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A parent-implemented embedded AAC intervention for teaching navigational requests and other communicative functions to children with Autism spectrum disorder.

Augment Altern Commun 2021 Oct 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Communication Disorders, Southern Connecticut University, New Haven, CT, USA.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an embedded naturalistic intervention for teaching augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application responses to three preschool-aged males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents were taught to embed opportunities for their child to communicate with a grid-based AAC application during every-day routines such as play or mealtime. Communication targets included requesting objects using two-step taxonomic navigational responses, and requesting assistance, rejecting items, or making social comments/responses using a two-step message-strip response. Read More

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October 2021

A strengths-based, culturally responsive family intervention improves Latino kindergarteners' vocabulary and approaches to learning.

Child Dev 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina, USA.

Food routines are an ecocultural asset of Latino families. This cluster-randomized trial with 248 children (M  = 67 months; 50% girls; 13 schools) investigated the impact of a 4-week family program designed to capitalize on food routines in improving Latino kindergarteners' outcomes in the United States. There were moderate-to-large impacts on child vocabulary (especially food-related) at end-of-treatment and the 5-month follow-up, and suggestive evidence of moderate impacts on approaches to learning (ATL; including ATL math) and executive function at the 5-month follow-up (d = . Read More

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October 2021

Applying text mining to identify relevant literature in food science: Cold denaturation as a case study.

J Food Sci 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Purdue University Food Science Department, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

In a research environment characterized by the five V's of big data, volume, velocity, variety, value, and veracity, the need to develop tools that quickly screen a large number of publications into relevant work is an increasing area of concern, and the data-rich food industry is no exception. Here, a combination of latent Dirichlet allocation and food keyword searches were employed to analyze and filter a dataset of 6102 publications about cold denaturation. After using the Python toolkit generated in this work, the approach yielded 22 topics that provide background and insight on the direction of research in this field, as well as identified the publications in this dataset which are most pertinent to the food industry with precision and recall of 0. Read More

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October 2021

Fostering Cyber-Physical Social Systems through an Ontological Approach to Personality Classification Based on Social Media Posts.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 4;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Faculty of Automatic Control and Computers, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania.

The exponential increase in social networks has led to emergent convergence of cyber-physical systems (CPS) and social computing, accelerating the creation of smart communities and smart organizations and enabling the concept of cyber-physical social systems. Social media platforms have made a significant contribution to what we call human behavior modeling. This paper presents a novel approach to developing a users' segmentation tool for the Romanian language, based on the four DISC personality types, based on social media statement analysis. Read More

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October 2021

A Transformer-Based Neural Machine Translation Model for Arabic Dialects That Utilizes Subword Units.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;21(19). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Languages that allow free word order, such as Arabic dialects, are of significant difficulty for neural machine translation (NMT) because of many scarce words and the inefficiency of NMT systems to translate these words. Unknown Word (UNK) tokens represent the out-of-vocabulary words for the reason that NMT systems run with vocabulary that has fixed size. Scarce words are encoded completely as sequences of subword pieces employing the Word-Piece Model. Read More

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September 2021

O-JMeSH: creating a bilingual English-Japanese controlled vocabulary of MeSH UIDs through machine translation and mutual information.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e26. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557, Japan.

Previous approaches to create a controlled vocabulary for Japanese have resorted to existing bilingual dictionary and transformation rules to allow such mappings. However, given the possible new terms introduced due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the emphasis on respiratory and infection-related terms, coverage might not be guaranteed. We propose creating a Japanese bilingual controlled vocabulary based on MeSH terms assigned to COVID-19 related publications in this work. Read More

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September 2021

Revising the Bantu tree.

Cladistics 2019 Jun 31;35(3):329-348. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, 200 Central Park West, New York, NY, 10024-5192, USA.

