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MRTF-A regulates myoblast commitment to differentiation by targeting PAX7 during muscle regeneration.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Biology and Medicine, College of Life Science and Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430081, China.

Myocardin-related transcription factor-A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF), a well-known transcriptional programme, has been proposed to play crucial roles in skeletal muscle development and function. However, whether MRTF-A participates in muscle regeneration and the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we show that MRTF-A levels are highly correlated with myogenic genes using a RNA-seq assay, which reveal that MRTF-A knockdown in C2C12 cells significantly reduces PAX7 expression. Read More

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Antibody-functionalized theranostic protein nanoparticles for the synergistic deep red fluorescence imaging and multimodal therapy of ovarian cancer.

Biomater Sci 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Biomolecular Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania. and Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Centre, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania.

Among women, ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent type of cancer, and despite benefiting from current standard treatment plans, 90% of patients relapse in the subsequent 18 months and, eventually, perish. As a result, via embracing nanotechnological advancements in the field of medical science, researchers working in the areas of cancer therapy and imaging are looking for the next breakthrough treatment strategy to ensure lower cancer recurrence rates and improved outcomes for patients. Herein, we design a novel phototheranostic agent with optical features in the biological window of the electromagnetic spectrum via encapsulating a newly synthesized phthalocyanine dye within biocompatible protein nanoparticles, allowing the targeted fluorescence imaging and synergistic dual therapy of ovarian cancer. Read More

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Curcumol inhibits ferritinophagy to restrain hepatocyte senescence through YAP/NCOA4 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Cell Prolif 2021 Aug 3:e13107. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Objectives: In recent years, cellular senescence has attracted a lot of interest in researchers due to its involvement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanism of cellular senescence is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumol on hepatocyte senescence in NAFLD and the molecular mechanisms implicated. Read More

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Transcriptional CDK inhibitors, CYC065 and THZ1 promote Bim-dependent apoptosis in primary and recurrent GBM through cell cycle arrest and Mcl-1 downregulation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 3;12(8):763. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) contributes to the uncontrolled proliferation of tumour cells. Genomic alterations that lead to the constitutive activation or overexpression of CDKs can support tumourigenesis including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour in adults. The incurability of GBM highlights the need to discover novel and more effective treatment options. Read More

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Low level laser therapy promotes bone regeneration by coupling angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 08 3;12(1):432. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China.

Background: Bone tissue engineering is a new concept bringing hope for the repair of large bone defects, which remains a major clinical challenge. The formation of vascularized bone is key for bone tissue engineering. Growth of specialized blood vessels termed type H is associated with bone formation. Read More

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Nanomessenger-Mediated Signaling Cascade for Antitumor Immunotherapy.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Micro & Nano Materials Interface Science, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, People's Republic of China.

Chemical messengers have been recognized as signaling molecules involved in regulating various physiological and metabolic activities. Nevertheless, they usually show limited regulatory efficiency due to the complexity of biological processes. Especially for tumor cells, antideath pathways and tumor metastasis are readily activated to resist chemical messenger regulation, further impairing antitumor outcomes. Read More

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Down-regulation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) induces G1 arrest via activation of the p38/p53/p21 signalling pathway in bladder cancer.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China.

Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) has been reported to contribute to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of PLK4 in human bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the regulatory function of PLK4 in human BC progression. Read More

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Identification of HSC/MPP expansion units in fetal liver by single-cell spatiotemporal transcriptomics.

Cell Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Limited knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hematopoietic stem cell and multipotent progenitor (HSC/MPP) expansion within their native niche has impeded the application of stem cell-based therapies for hematological malignancies. Here, we constructed a spatiotemporal transcriptome map of mouse fetal liver (FL) as a platform for hypothesis generation and subsequent experimental validation of novel regulatory mechanisms. Single-cell transcriptomics revealed three transcriptionally heterogeneous HSC/MPP subsets, among which a CD93-enriched subset exhibited enhanced stem cell properties. Read More

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MiR-144-5p, an exosomal miRNA from bone marrow-derived macrophage in type 2 diabetes, impairs bone fracture healing via targeting Smad1.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jul 30;19(1):226. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopedics Trauma and Microsurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, Hubei, China.

