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Tucker3 modelling on EEMF spectroscopic data sets using restraint initialisation of spectral variables: Fluorimetric analysis of mixtures consisting of bioactive molecules.

Keshav Kumar

Luminescence 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Hochschule Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, Germany.

Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) spectroscopic technique provides a viable means of analysing the samples belonging to different fields. EEMF spectral data sets are much larger in volume that could only be interpreted using novel data analysis techniques. Herein, a novel spectral initialisation approach is introduced for fitting the Tucker3 model on EEMF spectral data. Read More

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What is the Optimal Dose, Fractionation and Volume for Bladder Radiotherapy?

V Fonteyne P Sargos

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France.

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT), as part of a trimodality approach, is an attractive bladder-preserving alternative to radical cystectomy. Several EBRT regimens with different treatment volumes have been described with similar tumour control and, so far, clear recommendations on the optimal radiotherapy regimen and treatment volume are lacking. The current review summarises EBRT literature on dose prescription, fractionation as well as treatment volume in order to guide clinicians in their daily practice when treating patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Read More

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Pleiotropic effects of telomere length loci with brain morphology, and brain tissue expression.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT USA.

Several studies have reported association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and neuropsychiatric disorders. While telomere length is affected by environmental factors, genetic variants in certain loci are strongly associated with LTL. Thus, we aimed to identify the genomic relationship between genetic variants of LTL with brain-based regulatory changes and brain volume. Read More

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White Matter Alterations in Young Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Canada.

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to cognitive, behavioural, and social-emotional challenges. Previous neuroimaging research has identified structural brain alterations in newborns, older children, adolescents, and adults with PAE; however, little is known about brain structure in young children. Extensive brain development occurs during early childhood; therefore, understanding the neurological profiles of young children with PAE is critical for early identification and effective intervention. Read More

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Physiologically based metformin pharmacokinetics model of mice and scale-up to humans for the estimation of concentrations in various tissues.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0249594. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, Latvia.

Metformin is the primary drug for type 2 diabetes treatment and a promising candidate for other disease treatment. It has significant deviations between individuals in therapy efficiency and pharmacokinetics, leading to the administration of an unnecessary overdose or an insufficient dose. There is a lack of data regarding the concentration-time profiles in various human tissues that limits the understanding of pharmacokinetics and hinders the development of precision therapies for individual patients. Read More

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Assessment of epigenotoxic profiles of Dongjiang River: A comprehensive of chemical analysis, in vitro bioassay and in silico approach.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 23;282:116961. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, PR China; Synergy Innovation Institute of GDUT, Shantou, 515041, PR China. Electronic address:

This research explored the occurrence, epigenetic toxic profiling and main toxic pollutants of POPs in surface water of Dongjiang River, southern China. The concentrations of selected POPs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of surface water from 18 sites were investigated. ∑PAHs and ∑EDCs were at a moderate level, while ∑PAEs and ∑PBDEs had low pollution levels. Read More

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Effects of osteogenic ambulatory mechanical stimulation on early stages of BMP-2 mediated bone repair.

Connect Tissue Res 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

: Mechanical loading of bone defects through rehabilitation is a promising approach to stimulate repair and reduce nonunion risk; however, little is known about how therapeutic mechanical stimuli modulate early-stage repair before mineralized bone formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the early effects of osteogenic loading on cytokine expression and angiogenesis during the first 3 weeks of BMP-2 mediated segmental bone defect repair.: A rat model of BMP-2 mediated bone defect repair was subjected to an osteogenic mechanical loading protocol using ambulatory rehabilitation and a compliant, load-sharing fixator with an integrated implantable strain sensor. Read More

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Ecological Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in the Transboundary Vecht River (Germany/Netherlands).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Environmental Systems Research, Osnabrück University, Barbarastraße 12, D-49076, Osnabrück, Germany.

Millions of people rely on active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to prevent and cure a wide variety of illnesses in humans and animals, which has led to a steadily increasing consumption of APIs across the globe and concurrent releases of APIs into the environment. APIs in the environment can have a detrimental impact on wildlife, particularly aquatic wildlife. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential adverse effects to aquatic ecosystems. Read More

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Covid-19 and diabetes in primary care - How do hematological parameters present in this cohort?

