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Factors associated with referral for polysomnography in children with Down syndrome.

Sleep Med 2021 Mar 24;82:29-36. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne Children's Sleep Centre, Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are recommended to undergo polysomnography (PSG) by the age of four years due to the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this group, but compliance is incomplete. To further understand referral patterns for PSG in this condition, we aimed to compare demographics, PSG results, OSA severity, behavior, daytime functioning and quality of life (QOL) between children with DS referred for sleep testing and those recruited from the community.

Study Design: Children 3-19 years with DS was included: 20 referred clinically for assessment of OSA and 24 volunteers from the community. Read More

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Identifying Range-of-Motion Deficits and Talocrural Joint Laxity After an Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain.

J Athl Train 2021 Apr;56(4):408-417

University of Delaware, Newark.

Context: Approximately 72% of patients with an ankle sprain report residual symptoms 6 to 18 months later. Although 44% of patients return to activity in less than 24 hours after experiencing a sprain, residual symptoms should be evaluated in the long term to determine if deficits exist. These residual symptoms may be due to the quality of ligament tissue and motion after injury. Read More

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Human hematopoietic microenvironments.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250081. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Cell Biology, Institute of Regional Health Science, University of Southern Denmark, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark.

Dormancy of hematopoietic stem cells and formation of progenitors are directed by signals that come from the bone marrow microenvironment. Considerable knowledge has been gained on the murine hematopoietic stem cell microenvironment, while less so on the murine progenitor microenvironment and even less so on these microenvironments in humans. Characterization of these microenvironments is decisive for understanding hematopoiesis and finding new treatment modalities against bone marrow malignancies in the clinic. Read More

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Inhalation Profiles Through a Dry Powder Inhaler: Relation Between Inhalation Technique and Spirometric Measures.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.

The understanding of the real flow profiles through a dry powder inhaler (DPI), generated by asthma patients, is a prerequisite for satisfactory drug delivery to the lungs. The aims of the study were to assess the relationship between spirometric measures and inhalation profiles through a low-resistance DPI, and to compare parameters of those profiles between optimal and suboptimal inhalation technique type. Both healthy adult volunteers and patients with asthma were included in the study. Read More

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Hematocrit-Related Alterations of Circulating microRNA-21 Levels in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Preliminary Study.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Apr;25(4):302-306

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Circulating microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been utilized as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of heart failure (HF). Blood constitution may be altered when HF occurs and miR-21 may affect hematopoiesis. Sample hemolysis may influence the determination of circulating miRNAs, challenging the diagnostic use of miRNAs. Read More

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c.1905 + 1G>A Promotes Fluoropyrimidine-Induced Anemia, a Prognostic Factor in Disease-Free Survival, in Colorectal Cancer.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Apr;25(4):276-283

Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey.

In 10-30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, toxic reactions occur after fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. A dihydropyridine dehydrogenase ( gene variant, c.1905 + 1G>A, leads to intolerance to fluoropyrimidines. Read More

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Posture-Dependent Collapse of the Optic Nerve Subarachnoid Space: A Combined MRI and Modeling Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):26

Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Purpose: We hypothesize that a collapse of the optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSAS) in the upright posture may protect the eyes from large translamina cribrosa pressure differences (TLCPD) believed to play a role in various optic nerve diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Read More

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University Students Harvesting the Benefits of a Garden Laboratory.

Can J Diet Pract Res 2021 Apr 20:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS.

Community gardens (CG) are areas of land where individuals or groups grow food in single or shared plots, typically in an urban setting, providing fresh produce, urban greening, and opportunities to socialize and improve the community. The purpose of this descriptive study was to introduce a CG laboratory (lab) as part of an introductory foods course within a nutrition program and explore how the lab influenced students' learning and overall experiences. Forty-one students, 2 lab instructors, and 3 student volunteers who tended the CG participated in the survey. Read More

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Prevalence and Characterization of Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque with CT among Individuals with HIV: Results from the Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study.

Radiology 2021 Apr 20:203297. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the Departments of Radiology (I.B., M.S., G.S., A.S.C., C.C.L.), Cardiology (S.M.), Family Medicine (J.G.B., B.T.), Microbiology (C.T.) and Internal Medicine (M.D.), University of Montreal Hospital (CHUM), 1051 Sanguinet St, Montréal, QC, Canada H2X 0C1; and Department of Radiology, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, Canada (J.L.). Members of the Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study Group are listed in the acknowledgments.

Background People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher risk of myocardial infarction. Coronary atherosclerotic plaque CT characterization helps to predict cardiovascular risk. Purpose To measure CT characteristics of coronary plaque in PLWH without known cardiovascular disease and healthy volunteers without HIV. Read More

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A New Treatment for Static Forehead Rhytides: Autologous Fibroblast and Keratin Injection.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ear Reconstruction, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of injection of autologous keratin gel and fibroblast for static forehead rhytides rectification as new soft tissue filler.

