258,779 results match your criteria vivo studies


Towards lower-dose PET using physics-based uncertainty-aware multimodal learning with robustness to out-of-distribution data.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 27;73:102187. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) Department, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Radiation exposure in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging limits its usage in the studies of radiation-sensitive populations, e.g., pregnant women, children, and adults that require longitudinal imaging. Read More

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Translation of DNA damage response inhibitors as chemoradiation sensitizers from the laboratory to the clinic.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School and Rogel Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Combination therapies with agents targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) offer an opportunity to selectively enhance the therapeutic index of chemoradiation or eliminate chemotherapy altogether. The successful translation of DDR inhibitors to clinical use requires investigating both their direct actions as (chemo)radiosensitizers, and their potential to stimulate tumor immunogenicity. Beginning with high-throughput screening using both viability and DNA damage-reporter assays, followed by validation in 'gold standard' radiation colony forming assays and in vitro assessment of mechanistic effects on the DDR we describe proven strategies and methods leading to the clinical development of DDR inhibitors both with radiation alone and in combination with chemoradiation. Read More

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High-Content Clonogenic Survival Screen to Identify Chemoradiation Sensitizers.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Graduate School of Biological Sciences, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy with radiotherapy (CRT) has resulted in significant improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with many locally advanced unresectable cancers. Only a small proportion of patients achieve pathological complete responses to CRT; combination of CRT with targeted agents offers the promise of further improving treatment responses. However, numerous clinical trials have failed to show an improvement in clinical outcomes with the addition of targeted agents. Read More

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Exploring the longitudinal glioma microenvironment landscape uncovers reprogrammed pro-tumorigenic neutrophils in the bone marrow.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(5):109480

The School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Recent multi-omics studies show different immune tumor microenvironment (TME) compositions in glioblastoma (GBM). However, temporal comprehensive knowledge of the TME from initiation of the disease remains sparse. We use Cre recombinase (Cre)-inducible lentiviral murine GBM models to compare the cellular evolution of the immune TME in tumors initiated from different oncogenic drivers. Read More

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Excess dietary carbohydrate affects mitochondrial integrity as observed in brown adipose tissue.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(5):109488

Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA. Electronic address:

Hyperglycemia affects over 400 million individuals worldwide. The detrimental health effects are well studied at the tissue level, but the in vivo effects at the organelle level are poorly understood. To establish such an in vivo model, we used mice lacking TXNIP, a negative regulator of glucose uptake. Read More

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The conserved C2 phospholipid-binding domain in Delta contributes to robust Notch signalling.

EMBO Rep 2021 Aug 4:e52729. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Physiology Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Accurate Notch signalling is critical for development and homeostasis. Fine-tuning of Notch-ligand interactions has substantial impact on signalling outputs. Recent structural studies have identified a conserved N-terminal C2 domain in human Notch ligands which confers phospholipid binding in vitro. Read More

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Pertactin contributes to shedding and transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Aug 4;17(8):e1009735. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

Whooping cough is resurging in the United States despite high vaccine coverage. The rapid rise of Bordetella pertussis isolates lacking pertactin (PRN), a key vaccine antigen, has led to concerns about vaccine-driven evolution. Previous studies showed that pertactin can mediate binding to mammalian cells in vitro and act as an immunomodulatory factor in resisting neutrophil-mediated clearance. Read More

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Spike-rate adaptation in a computational model of human-shaped spiral ganglion neurons.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Aug 4;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Objectives: The purp ose of this study is to develop a biophysical model of human spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that includes voltage-gated hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels and low-threshold potassium voltage-gated, delayed- rectifier low-threshold potassium (KLT) channels, providing for a more complete simulation of spike-rate adaptation, a feature of most spiking neurons in which spiking activity is reduced in response to sustained stimulation.

Methods: Our model incorporates features of spike-rate adaptation reported from in vivo studies, whilst also displaying similar behaviour to existing models of human SGNs, including the dependence of electrically evoked thresholds on the polarity of electrical pulses.

Results: Hypothesizing that the mode of stimulationintracellular or extracellularpredicts features of spike-rate adaptation similar to in vivo studies, including the influence of stimulus intensity and pulse-rate, we find that the mode of stimulation alters features of spike-rate adaptation. Read More

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The m6A writers regulated by the IL-6/STAT3 inflammatory pathway facilitate cancer cell stemness in cholangiocarcinoma.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Objective: Investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell stemness in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is essential for developing effective therapies to improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of m6A modifications in CCA cell stemness.

Methods: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) treatment was used to induce an inflammatory response, and loss-of-function studies were conducted using mammosphere culture assays. Read More

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Micro- and Nanoplastic-Mediated Pathophysiological Changes in Rodents, Rabbits, and Chickens: A Review.

J Food Prot 2021 Sep;84(9):1480-1495

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center, Biosciences Research Laboratory, 1616 Albrecht Boulevard N, Fargo, North Dakota 58102, USA.