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Sport Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

: Changes in hematological parameters are becoming evident as important early markers of COVID-19. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to be associated with increased severity of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to explore the various hematological variables in COVID-19 positive patients with T2DM, so as to act early and improve patient outcomes. Read More

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The Influence of Training Load on Hematological Athlete Biological Passport Variables in Elite Cyclists.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 18;3:618285. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

REDs, Research and Expertise in Anti-Doping Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The hematological module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is used in elite sport for antidoping purposes. Its aim is to better target athletes for testing and to indirectly detect blood doping. The ABP allows to monitor hematological variations in athletes using selected primary blood biomarkers [hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and reticulocyte percentage (Ret%)] with an adaptive Bayesian model to set individual upper and lower limits. Read More

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Comprehensive health assessment and blood analyte reference intervals of gopher tortoises () in southeastern FL, USA.

Conserv Physiol 2021 26;9(1):coab015. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Loggerhead Marinelife Center, Juno Beach, FL 33408, USA.

The gopher tortoise (), a keystone species, is declining throughout its geographic range. Lack of knowledge with respect to the potential infectious diseases present within wild populations creates a dilemma for wildlife biologists, conservationists and public policy makers. The objective of this study was to conduct a health assessment of two previously unstudied gopher tortoise aggregations located at two sites in southeastern FL. Read More

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Assessment of long-range oriented source and oxidative potential on the South-west shoreline, Korea: Molecular marker receptor models during shipborne measurements.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 23;281:116979. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan, 58554, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In order to determine the quantitative contributions of PM on the South-west shoreline of Korea, filter based samplings were conducted in the summertime of 2017 and 2018 (total 32 days) via shipborne measurements using both a high volume and middle volume air sampler. Water-soluble organic carbon, water-soluble ions, organic carbon and elemental carbon, elemental species, and organic molecular markers by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry were utilized to characterize the collected substrates. The current study investigates the (1) chemical characteristics of PM, (2) source apportionment using positive matrix factorization (PMF), and (3) relationship between sources and the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay during the two sampling periods. Read More

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Application of the ATN classification scheme in a population without dementia: Findings from the EPAD cohort.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC Location VUmc, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: We classified non-demented European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) participants through the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) scheme and assessed their neuropsychological and imaging profiles.

Materials And Methods: From 1500 EPAD participants, 312 were excluded. Cerebrospinal fluid cut-offs of 1000 pg/mL for amyloid beta (Aß)1-42 and 27 pg/mL for p-tau181 were validated using Gaussian mixture models. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations of Imipenem in burn Patients With and Without Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in the Military Health System.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Experimental Therapeutics, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD, 20910, USA.

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a life-sustaining procedure in patients with severe burns and acute kidney injury (AKI). Physiologic changes due to burn injury and use of CVVH may alter imipenem pharmacokinetics (PK). We aimed to compare imipenem clearance (CL) in burn patients with and without CVVH, determine the effect of burn on imipenem volume of distribution (Vd), and evaluate the adequacy of imipenem dosing in this population. Read More

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Mixed convection stagnation point flow of the blood based hybrid nanofluid around a rotating sphere.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7460. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Mathematics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, KP, Pakistan.

In this new world of fluid technologies, hybrid nanofluid has become a productive subject of research among scientists for its potential thermal features and abilities, which provides an excellent result as compared to nanofluids in growing the rate of heat transport. Our purpose here is to introduce the substantial influences of magnetic field on 2D, time-dependent and stagnation point inviscid flow of couple stress hybrid nanofluid around a rotating sphere with base fluid is pure blood, [Formula: see text] as the nanoparticles. To translate the governing system of partial differential equations and the boundary conditions relevant for computation, some suitable transformations are implemented. Read More

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Modeling of Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in Host-Guest Systems Using Bond Fluctuation Monte Carlo Model: A Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland.

