-triazolyl nucleoside analogues in which 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-β-d-ribofuranosyl fragments are attached via polymethylene linkers to both nitrogen atoms of the heterocycle moiety (uracil, 6-methyluracil, thymine, quinazoline-2,4-dione, alloxazine) or to the C-5 and -3 atoms of the 6-methyluracil moiety was synthesized. All compounds synthesized were evaluated for antiviral activity against influenza virus A/PR/8/34/(H1N1) and coxsackievirus B3. Antiviral assays revealed three compounds, , , , which showed moderate activity against influenza virus A H1N1 with IC values of 57. Read More

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Genome Evolution of Two Genetically Homogeneous Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strains During Passages and in the Presence of a Mutagenic Nucleoside Analog.

Front Microbiol 2021 11;12:678563. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Avian and Rabbit Virology, Immunology and Parasitology Unit (VIPAC), French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Heath Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan, France.

The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is responsible for a highly contagious and sometimes lethal disease of chickens (). IBDV genetic variation is well-described for both field and live-attenuated vaccine strains, however, the dynamics and selection pressures behind this genetic evolution remain poorly documented. Here, genetically homogeneous virus stocks were generated using reverse genetics for a very virulent strain, rvv, and a vaccine-related strain, rCu-1. Read More

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Serum Antibodies Against the Oncogenic Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Detected by an Innovative Immunological Assay With Mimotopes in Healthy Subjects.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:676627. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a small DNA tumor virus, has been detected in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and in normal tissues. Since MCPyV infection occurs in both MCC-affected patients and healthy subjects (HS), innovative immunoassays for detecting antibodies (abs) against MCPyV are required. Herein, sera from HS were analyzed with a novel indirect ELISA using two synthetic peptides mimicking MCPyV capsid protein epitopes of VP1 and VP2. Read More

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Reverse genetic engineering of simian rotaviruses with temperature-sensitive lesions in VP1, VP2, and VP6.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 17;302:198488. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Rotaviruses are 11-segmented double-stranded RNA viruses and important causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children. To investigate the functions of specific viral proteins during the rotavirus lifecycle, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants were previously created using a cultivatable simian strain (SA11) and chemical mutagenesis. These ts SA11 mutants replicate more efficiently at the permissive temperature of 31 °C than at the non-permissive temperature of 39 °C. Read More

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Chimeric enterovirus 71 virus-like particle displaying conserved coxsackievirus A16 epitopes elicits potent immune responses and protects mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infection.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 9;39(30):4135-4143. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease of infants and young children frequently caused by the enterovirus A species, mainly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). In this study, we prepared the EV71 virus-like particle (EV71-VLP) and its chimeras using recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under CMV-IE promoter) proteins in Sf9 cells. EV71-VLP chimera ChiEV71(1E)-VLP or ChiEV71(4E)-VLP displayed single CA16 PEP71 epitope in VP1 or four conserved CA16 neutralizing epitopes (PEP71 in VP1, aa136-150 in VP2, aa176-190 in VP3 and aa48-62 in VP4) by substitution of the corresponding regions of EV71 structure proteins, respectively. Read More

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Characterization of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Proteins with Two Types of VP3-Related Components by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Recombinant adeno-associated virus is a leading platform in human gene therapy. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid is composed of three viral proteins (VPs): VP1, VP2, and VP3. To ensure the safety of AAV-based gene therapy products, the stoichiometry of VPs of AAV vector should be carefully monitored. Read More

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Hamster Polyomavirus Research: Past, Present, and Future.

Viruses 2021 05 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Hamster polyomavirus (Mesocricetus auratus polyomavirus 1, HaPyV) was discovered as one of the first rodent polyomaviruses at the end of the 1960s in a colony of Syrian hamsters () affected by skin tumors. Natural HaPyV infections have been recorded in Syrian hamster colonies due to the occurrence of skin tumors and lymphomas. HaPyV infections of Syrian hamsters represent an important and pioneering tumor model. Read More

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SYNCRIP facilitates porcine parvovirus viral DNA replication through the alternative splicing of NS1 mRNA to promote NS2 mRNA formation.