Background: Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of nonunion and delayed union of fractures. Macrophages have been shown as a key player in diabetic complications. However, it remains obscure how diabetic milieu affects macrophage-derived exosomes and its implications on osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Read More

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The TMPRSS2 Inhibitor Nafamostat Reduces SARS-CoV-2 Pulmonary Infection in Mouse Models of COVID-19.

mBio 2021 Aug 3:e0097021. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowagrid.214572.7, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), initiates host cell entry when its spike protein (S) binds to its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In airway epithelia, the spike protein is cleaved by the cell surface protease TMPRSS2, facilitating membrane fusion and entry at the cell surface. Read More

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A Review On digital image processing techniques for in-Vivo confocal images of the cornea.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 23;73:102188. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This work reviews the scientific literature regarding digital image processing for in vivo confocal microscopy images of the cornea. We present and discuss a selection of prominent techniques designed for semi- and automatic analysis of four areas of the cornea (epithelium, sub-basal nerve plexus, stroma and endothelium). The main context is image enhancement, detection of structures of interest, and quantification of clinical information. Read More

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Conservation of endo-glucanase 16 (EG16) activity across highly divergent plant lineages.

Biochem J 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Plant cell walls are highly dynamic structures that are composed predominately of polysaccharides. As such, endogenous carbohydrate active-enzymes (CAZymes) are central to the synthesis and subsequent modification of plant cells during morphogenesis. The endo-glucanase 16 (EG16) members constitute a distinct group of plant CAZymes, angiosperm orthologs of which were recently shown to have dual beta-glucan/xyloglucan hydrolase activity. Read More

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ATP-triggered mitochondrial cascade reactions for cancer therapy with nanoscale zeolitic imidazole framework-90.

Theranostics 2021 26;11(16):7869-7878. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Institute of Molecular and Nano Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, P. R. China.

Chemotherapy, the most conventional modality for cancer therapy, usually brings serious side effects because of the low cancer-therapeutic specificity and bioavailability. It is of great significance for cancer treatment to develop new effective strategies to regulate biochemical reactions in organelles, enhance the specificity of chemotherapeutic drugs and reduce their side effects. We report herein a zeolitic imidazole framework-90 (ZIF-90) based nanoplatform, which was used to initiate a series of mitochondrial cascade reactions using ATP as a molecular switch for cancer therapy. Read More

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MicroRNA-133 Targets in and Human Oral Cancer Cells to Regulate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

J Cancer 2021 3;12(17):5296-5309. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Life Science in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea.

Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to play diverse roles in cancer biology, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) crucial for cancer progression. Previous comparative studies revealed distinct expression profiles of miRNAs relevant to tumorigenesis and progression of oral cancer. With putative targets of these miRNAs mostly validated , it remains unclear whether similar miRNA-target relationships exist . Read More

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Bayesian Physics-Based Modeling of Tau Propagation in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 16;12:702975. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are known drivers of neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease. Tau in particular spreads in the brains of patients following a spatiotemporal pattern that is highly sterotypical and correlated with subsequent neurodegeneration. Novel medical imaging techniques can now visualize the distribution of tau in the brain , allowing for new insights to the dynamics of this biomarker. Read More

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Long-Term Normothermic Machine Preservation of Partial Livers: First Experience With 21 Human Hemi-Livers.

Ann Surg 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Wyss Zurich, ETH Zurich/University of Zurich, Switzerland Department of Surgery and Transplantation, Swiss Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary (HPB) Center, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology and Institute of Molecular Cancer Research (IMCR), University Zurich and University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Macromolecular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Transport Processes and Reactions Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: The aim of this study was to maintain long-term full function and viability of partial livers perfused ex situ for sufficient duration to enable ex situ treatment, repair, and regeneration.