We review the results of Monte Carlo studies of chosen nonlinear optical effects in host-guest systems, using methods based on the bond-fluctuation model (BFM) for a polymer matrix. In particular, we simulate the inscription of various types of diffraction gratings in degenerate two wave mixing (DTWM) experiments (surface relief gratings (SRG), gratings in polymers doped with azo-dye molecules and gratings in biopolymers), poling effects (electric field poling of dipolar molecules and all-optical poling) and photomechanical effect. All these processes are characterized in terms of parameters measured in experiments, such as diffraction efficiency, nonlinear susceptibilities, density profiles or loading parameters. Read More

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Systems Approaches to Treatment Response to Imatinib in Severe Asthma: A Pilot Study.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 25;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

There is an acute need for advances in pharmacologic therapies and a better understanding of novel drug targets for severe asthma. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) in a clinical trial of patients with severe asthma. In a pilot study, we applied systems biology approaches to epithelium gene expression from these clinical trial patients treated with imatinib to better understand lung function response with imatinib treatment. Read More

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Strength, Endocrine, and Body Composition Alterations across Four Blocks of Training in an Elite 400 m Sprinter.

J Funct Morphol Kinesiol 2021 Mar 9;6(1). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology, East Tennessee University, Johnson City, TN 36714, USA.

The ability to produce force rapidly has the potential to directly influence sprinting performance through changes in stride length and stride frequency. This ability is commonly referred to as the rate of force development (RFD). For this reason, many elite sprinters follow a combined program consisting of resistance training and sprint training. Read More

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ECMO Retrieval over the Mediterranean Sea: Extending Hospital Arms.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS-ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione), 90133 Palermo, Italy.

The retrieval and transport of patients from peripheral hospitals to high volume extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers aims to reduce complications and improve survival. In Sicily (Italy), our institute houses a mobile ECMO team that serves a population of around 10 million people for a vast area in southern Italy and Malta. This observational, descriptive study includes all patients that required veno-venous (V-V) ECMO and transport by a mobile team between October 2009 and May 2020. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Supinoxin and Its Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Rats.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 11;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Graduate School of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Supinoxin is a novel anticancer drug candidate targeting the Y593 phospho-p68 RNA helicase, by exhibiting antiproliferative activity and/or suppression of tumor growth. This study aimed to characterize the in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics of supinoxin and attempt physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in rats. Supinoxin has good permeability, comparable to that of metoprolol (high permeability compound) in Caco-2 cells, with negligible net absorptive or secretory transport observed. Read More

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Integrating X-ray kV millimetric field dosimetry with a synthetic diamond detector into the treatment planning system commissioning of a preclinical irradiator.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Departamento de Ciências Radiológicas DCR, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Purpose: Small animal irradiators are equipped with X-ray beams and cone-collimators with millimeter dimensions to be used in preclinical research. The use of small fields in the kV energy range may require the application of energy-dependent, field-size-dependent or depth-dependent correction factors to the dosimetric data acquired for treatment planning system (TPS) commissioning purposes to obtain accurate dose values. Considering that these corrections are also detector-dependent, the suitability of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for small-field relative dosimetry in a preclinical irradiator (220-kVp) was evaluated to avoid the necessity of applying correction factors during TPS commissioning. Read More

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Automated Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow and Motile Cilia Properties in The Central Canal of Zebrafish Embryos.

Bio Protoc 2021 Mar 5;11(5):e3932. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institut du Cerveau (ICM), Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Inserm, CNRS, AP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, France.

Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role during development. In zebrafish embryo, the flow of CSF has been found to be bidirectional in the central canal of the spinal cord. In order to compare conditions and genetic mutants across each other, we recently automated the quantification of the velocity profile of exogenous fluorescent particles in the CSF. Read More

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Aqueous humor cytokines and cellular profiles in pediatric ocular granulomas caused by theTrematode Fluke Procerovum sp.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Apr 1:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Aravind Eye Hospital & PG Institute of Ophthalmology, Madurai, India.