Phylogenetic methods offer a promising advance for the historical study of language and cultural relationships. Applications to date, however, have been hampered by traditional approaches dependent on unfalsifiable authority statements: in this regard, historical linguistics remains in a similar position to evolutionary biology prior to the cladistic revolution. Influential phylogenetic studies of Bantu languages over the last two decades, which provide the foundation for multiple analyses of Bantu sociocultural histories, are a major case in point. Read More

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Depressive symptoms may be associated with semantic memory decline in elderly adults.

Dement Neuropsychol 2021 Jul-Sep;15(3):350-356

Psychology Graduate Program, Department of Psychology, Universidade Federal do Paraná - Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Depressive symptoms are associated with a decline of episodic memory, but the relationship with semantic memory remains unclear.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship of depressive symptoms with the semantic memory in a community-based sample of elderly adults. The sample comprised two groups, namely, clinical (with depressive symptoms) and control. Read More

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Developmental Features of Lexical Richness in English Writings by Chinese L3 Beginner Learners.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:752950. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Foreign Languages, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Lexical richness is considered as one of the most efficient methods for assessing writing proficiency and development. However, the developmental features of lexical richness in L3 writing remain relatively poorly understood compared with that of L2 writings. This study reports a cross-sectional corpus-based study that aims to explore the developmental features of lexical richness in L3 writings by Chinese beginner learners of English from the perspective of the dynamic usage-based approach. Read More

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September 2021

Current State of the Evidence: Examining the Effects of Orton-Gillingham Reading Interventions for Students With or at Risk for Word-Level Reading Disabilities.

Except Child 2021 Jul 22;87(4):397-417. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

University of Texas at Austin.

Over the past decade, parent advocacy groups led a grassroots movement resulting in most states adopting dyslexia-specific legislation, with many states mandating the use of the Orton-Gillingham approach to reading instruction. Orton-Gillingham is a direct, explicit, multisensory, structured, sequential, diagnostic, and prescriptive approach to reading for students with or at risk for word-level reading disabilities (WLRD). Evidence from a prior synthesis and What Works Clearinghouse reports yielded findings lacking support for the effectiveness of Orton-Gillingham interventions. Read More

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"Two Friends Spending Time Together": The Impact of Video Visual Scene Displays on Peer Social Interaction for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2021 Oct 8;52(4):1095-1108. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, State College.

Purpose Social interaction poses many challenges for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and complex communication needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of video visual scene displays (video VSDs) on communication during interactions between adolescents with ASD and peer partners. Method This study used an across-participant multiple-baseline single-case experimental design. Read More

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October 2021

Multisensory Input Modulates P200 and L2 Sentence Comprehension: A One-Week Consolidation Phase.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:746813. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of English, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Multisensory input is an aid to language comprehension; however, it remains to be seen to what extent various combinations of senses may affect the P200 component and attention-related cognitive processing associated with L2 sentence comprehension along with the N400 as a later component. To this aim, we provided some multisensory input (enriched with data from three (i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Feasibility of the EQ-5D in the elderly population: a systematic review of the literature.

Qual Life Res 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Health Economics and Health Care Management, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, Bielefeld, Germany.

Purpose: The EQ-5D-3L and 5L are widely used generic preference-based instruments, which are psychometrically sound with the general population, but little is known about the instruments' feasibility in the elderly. Therefore, this systematic review summarises the available literature with regard to the feasibility properties of the instruments in the elderly population.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, PsycInfo and EuroQol databases using pre-specified vocabulary and inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify publications until November 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Gender harmony: improved standards to support affirmative care of gender-marginalized people through inclusive gender and sex representation.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Canada Health Infoway, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: Accurate representation of clinical sex and gender identity in interoperable clinical systems is a major challenge for organizations intent on improving outcomes for sex- and gender-marginalized people. Improved data collection has been hindered by the historical approach that presumed a single, often binary, datum was sufficient. We describe the Health Level Seven International (HL7) Gender Harmony logical model that proposes an improved approach. Read More

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October 2021

A short-form version of the Australian English communicative development inventory.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Oct 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, Australia.