Vet Res 2021 May 25;52(1):73. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Porcine Parvovirus (PPV), a pathogen causing porcine reproductive disorders, encodes two capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2 and SAT) in infected cells. The PPV NS2 mRNA is from NS1 mRNA after alternative splicing, yet the corresponding mechanism is unclear. In this study, we identified a PPV NS1 mRNA binding protein SYNCRIP, which belongs to the hnRNP family and has been identified to be involved in host pre-mRNA splicing by RNA-pulldown and mass spectrometry approaches. Read More

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Immunogenic profiling and designing of a novel vaccine from capsid proteins of FMDV serotype Asia-1 through reverse vaccinology.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 19;93:104925. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the devastating transboundary animal diseases causing heavy losses to the livestock industry. Different vaccines based on the inactivated FMD virus are used against this disease, but lack of immunological memory and the need for high biocontainment are the major drawbacks of these vaccines. A novel vaccine comprising recombinant antigenic regions is effective, as they lack viruses for production. Read More

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Genetic analysis of Enterovirus D68 associated with pneumonia in children from South India.

J Med Microbiol 2021 May;70(5)

Present address: Consultant at World Health Organisation- country office for Nepal, Nepal, India.

EV-D68 is an emerging enterovirus infection associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). While EV-D68 outbreaks and sporadic cases are reported globally, a single case has been reported from India. The present study aims to investigate the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of EV-D68-associated SARI cases from South India. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of vinorelbine and cisplatin regimen of different doses and intensities for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):660

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou, China.

Background: There are few studies focused on comparing the toxicity, postoperative complication rate, and survival among patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer receiving a different dose and intensity of vinorelbine plus cisplatin for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery.

Methods: In total, 78 patients diagnosed with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer that had received a vinorelbine and cisplatin (VP)1 or VP2 regimen for nCRT followed by surgery in Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province between June 2008 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The VP1 regimen involved cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1, and vinorelbine 25 mg/m on days 1 and 8, for two cycles. Read More

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First detection and complete genome analysis of the Lyon IARC polyomavirus in China from samples of diarrheic cats.

Virus Genes 2021 Jun 10;57(3):284-288. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, The Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, China.

Lyon IARC polyomavirus (LIPyV), a newly discovered polyomavirus (PyV), was first identified in 2017 in human skin samples in the USA. Later, it was detected in several other countries in samples of human and feline origin. Our aim was to find out if the virus occurs in China. Read More

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Molecular characterisation and epidemiology of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa 2018-2019.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jun 24;139:104845. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa and the National Health Laboratory Service, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Enteroviruses are amongst the most common causes of aseptic meningitis. Between November 2018 and May 2019, an outbreak of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis cases was noted in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and phylogeography of enterovirus infections during an aseptic meningitis outbreak in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa. Read More

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The impact of portal vein tumor thrombosis on survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with different therapies: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0249426. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is a frequent complication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which leads to classification as advanced stage disease (regardless of the degree of PVTT) according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification. For such patients, systemic therapy is the standard of care. However, in clinical reality, many patients with PVTT undergo different treatments, such as resection, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or best supportive care (BSC). Read More

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Genetic Diversity of Recent Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Isolated From Vaccinated Poultry Flocks in Malaysia.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:643976. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Vaccination is an essential component in controlling infectious bursal disease (IBD), however, there is a lack of information on the genetic characteristics of a recent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that was isolated from IBD vaccinated commercial flocks in Malaysia. The present study investigated 11 IBDV isolates that were isolated from commercial poultry farms. The isolates were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the hypervariable region (HVR) of VP2. Read More

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Whole-genome classification of rotavirus C and genetic diversity of porcine strains in the USA.

J Gen Virol 2021 May;102(5)

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Rotavirus C (RVC) is associated with acute diarrhoea in both children and young animals. Because of its frequent occurrence, additional sequences have recently been generated. In this study, we sequenced 21 complete genomes from porcine diarrhoea samples and analysed them together with all available reference sequences collected from the GenBank database [National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)]. Read More

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Vaccination with Prion Peptide-Displaying Polyomavirus-Like Particles Prolongs Incubation Time in Scrapie-Infected Mice.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Prion diseases like scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the conformational conversion of the normal, mainly α-helical cellular prion protein (PrP) into the abnormal β-sheet rich infectious isoform PrP. Various therapeutic or prophylactic approaches have been conducted, but no approved therapeutic treatment is available so far. Immunisation against prions is hampered by the self-tolerance to PrP in mammalian species. Read More

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Prevalence and molecular characterization of canine parvovirus.