Materials And Methods: Totally 48 volunteers suffering static forehead rhytides received the injection of autologous keratin and fibroblast and 6 volunteers received botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) and hyaluronic acid(HA) treatment as parallel control. The follow-up study was carried out 1,3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, photographs and satisfactions questionnaire were collected and assessed. Read More

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Insights from a Pan India Sero-Epidemiological survey (Phenome-India Cohort) for SARS-CoV2.

Authors:
Salwa Naushin Viren Sardana Rajat Ujjainiya Nitin Bhatheja Rintu Kutum Akash Kumar Bhaskar Shalini Pradhan Satyartha Prakash Raju Khan Birendra Singh Rawat Karthik Bharadwaj Tallapaka Mahesh Anumalla Giriraj Ratan Chandak Amit Lahiri Susanta Kar Shrikant Ramesh Mulay Madhav Nilakanth Mugale Mrigank Srivastava Shaziya Khan Anjali Srivastava Bhawana Tomar Murugan Veerapandian Ganesh Venkatachalam Selvamani Raja Vijayakumar Ajay Agarwal Dinesh Gupta Prakash M Halami Muthukumar Serva Peddha Gopinath M Sundaram Ravindra P Veeranna Anirban Pal Vinay Kumar Agarwal Anil Ku Maurya Ranvijay Kumar Singh Ashok Kumar Raman Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan Parimala Karuppanan Subramanian Venkatesan Harish Kumar Sardana Anamika Kothari Rishabh Jain Anupama Thakur Devendra Singh Parihar Anas Saifi Jasleen Kaur Virendra Kumar Avinash Mishra Iranna Gogeri Geethavani Rayasam Praveen Singh Rahul Chakraborty Gaura Chaturvedi Pinreddy Karunakar Rohit Yadav Sunanda Singhmar Dayanidhi Singh Sharmistha Sarkar Purbasha Bhattacharya Sundaram Acharya Vandana Singh Shweta Verma Drishti Soni Surabhi Seth Sakshi Vashisht Sarita Thakran Firdaus Fatima Akash Pratap Singh Akanksha Sharma Babita Sharma Manikandan Subramanian Yogendra S Padwad Vipin Hallan Vikram Patial Damanpreet Singh Narendra Vijay Tripude Partha Chakrabarti Sujay Krishna Maity Dipyaman Ganguly Jit Sarkar Sistla Ramakrishna Balthu Narender Kumar Kiran A Kumar Sumit G Gandhi Piyush Singh Jamwal Rekha Chouhan Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal Nitika Kapoor Debashish Ghosh Ghanshyam Thakkar Umakanta Subudhi Pradip Sen Saumya Ray Chaudhury Rashmi Kumar Pawan Gupta Amit Tuli Deepak Sharma Rajesh P Ringe Amarnarayan D Mahesh Kulkarni Dhansekaran Shanmugam Mahesh S Dharne Sayed G Dastager Rakesh Joshi Amita P Patil Sachin N Mahajan Abujunaid Habib Khan Vasudev Wagh Rakesh Kumar Yadav Ajinkya Khilari Mayuri Bhadange Arvindkumar H Chaurasiya Shabda E Kulsange Krishna Khairnar Shilpa Paranjape Jatin Kalita Narahari G Sastry Tridip Phukan Prasenjit Manna Wahengbam Romi Pankaj Bharali Dibyajyoti Ozah Ravi Kumar Sahu Elapavalooru Vssk Babu Rajeev Sukumaran Aiswarya R Nair Prajeesh Kooloth Valappil Anoop Puthiyamadam Adarsh Velayudhanpillai Kalpana Chodankar Samir Damare Yennapu Madhavi Ved Varun Aggarwal Sumit Dahiya Anurag Agrawal Debasis Dash Shantanu Sengupta

Elife 2021 Apr 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India.

To understand the spread of SARS-CoV2, in August and September 2020, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India), conducted a sero-survey across its constituent laboratories and centers across India. Of 10,427 volunteers, 1058 (10.14%) tested positive for SARS CoV2 anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies; 95% of which had surrogate neutralization activity. Read More

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Eliminating the gap between the use of assistive technologies and the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in leisure activities.

Health Informatics J 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):14604582211005004

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools and Assistive Technologies (AT) can support people with Down Syndrome (PDS) and Intellectual Disabilities (PID) in increasing their self-confidence and independence, enhancing skills, and competences, participating in leisure activities. For families of PDS/PID, professionals, non-formal caregivers and volunteers, the challenge is to appreciate the benefits of ICT Tools in promoting inclusion. The aim of this study is to present the interdisciplinary and multidimensional scope of the DS Leisure project aiming at promoting the inclusion of PDS/PID through innovative ICT tools and their participation in inclusive leisure activities. Read More

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Comparison of ethanol concentrations after drinking in patients who underwent total gastrectomy versus healthy controls.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan.