The Australian English Communicative Development Inventory (OZI) is a 558-item parent report tool for assessing language development at 12-30 months. Here, we introduce the short form (OZI-SF), a 100-item, picture-supported, online instrument with substantially lower time and literacy demands. In tool development (Study 1), 95 items were drawn from the OZI to match its item distribution by age of acquisition and semantic categories. Read More

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October 2021

Older Adults' Experience of Meaning at the End of Life in Two Danish Hospices: A Qualitative Interview Study.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:700285. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Research Unit of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

The aim of this study was to explore how older adults (aged > 65) confronted with imminent death express their thoughts and feelings about death and dying and verbalize meaning. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate how health professionals could better address the needs of this patient group to experience meaning at the end of life. The study applied a qualitative method, involving semi-structured interviews with 10 participants at two hospices. Read More

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September 2021

Differentiating Interpreting Types: Connecting Complex Networks to Cognitive Complexity.

Front Psychol 2021 17;12:590399. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Linguistics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Prominent interpreting models have illustrated different processing mechanisms of simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting. Although great efforts have been made, a macroscopic examination into interpreting outputs is sparse. Since complex network is a powerful and feasible tool to capture the holistic features of language, the present study adopts this novel approach to investigate different properties of syntactic dependency networks based on simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting outputs. Read More

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September 2021

Shifting parental beliefs about child development to foster parental investments and improve school readiness outcomes.

Nat Commun 2021 10 1;12(1):5765. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Socioeconomic gaps in child development open up early, with associated disparities in parental investments in children. Understanding the drivers of these disparities is key to designing effective policies. We first show that parental beliefs about the impact of early parental investments differ across socioeconomic status (SES), with parents of higher SES being more likely to believe that parental investments impact child development. Read More

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October 2021

Glimpsing keywords across sentences in noise: A microstructural analysis of acoustic, lexical, and listener factors.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 09;150(3):1979

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

This study investigated how acoustic and lexical word-level factors and listener-level factors of auditory thresholds and cognitive-linguistic processing contribute to the microstructure of sentence recognition in unmodulated and speech-modulated noise. The modulation depth of the modulated masker was changed by expanding and compressing the temporal envelope to control glimpsing opportunities. Younger adults with normal hearing (YNH) and older adults with normal and impaired hearing were tested. Read More

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September 2021

A Taxonomy-Driven Model for Designing Educational Games in Visualization.

IEEE Comput Graph Appl 2021 Oct 1;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Visualization literacy of the broader audiences is becoming an important topic, as we are increasingly surrounded by misleading, erroneous, or confusing visualizations. How can we educate the general masses about data visualization We propose a twofold model for designing educational games in visualization based on the concept of constructivism and learning-by-playing. We base our approach on the idea of deconstruction and construction, borrowed from the domain of mathematics. Read More

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October 2021

CSDB/SNFG Structure Editor: An Online Glycan Builder with 2D and 3D Structure Visualization.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry, Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect 47, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

This article describes features, usage, and application of an CSDB/SNFG Structure Editor, a new online tool for quick and intuitive input of carbohydrate and derivative structures using Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG). The Editor is built on a platform of the Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) and relies on its online services via the dedicated web-API. The Editor allows building of oligo- and polymeric glycan structures and supports most features of natural glycans, such as underdetermined structures, alternative branches, repeating subunits, SMILES specification of atypical monomers, and others. Read More

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October 2021

An analysis of unconscious gender bias in academic texts by means of a decision algorithm.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(9):e0257903. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Faculty of Economic Sciences, Business Organization and Marketing Department, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

Inclusive language focuses on using the vocabulary to avoid exclusion or discrimination, specially referred to gender. The task of finding gender bias in written documents must be performed manually, and it is a time-consuming process. Consequently, studying the usage of non-inclusive language on a document, and the impact of different document properties (such as author gender, date of presentation, etc. Read More

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September 2021

Web-based and machine learning approaches for identification of patient-reported outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