: Children from coastal areas of South India develop granulomatous eye disease after swimming in their village ponds, the causative organism being trematode .: To understand the pathogenesis by analyzing the cellular profile, cytokines, and chemokines of aqueous fluid.: This was a prospective study over 1 year on pediatric patients with ocular granuloma caused by a Trematode Fluke sp. Read More

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Direct single-molecule imaging for diagnostic and blood screening assays.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Applied Research and Technology, Abbott Diagnostics Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064

Every year, over 100 million units of donated blood undergo mandatory screening for HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis worldwide. Often, donated blood is also screened for human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus, Chagas, dengue, Babesia, cytomegalovirus, malaria, and other infections. Several billion diagnostic tests are performed annually around the world to measure more than 400 biomarkers for cardiac, cancer, infectious, and other diseases. Read More

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Interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies: Complications, toxicities, and management.

Brachytherapy 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

From both a disease and management perspective, locally advanced gynecologic cancers present a significant challenge. Dose escalation with brachytherapy serves as a key treatment, providing conformal radiation while sparing at-risk organs. Intracavitary brachytherapy techniques have been shown to be effective, with improving tumor control and toxicity profiles with the advent of three-dimensional image planning. Read More

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Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Glycemic Control With Intracranial Plaque Characteristics in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has shown to be associated with carotid plaque vulnerability. However, the impact of T2DM on intracranial artery atherosclerosis is not well-understood.

Purpose: To evaluate the association of diabetes and glycemic control with intracranial atherosclerotic plaque characteristics identified by three-dimensional contrast enhanced MR vessel wall imaging in patients after acute ischemic stroke. Read More

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Post-administration dosimetry in yttrium-90 radioembolization through micro-CT imaging of radiopaque microspheres in a porcine renal model.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CANADA.

The purpose of this study is to perform post-administration dosimetry in Yttrium-90 radioembolization through micro-CT imaging of radiopaque microsphere distributions in a porcine renal model and explore the impact of spatial resolution of an imaging system on the extraction of specific dose metrics. Following the administration of radiopaque microspheres to the kidney of a hybrid farm pig, the kidney was explanted and imaged with micro-CT. To produce an activity distribution, 400 MBq of Yttrium-90 activity was distributed throughout segmented voxels of the embolized vasculature based on an established linear relationship between microsphere concentration and micro-CT voxel number. Read More

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Combination of cassette-dosing and microsampling for reduced animal usage for antibody pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys, wild-type mice, and human FcRn transgenic mice.

Pharm Res 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Research Division, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-135 Komakado, Gotemba-shi, Shizuoka, 412-8513, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a useful antibody PK evaluation tool using a combination of cassette-dosing and microsampling in mice and monkeys in order to reduce the number of animals used.

Methods: Cetuximab, denosumab, infliximab, and a mixture of the three antibodies, i.e. Read More

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Detailed numerical study of the peak shapes of neutral analytes injected at high solvent strength in short reversed-phase liquid chromatography columns and comparison with experimental observations.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 18;1643:462078. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

We report on a numerical investigation of the different steps in the development of the spatial concentration profiles developing along the axis of a liquid chromatography column when injecting large relative volumes (>10 to 20% of column volume) of analytes dissolved in a high solvent strength solvent band as can be encountered in the second dimension (D) column of a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system. More specifically, we made a detailed study of the different retention and the axial band broadening effects leading to the double-headed peak shapes or strongly fronting peaks that can be experimentally observed under certain conditions in 2D-LC. The establishment of these intricate peak profiles is discussed in all its fine, mechanistic details. Read More

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Effects of Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation on Fermentation Indices, Greenhouse Gas, Microbes, and Fatty Acid Profiles in the Rumen.

Front Microbiol 2021 11;12:637220. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Four), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.

This study estimated the effect of essential fatty acid (FA) supplementation on fermentation indices, greenhouse gases, microbes, and FA profiles in the rumen. The treatments used pure FAs consisting of C18:2n-6 FA (LA), C18:3n-3 FA (LNA), or a mixture of these FAs at 1:1 ratio (Combo). rumen incubation was performed in 50 mL glass serum bottles containing 2 mg of pure FAs, 15 mL of rumen buffer (rumen fluid+anaerobe culture medium = 1:2), and 150 mg of synthetic diet (411 g cellulose, 411 g starch, and 178 g casein/kg dry matter) at 39°C for 8 h with five replications and three blanks. Read More

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