Vet World 2021 Mar 9;14(3):603-606. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background And Aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) belonging to family Parvoviridae causes hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs and heavy mortality in young dogs. The virus has three structural (VP1, VP2 and VP3) and two non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2), VP2 being highly immunogenic. This study aims to study molecular epidemiology of CPV by sequence analysis of gene to determine the prevailing antigenic type(s) in the northern regions of India. Read More

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Origin, spreading and genetic variability of chicken anaemia virus.

Avian Pathol 2021 May 28:1-10. Epub 2021 May 28.

Sección Genética Evolutiva, Departamento de Biología Animal, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay.

Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) is a widespread pathogen that causes immunosuppression in chickens. The virus-induced immunosuppression often results in secondary infections and a sub-optimal response to vaccinations, leading to high mortality rates and significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The small circular ssDNA genome (2. Read More

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Organization of the Structural Protein Region of La Jolla Virus Isolated from the Invasive Pest Insect .

Viruses 2021 04 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Bioresources, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Ohlebergsweg 12, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

(Ds) is an invasive pest insect that infests ripening fruit, causing severe economic losses. Control measures based on chemical pesticides are inefficient and undesirable, so biological alternatives have been considered, including native Ds viruses. We previously isolated a strain of La Jolla virus (LJV-Ds-OS20) from Ds in Germany as a candidate biopesticide. Read More

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Structures of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus with neutralizing antibodies derived from recovered natural host reveal a mechanism for cross-serotype neutralization.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 28;17(4):e1009507. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, School of Medicine and School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The development of a universal vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is hindered by cross-serotype antigenic diversity and by a lack of knowledge regarding neutralization of the virus in natural hosts. In this study, we isolated serotype O-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) (F145 and B77) from recovered natural bovine hosts by using the single B cell antibody isolation technique. We also identified a serotype O/A cross-reacting NAb (R50) and determined virus-NAb complex structures by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution. Read More

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Toxigenic and non-toxigenic Pasteurella multocida genotypes, based on capsular, LPS, and virulence profile typing, associated with pneumonic pasteurellosis in Iran.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 20;257:109077. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Pasteurella multocida is an important cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. Its prevalence was investigated in 349 pneumonic lungs from sheep (n = 197) and goats (n = 152), and genotypes of isolates were determined by capsular and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) typing as well as by virulotyping based on the detection of 12 virulence-associated genes. P. Read More

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First detection of canine norovirus in dogs and a complete GVI.2 genome in mainland China.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Aug 24;92:104879. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China; Key Laboratory of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Animal Genetic Resource Reservation and Utilization Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Canine norovirus (CNV) is a diarrhea-causing pathogen in canines. In this study, 268 canine diarrheic fecal samples were collected from 13 pet hospitals across three provinces in China between March 2017 and May 2019, and 7.8% (21/268) samples were detected as CNV-positive by RT-PCR. Read More

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Monoclonal antibody against VP0 recognizes a broad range of human parechoviruses.

J Virol Methods 2021 Jul 21;293:114167. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Parechoviruses (PeVs) are common viruses that cause mild gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms to severe central nervous system infections. In infants, parechovirus infection is one of the leading causes of life-threatening viral disease. High-quality antibodies with broad binding specificities are essential to improve accurate parechovirus diagnosis in diagnostic laboratories. Read More

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SAMHD1 Inhibits Multiple Enteroviruses by Interfering with the Interaction between VP1 and VP2 Proteins.

J Virol 2021 Jun 10;95(13):e0062021. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Key Laboratory of Organ Regeneration and Transplantation of The Ministry of Education, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) possesses multiple biological activities such as virus restriction, innate immunity regulation, and autoimmunity. Our previous study demonstrated that SAMHD1 potently inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we observed that SAMHD1 also restricts multiple enteroviruses (EVs), including coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus D68 (EVD68), but not coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Read More

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Infectious bursal disease in Nigeria: continuous circulation of reassortant viruses.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 20;53(2):271. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD), a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease of young chickens, are still reported globally despite vaccination efforts. This study investigated the genetic characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from 26 reported outbreaks in 2019 in Nigeria. Nucleotide sequences of VP2 hypervariable (hvVP2) region (n=26) and VP1 (n=23) of Nigerian IBDVs were determined. Read More

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