Background: Organ shortage remains the single most important factor limiting the success of transplantation. Autotransplantation in patients with nonresectable liver tumors is rarely feasible due to insufficient tumor-free remnant tissue. Read More

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High-sensitivity detection of optogenetically-induced neural activity with functional ultrasound imaging.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 29:118434. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, CA, 94305, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Lead Contact. Electronic address:

Whole-brain imaging approaches and optogenetic manipulations are powerful tools to map brain-wide neural circuits in vivo. To date, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides the most comprehensive evaluation of such large-scale circuitry. However, functional ultrasound imaging (fUSI) has recently emerged as a complementary imaging modality that can extend such measurements towards the context of diverse behavioral states and tasks. Read More

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Efficacy of a live attenuated highly pathogenic PRRSV vaccine against a NADC30-like strain challenge: implications for ADE of PRRSV.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 31;17(1):260. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection can cause severe reproductive failure in sows and respiratory distress in pigs of all ages, leading to major economic losses. To date, there are still no effective strategies to prevent and control PRRSV. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon in which preexisting non-neutralizing antibodies or sub-neutralizing antibodies facilitate virus entry and replication, may be a significant obstacle in the development of effective vaccines for many viruses, including PRRSV. Read More

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Adenosine synthase A contributes to recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection by dampening protective immunity.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 28;70:103505. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China; The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen capable of causing diverse illnesses with possible recurrent infections. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of cellular immunity in recurrent infections, the mechanism by which S. aureus evades host responses remains largely unexplored. Read More

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Qingyangshen mitigates amyloid-β and Tau aggregate defects involving PPARα-TFEB activation in transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 12;91:153648. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Mr. & Mrs. Ko Chi-Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Deposition of amyloid β plaques (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is the key pathological hallmark of AD. Accumulating evidence suggest that impairment of autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) plays key roles in AD pathology. Read More

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Construction and antitumor activity of selenium nanoparticles decorated with the polysaccharide extracted from Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. (Rutaceae).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Tianjin 3003350, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), a potential cancer therapeutic agent, have attracted widespread attention owing to their high bioavailability and remarkable anticancer activity. Nevertheless, the poor water solubility and dispersibility of SeNPs seriously limit their applications. In the present study, we synthesized stable and individual spherical selenium nanoparticles (CL90-Tw-SeNP2) with an average diameter of approximately 79 nm using a polysaccharide extracted from Citrus limon (CL90) and Tween-80 as the decorator and stabilizers. Read More

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Vorinostat targets UBE2C to reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition and control cervical cancer growth through the ubiquitination pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 29;908:174399. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Foshan Maternal and Child Health Research Institute, South Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, 528000, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that was demonstrated in our previous study to inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cervical cancer cells by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. However, the molecular mechanism of vorinostat in cervical cancer treatment remains to be further elucidated. A nude mouse xenograft model was established to analyze the antitumor effect of vorinostat in vivo. Read More

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Hippo-YAP/MCP-1 mediated tubular maladaptive repair promote inflammation in renal failed recovery after ischemic AKI.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 30;12(8):754. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant morbidity and its chronic inflammation contributes to subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Yes-associated protein (YAP), the major transcriptional coactivator of the Hippo pathway, has been shown associated with chronic inflammation, but its role and mechanism in AKI-CKD transition remain unclear. Here we aimed to investigate the role of YAP in AKI-induced chronic inflammation. Read More

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Nanocellulose for peripheral nerve regeneration in rabbits using citric acid as crosslinker with chitosan and freeze/thawed PVA.

Biomed Mater 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

UFCG, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária - PPGMV, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB, 58429-900, BRAZIL.