Background: The safety of drinking in patients who have undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer has not been established. We conducted a clinical trial to investigate the trend in alcohol absorption in actual patients.

Methods: Patients who received total gastrectomy with lymph-node dissection and Roux-en-Y reconstruction six or more months ago were enrolled. Read More

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Mental health first aid training for Extension agents in rural communities.

Suicide Life Threat Behav 2021 Apr;51(2):301-307

Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA.

Objective: The goal of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in broadening the network of gatekeepers in rural communities.

Method: Extension agents in Mississippi who completed MHFA training were recruited via email to participate in a 22-item, web-based, quantitative and qualitative, six-month follow-up survey that measured demographic characteristics, which MHFA skills agents used post-training, barriers to skill use, and confidence in ability to use those skills (n = 80).

Results: Over 60% of the agents reported using the skills learned from the MHFA training, and nearly 15% of agents reported having an encounter with someone in crisis since completing the MHFA training. Read More

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Model-Aided Design of a Rear-Impact Collision Testing System for In-vivo Investigations.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

A collision testing device used to simulate rear-end impacts on human volunteers was developed and validated. The testing device impact profile was designed using parameters obtained from real crash-test derived vehicle to vehicle rear-end collisions. Experimental results show the proposed testing device achieves repeatable impact parameters well within the reported ranges of real vehicle to vehicle rear-end impact simulations reported in the literature. Read More

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Quantitative fit testing of filtering face-piece respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic reveals anthropometric deficits in most respirators available in Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Apr 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hudson College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma - Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK USA.

Purpose: Frontline health care workers (HCWs) must wear a standard N95 or FFP2 respirator during worldwide pandemics of respiratory diseases including COVID-19 to protect against airborne infectious pathogens when performing care activities. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the fit of most of the common FFRs used during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran.

Methods: A total of 37 volunteers were fit tested in 20 selected FFRs in a randomized order. Read More

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Habitual coffee drinkers display a distinct pattern of brain functional connectivity.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal.

Coffee is the most widely consumed source of caffeine worldwide, partly due to the psychoactive effects of this methylxanthine. Interestingly, the effects of its chronic consumption on the brain's intrinsic functional networks are still largely unknown. This study provides the first extended characterization of the effects of chronic coffee consumption on human brain networks. Read More

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Optimisation of T2 and T2* sequences in MRI for better quantification of iron on transfused dependent sickle cell patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8513. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Al Gamah Street, P. O. Box 3001, Khartoum, Sudan.

This work aimed to investigate the effect of different shim techniques, voxel sizes, and repetition time (TR) on using theT2 and T2* sequences to determine their optimum settings to investigate the quantification of iron in transfused dependent sickle cell patients. The effect of each of these parameters was investigated on phantoms of different Gadolinium (Gd) concentrations, on 10 volunteers and 25 patients using a1 5T MRI Philips scanner. No significant difference between the three shim techniques was noticed in either T2 or T2* sequence measurements. Read More

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Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of NTM-1632, a Novel Mixture of Three Monoclonal Antibodies against Botulinum Toxin B.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic disease caused by neurotoxin (BoNT). Available treatments including an equine antitoxin and human immune globulin are given post-exposure and challenging to produce and administer. NTM-1632 is an equimolar mixture of 3 human IgG monoclonal antibodies, B1, B2, and B3, targeting BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B). Read More

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Outcomes of Calcium Hydroxide with Iodoform Pulpectomies in Primary Teeth.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2021 Jan;88(1):46-51

Dr. Moskovitz is a clinical associate professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Hebrew University - Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel;, Email:

To assess retrospectively the success rate of calcium hydroxide with iodoform as a filling material in pulpectomies of primary molars with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis, and to evaluate factors that affect outcomes.
This study consisted of records of 73 patients with primary molars treated with pulpectomy with high quality radiographs. Treatment was considered successful clinically if the tooth was not extracted and radiographs showed a decrease or no change in preexisting pathologic radiolucent defects. Read More

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January 2021

Recommendations for neonatologists and pediatricians working in first level birthing centers on the first communication of genetic disease and malformation syndrome diagnosis: consensus issued by 6 Italian scientific societies and 4 parents' associations.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 Apr 19;47(1):94. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Genetic diseases are chronic conditions with relevant impact on the lives of patients and their families. In USA and Europe it is estimated a prevalence of 60 million affected subjects, 75% of whom are in developmental age. A significant number of newborns are admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) for reasons different from prematurity, although the prevalence of those with genetic diseases is unknown. Read More

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Age-dependency of terminal ileum tissue resident memory T cell responsiveness profiles to S. Typhi following oral Ty21a immunization in humans.