Abstract: Plastics provide tremendous societal benefits and are an indispensable part of our lives. However, fragmented plastics or those intentionally manufactured in small sizes (microplastics and nanoplastics) are of concern because they can infiltrate soils and enter the human food chain through trophic transfer. The pathophysiological impacts of micro- and nanoplastics in humans are not characterized, but their effects in terrestrial mammals may help elucidate their potential effects in humans. Read More

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September 2021

Novel EGFRvIII-CAR transgenic mice for rigorous preclinical studies in syngeneic mice.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery.

Background: Rigorous preclinical studies of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy will require large quantities of consistent and high-quality CAR-transduced T (CART)-cells that can be used in syngeneic mouse glioblastoma (GBM) models. To this end, we developed a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse strain with a fully murinized CAR targeting epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII).

Methods: We first established the murinized version of EGFRvIII-CAR and validated its function using a retroviral vector (RV) in C57BL/6J mice bearing syngeneic SB28 GBM expressing EGFRvIII. Read More

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Characterization of Skeletal Phenotype and Associated Mechanisms With Chronic Intestinal Inflammation in the Winnie Mouse Model of Spontaneous Chronic Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Medicine-Western Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Osteoporosis is a common extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, studies have been scarce, mainly because of the lack of an appropriate animal model of colitis-associated bone loss. In this study, we aimed to decipher skeletal manifestations in the Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis, which carries a MUC2 gene mutation and closely replicates ulcerative colitis. Read More

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Lysophosphatidylcholine promotes intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via an orphan G protein receptor 2-mediated signaling pathway.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):4520-4535

The Center for New Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China.

The oxLDL-based bioactive lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a key regulator of physiological processes including endothelial cell adhesion marker expression. This study explored the relationship between LPC and the human umbilical vein endothelial cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with a particular focus on the regulation of the LPC-G2A-ICAM-1/VCAM-1 pathway in this context. We explored the LPC-inducible role of orphan G protein receptor 2 (G2A) in associated regulatory processes by using human kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells that had been transfected with pET-G2A, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in which an shRNA was used to knock down G2A, and western blotting and qPCR assays that were used to confirm changes in gene expression. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of ozone and particulate matter on airway epithelial barrier structure and function: a review of and studies.

Inhal Toxicol 2021 Aug 4:1-16. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

The airway epithelium represents a crucial line of defense against the spread of inhaled pathogens. As the epithelium is the first part of the body to be exposed to the inhaled environment, it must act as both a barrier to and sentinel against any inhaled agents. Despite its vital role in limiting the spread of inhaled pathogens, the airway epithelium is also regularly exposed to air pollutants which disrupt its normal function. Read More

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The Role of Common Solvents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Pathogenicity in a Murine Burn Site Infection Model.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Aug 4:e0023321. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospitalgrid.32224.35, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are frequently used as potent excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. However, these agents also have an interesting antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory profile that could interfere with the efficacy testing of anti-infective compounds when the latter are solubilized in DMSO or PEGs. Here, we demonstrate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of DMSO-PEG400 in a murine Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, aiming to draw attention to the appropriate selection of solvents for difficult-to-solubilize anti-infectives. Read More

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[What is the stat of art in 3D bioprinting of cartilage? Challenges concerning the reconstruction of a burned ear].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 May 12;165. Epub 2021 May 12.

Amsterdam UMC, locatie VUmc, afd. Plastische, Reconstructieve en Handchirurgie, Amsterdam.

Five years ago in this journal we described our research into 3D bioprinting of ear cartilage for the purpose of making personalized cartilage implants for facial reconstruction. 3D bioprinting makes it possible to place living cells in a biodegradable scaffold to give a 3D structure to the tissue. We are able to develop a hybrid auricular cartilage implant model. Read More

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Is cyclooxygenase-1 involved in neuroinflammation?

J Neurosci Res 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Reactive microglia are an important hallmark of neuroinflammation. Reactive microglia release various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandins, which are produced by enzymes like cyclooxygenases (COX). The inducible COX-2 subtype has been associated with inflammation, whereas the constitutively expressed COX-1 subtype is generally considered as a housekeeping enzyme. Read More

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De novo ARF3 variants cause neurodevelopmental disorder with brain abnormality.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

An optimal Golgi transport system is important for mammalian cells. The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation factors (ARF) are key proteins for regulating cargo sorting at the Golgi network. In this family, ARF3 mainly works at the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and no ARF3-related phenotypes have yet been described in humans. Read More

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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB protects dopaminergic neurons via activation of Akt/ERK/CREB pathways to upregulate tyrosine hydroxylase.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Aims: The neurotropic growth factor PDGF-BB was shown to have vital neurorestorative functions in various animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies indicated that the regenerative property of PDGF-BB contributes to the increased intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) fibers in vivo. However, whether PDGF-BB directly modulates the expression of TH, and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Read More

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The extract of concentrated growth factor enhances osteogenic activity of osteoblast through PI3K/AKT pathway and promotes bone regeneration in vivo.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 Aug 4;7(1):70. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Dental Implantology, Yantai Stomatological Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical College, No. 142, North Great Str, Yantai, Shandong, 264008, People's Republic of China.