CHRU-Nancy, INSERM, Université de Lorraine, CIC 1433 Clinical Epidemiology, F-54000 Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, APEMAC, F-54000 Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Background: Messages from an Internet forum are raw material that emerges in a natural setting (i.e., non-induced by a research situation). Read More

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September 2021

A Second Wave? What Do People Mean by COVID Waves? - A Working Definition of Epidemic Waves.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 13;14:3775-3782. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Sociology and the Centre for Family and Population Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: Policymakers and researchers describe the COVID-19 epidemics by waves without a common vocabulary on what constitutes an epidemic wave, either in terms of a working definition or operationalization, causing inconsistencies and confusions. A working definition and operationalization can be helpful to characterize and communicate about epidemics.

Methods: We propose a working definition of epidemic waves in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and an operationalization based on the public data of the effective reproduction number R. Read More

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September 2021

Health-related quality of life of caregivers of children with low language: Results from two Australian population-based studies.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Sep 21:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Deakin Health Economics, School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

: To examine (1) the association between low language (LL) and caregiver's health-related quality of life (HRQoL), (2) whether persistent LL affects caregiver's HRQoL and (3) whether child social-emotional-behavioural (SEB) difficulties attenuates the association between LL and caregiver's HRQoL.: Data were from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) and the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Caregiver's HRQoL was measured using the EuroQoL-5 dimensions and the Assessment of Quality of Life-8 dimensions. Read More

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September 2021

Providing ART-DECOR ValueSets via FHIR Terminology Servers - A Technical Report.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 Sep;283:127-135

Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

To ensure semantic interoperability within healthcare systems, using common, curated terminological systems to identify relevant concepts is of fundamental importance. The HL7 FHIR standard specifies means of modelling terminological systems and appropriate ways of accessing and querying these artefacts within a terminology server. Hence, initiatives towards healthcare interoperability like IHE specify not only software interfaces, but also common codes in the form of value sets and code systems. Read More

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September 2021

Post-Mastectomy Pain Syndrome: An Up-to-Date Review of Treatment Outcomes.

JPRAS Open 2021 Dec 11;30:97-109. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is a known debilitating surgical complication. While research on prevention, risk factors, and treatments have been conducted, there remains no cohesive treatment paradigm. The aim of our study is to synthesize the existing evidence on PMPS treatment, which may facilitate the implementation of standardized, effective management strategies. Read More

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December 2021

Biomedical Vocabulary Alignment at Scale in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

Proc Int World Wide Web Conf 2021 Apr 19;2021:2672-2683. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

With 214 source vocabularies, the construction and maintenance process of the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) Metathesaurus terminology integration system is costly, time-consuming, and error-prone as it primarily relies on (1) lexical and semantic processing for suggesting groupings of synonymous terms, and (2) the expertise of UMLS editors for curating these synonymy predictions. This paper aims to improve the UMLS Metathesaurus construction process by developing a novel supervised learning approach for improving the task of suggesting synonymous pairs that can scale to the size and diversity of the UMLS source vocabularies. We evaluate this deep learning (DL) approach against a rule-based approach (RBA) that approximates the current UMLS Metathesaurus construction process. Read More

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Cortical Thickness in bilingual and monolingual children: Relationships to language use and language skill.

Neuroimage 2021 Nov 7;243:118560. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd, Houston, TX 77004, USA.

There is a growing body of evidence based on adult neuroimaging that suggests that the brain adapts to bilingual experiences to support language proficiency. The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a useful source of data for evaluating this claim during childhood, as it involves data from a large sample of American children. Using the baseline ABCD Study data collected at ages nine and ten, the goal of this study was to identify differences in cortical thickness between bilinguals and monolinguals and to evaluate how variability in English vocabulary and English use within bilinguals might explain these group differences. Read More

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November 2021

What is the Sugar Code?

Chembiochem 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, CIB Margarita Salas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

A code is defined by the nature of the symbols, which are used to generate information-storing combinations (e. g. oligo- and polymers). Read More

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September 2021