Immun Ageing 2021 Apr 19;18(1):19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Background: The impact of aging on the immune system is unequivocal and results in an altered immune status termed immunosenescence. In humans, the mechanisms of immunosenescence have been examined almost exclusively in blood. However, most immune cells are present in tissue compartments and exhibit differential cell (e. Read More

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Evaluation of hTERT, KRT7, and survivin in urine for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer using real-time PCR.

BMC Urol 2021 Apr 19;21(1):64. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, School of Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is the second most common genitourinary malignancy. Because of the low sensitivity of urinary cytology and the invasiveness and expense of frequent cystoscopies for the detection of low-grade superficial lesions, we aim to establish a sensitive molecular approach to detect bladder cancer noninvasively.

Methods: Voided urine samples were collected from 80 patients with bladder cancer at the time of diagnosis, in addition to 30 patients with non-bladder cancer urological diseases and 20 healthy volunteers. Read More

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[The effectiveness of parodontax toothpaste in the complex treatment of chronic gingivitis].

Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2021 ;100(2):50-54

Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov Russian Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia.

The Aim Of The Study: Was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of parodontax Comprehensive Protection (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK) toothpaste in the complex therapy of chronic gingivitis.

Materials And Methods: The study involved 119 volunteers; group 1 (=59, age range 18 to 32 years) and group 2 (=60, age range 20 to 35 years) with a diagnosis of chronic gingivitis (K05.1). Read More

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January 2021

Identification and application of a neutralizing epitope within alpha-hemolysin using human serum antibodies elicited by vaccination.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 16;135:45-52. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, PR China. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus (SA), especially the methicillin-resistant variant (MRSA), is becoming a serious threat to human health in hospitals and communities, making the development of an effective vaccine urgent. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a key virulence factor and also a good target for the development of SA vaccines. However, the epitopes in Hla recognized by human immunity are not characterized in detail, which hinders the design of epitope-based human vaccines against SA. Read More

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Examination of ECG characteristics of patients admitted to emergency department with conversive attack.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 14;48:110-113. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Harran University Faculty of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Objective: Conversion disorder is defined as a disorder with one or more neurological symptoms that accompany psychological conflict, suggesting a physical disorder. It has been shown that patients with conversion disorder have an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system. There are only a limited number of studies that have examined how conversion disorder is related with surface ECG parameters. Read More

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Hip-flask defense: An experimental study in the Hungarian population.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 16;80:102171. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department in Miskolc, Hungarian Institute of Forensic Sciences, Bajcsy-Zsilinszky u. 13. H-3527 Miskolc, Hungary. Electronic address:

Toxicology tests and medical expert opinions are part of routine work in drunk driving cases in both domestic and international practice. The greatest challenge to forming an opinion is that the perpetrator claims to have consumed alcohol after the act of driving. To determine the time of consumption, it is essential to establish whether the alcohol in the body was in the absorption phase or in the elimination phase when the sample was collected. Read More

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Detection of age related differences in CBF with PCASL using 2 post label delays.

Clin Imaging 2021 Apr 12;79:36-42. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Magnetic Resonance, Shanxi Cardiovascular Hospital, Taiyuan, China.

Background: The brain is reliant on an abundant and uninterrupted CBF for normal neural function because it is an organ with high metabolic activity and limited ability to store energy.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare age-related variations in CBF measured with PCASL.

Methods: This prospective study included healthy volunteers at the Radiology Department of Shanxi Cardiovascular Hospital between October 2018 and July 2019. Read More

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Comparison of 3 anti-PLA2R inmmunoassaysfor the diagnosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in an european population. A pilot study.

Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 16:108729. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Immunology Department, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, Km 9,100, 28034 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the most frequent causes of nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy is nowadays the gold standard for the diagnosis of MN. The presence of circulating PLA2R antibody is a very specific tool for the diagnosis of this disease, especially associated with primary or idiopathic MN (IMN), even though it can be also found in a small proportion of patients with secondary MN (SMN). Read More

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Fasted and fed state human duodenal fluids: Characterization, drug solubility, and comparison to simulated fluids and with human bioavailability.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biopharmaceutics, Uppsala University, Sweden. Electronic address:

Accurate in vivo predictions of intestinal absorption of low solubility drugs require knowing their solubility in physiologically relevant dissolution media. Aspirated human intestinal fluids (HIF) are the gold standard, followed by simulated intestinal HIF in the fasted and fed state (FaSSIF/FeSSIF). However, current HIF characterization data vary, and there is also some controversy regarding the accuracy of FaSSIF and FeSSIF for predicting drug solubility in HIF. Read More

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