Background: Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a third-generation platelet concentrate product; the major source of growth factors in CGF is its extract; however, there are few studies on the overall effects of the extract of CGF (CGF-e). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of CGF-e on MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and to explore the effect of combination of CGF-e and bone collagen (Bio-Oss Collagen, Geistlich, Switzerland) for bone formation in cranial defect model of rats in vivo.

Methods: The cell proliferation, ALP activity, mineral deposition, osteogenic-related gene, and protein expression were evaluated in vitro; the newly formed bone was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis through critical-sized cranial defect rat model in vivo. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles from immortalized cardiosphere-derived cells attenuate arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy in desmoglein-2 mutant mice.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 127 S. San Vicente Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Aims: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by progressive loss of cardiomyocytes, and fibrofatty tissue replacement. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cardiosphere-derived cells, immortalized, and engineered to express high levels of β-catenin, exert anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. The aim of the current study was to assess efficacy of EVs in an ACM murine model. Read More

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Hedgehog signal disruption, gonadal dysgenesis and reproductive disorders: Is there a link to endocrine disrupting chemicals?

Curr Res Toxicol 2020 Jun 24;1:116-123. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Diet, Disease Prevention and Toxicology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800, Denmark.

Developmental exposure to chemicals that can disrupt sex hormone signaling may cause a broad spectrum of reproductive disorders. This is because reproductive development is tightly regulated by steroid sex hormones. Consequently, non-animal screening methods currently used to test chemicals for potential endocrine disrupting activities typically include steroidogenesis and nuclear receptor assays. Read More

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miR-21a-5p Promotes Inflammation following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury through Upregulation of Neurotoxic Reactive Astrocyte (A1) Polarization by Inhibiting the CNTF/STAT3/Nkrf Pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 5;17(11):2795-2810. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250013, China.

Reactive astrocytes are implicated in traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Interestingly, naïve astrocytes can easily transform into neurotoxic reactive astrocytes (A1s) with inflammatory stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that microRNA(miR)-21a-5p was up-regulated in spinal cord tissue after TSCI; however, it is not clear whether this affected reactive astrocyte polarization. Read More

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Spotlight on the Corneal Back Surface Astigmatism: A Review.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 26;15:3157-3164. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Kyiv City Clinical Ophthalmological Hospital "Eye Microsurgical Center", Kyiv, Ukraine.

Recent evidence indicates that the corneal back surface astigmatism (CBSA) contributes to the refractive state of the eye in cataract surgery, especially with the implantation of toric intraocular lenses. But this has been met with some scepticism. A review of key studies performed over the past three decades shows that the mean CBSA power ranges from 0. Read More

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Detection of early changes in the post-radiosurgery vestibular schwannoma microenvironment using multinuclear MRI.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 3;11(1):15712. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Dept. of Neurosurgery, Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Stott Lane, Salford, Greater Manchester, M6 8HD, UK.

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established, effective therapy against vestibular schwannoma (VS). The mechanisms of tumour response are, however, unknown and in this study we sought to evaluate changes in the irradiated VS tumour microenvironment through a multinuclear MRI approach. Five patients with growing sporadic VS underwent a multi-timepoint comprehensive MRI protocol, which included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and a spiral Na-MRI acquisition for total sodium concentration (TSC) quantification. Read More

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Establishment of HLA class I and MICA/B null HEK-293T panel expressing single MICA alleles to detect anti-MICA antibodies.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 3;11(1):15716. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505, Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul, 137-040, Korea.

Pre- and post-transplantation anti-MICA antibody detection development are associated with an increased rejection risk and low graft survival. We previously generated HLA class I null HEK-293T using CRISPR/Cas9, while MICA and MICB genes were removed in this study. A panel of 11 cell lines expressing single MICA alleles was established. Read More

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Transcriptional CDK inhibitors, CYC065 and THZ1 promote Bim-dependent apoptosis in primary and recurrent GBM through cell cycle arrest and Mcl-1 downregulation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 3;12(8):763. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) contributes to the uncontrolled proliferation of tumour cells. Genomic alterations that lead to the constitutive activation or overexpression of CDKs can support tumourigenesis including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour in adults. The incurability of GBM highlights the need to discover novel and more effective treatment options. Read More

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Low level laser therapy promotes bone regeneration by coupling angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 08 3;12(1):432. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China.

Background: Bone tissue engineering is a new concept bringing hope for the repair of large bone defects, which remains a major clinical challenge. The formation of vascularized bone is key for bone tissue engineering. Growth of specialized blood vessels termed type H is associated with bone formation. Read More

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Analysing the essential proteins set of Plasmodium falciparum PF3D7 for novel drug targets identification against malaria.

Malar J 2021 Aug 3;20(1):335. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan.

Background: Plasmodium falciparum is an obligate intracellular parasite of humans that causes malaria. Falciparum malaria is a major public health threat to human life responsible for high mortality. Currently, the risk of multi-drug resistance of P. Read More

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Electroencephalographic investigation of the effects of Ginkgo biloba on spike-wave discharges in rats with genetic absence epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 31;122:108165. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Physiology, Hamidiye Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: EGb 761, a plant extract obtained from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, is widely used in modern medicine and traditional medicine applications in the treatment of many diseases. However, in some clinical case reports, it has been suggested that G. biloba causes epileptic seizures. Read More

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