This work investigates peripheral nerve regeneration using membranes consisting of pure chitosan, which was further blended with nanofibrillated cellulose, with citric acid as crosslinker, with posterior addition of polyvinyl alcohol, with subsequent freeze thawing. Nanocellulose improves the mechanical and thermal resistance, as well as flexibility of the film, which is ideal for the surgical procedure. The hydrogel presented a slow rate of swelling, which is adequate for cell and drug delivery. Read More

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Stress symptoms and plant hormone-modulated defense response induced by the uptake of carbamazepine and ibuprofen in Malabar spinach (Basella alba L.).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 24;793:148628. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry/KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275, China. Electronic address:

Due to their wide applications and extensive discharges, pharmaceuticals have recently become a potential risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The uptake of pharmaceuticals have been shown to stimulate plant defense systems and induce phytotoxic effects. Signaling molecules such as plant hormones play crucial roles in plant stress and defense responses, but the relationship between these molecules and pharmaceutical uptake has rarely been investigated. Read More

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In Situ Membrane Biotinylation Enables the Direct Labeling and Accurate Kinetic Analysis of Small Extracellular Vesicles in Circulation.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.

Circulating small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are naturally occurring nanosized membrane vesicles that convey bioactive molecules between cells. Conventionally, to evaluate their behaviors in vivo, circulating sEVs have to be isolated from the bloodstream, then labeled with imaging materials in vitro, and finally injected back into the circulation of animals for subsequent detection. The tedious isolation-labeling-reinfusion procedures might have an undesirable influence on the natural properties of circulating sEVs, thereby changing their behaviors and the detected kinetics in vivo. Read More

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Calciprotein Particles Induce IL-1β/α-Mediated Inflammation through NLRP3 Inflammasome-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

Immunohorizons 2021 Jul 29;5(7):602-614. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Inflammation Research, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan;

Calciprotein particles (CPPs) are nanoparticles composed of calcium phosphate crystals and fetuin-A and have been implicated in diseases associated with inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying CPP-induced inflammation in mice. CPPs predominantly upregulated IL-1β and IL-1α and provided priming and activation signals for the NLRP3 inflammasome in murine macrophages. Read More

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AIM2 regulates anti-tumor immunity and is a viable therapeutic target for melanoma.

J Exp Med 2021 Sep 29;218(9). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Dermatology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

The STING and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) pathways are activated by the presence of cytosolic DNA, and STING agonists enhance immunotherapeutic responses. Here, we show that dendritic cell (DC) expression of AIM2 within human melanoma correlates with poor prognosis and, in contrast to STING, AIM2 exerts an immunosuppressive effect within the melanoma microenvironment. Vaccination with AIM2-deficient DCs improves the efficacy of both adoptive T cell therapy and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for "cold tumors," which exhibit poor therapeutic responses. Read More

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September 2021

Immunopolarization-regulated 3D printed-electrospun fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 23;276:121037. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Medical College of Soochow University, Orthopedic Institute of Soochow University, 708 Renmin Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215007, PR China. Electronic address:

Three-dimension (3D)-printed bioscaffolds are precise and personalized for bone regeneration. However, customized 3D scaffolds may activate the immune response in vivo and consequently impede bone formation. In this study, with layer-by-layer deposition and electrospinning technology to control the physical structure, 3D-printed PCL scaffolds with PLLA electrospun microfibrous (3D-M-EF) and nanofibrous (3D-N-EF) composites were constructed, and their immunomodulatory effect and the subsequent osteogenic effects were explored. Read More

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Isolation of primary human B lymphocytes from tonsils compared to blood as alternative source for ex vivo application.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jul 7;1179:122853. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Process Biotechnology, University of Bayreuth, Germany. Electronic address:

B lymphocytes ('B cells') are components of the human immune system with obvious potential for medical and biotechnological applications. Here, we discuss the isolation of primary human B cells from both juvenile and adult tonsillar material using a two-step procedure based on gradient centrifugation followed by separation on a nylon wool column as alternative to the current gold standard, i.e. Read More

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