2,367 results match your criteria vivo dsrna


Poly(I:C) enhances the efficacy of phagocytosis checkpoint blockade immunotherapy by inducing IL-6 production.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Macrophage phagocytosis plays essential roles in antitumor immunity. CD47/SIRPα phagocytosis checkpoint blockade has demonstrated therapeutic potential in several hematopoietic cancers, but recent clinical studies reported very limited efficacy against solid malignancies. Here, we show that polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA, enhances the antitumor activity of CD47 blockade in colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reovirus enhances cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against colorectal cancer via TLR3 pathway.

J Transl Med 2021 May 1;19(1):185. Epub 2021 May 1.

Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research/School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550004, Guizhou, China.

Background: Cetuximab has been approved for use for first-line treatment of patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, treatment with cetuximab has shown limited efficacy as a CRC monotherapy. In addition, natural killer (NK) cell function is known to be severely attenuated in cancer patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNase R is associated in a functional complex with the RhpA DEAD-box RNA helicase in Helicobacter pylori.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Unité Pathogenèse de Helicobacter, CNRS UMR 2001, Département de Microbiologie, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

Ribonucleases are central players in post-transcriptional regulation, a major level of gene expression regulation in all cells. Here, we characterized the 3'-5' exoribonuclease RNase R from the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The 'prototypical' Escherichia coli RNase R displays both exoribonuclease and helicase activities, but whether this latter RNA unwinding function is a general feature of bacterial RNase R had not been addressed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

FABP regulates fatty acid metabolism and oxidative response via PPARα/RXR signaling in Litopenaeus vannamei following environmental exposure of clofibric acid.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, PR China.

Clofibric acid (CFA), a drug and personal care product, has been identified as ubiquitous in the aquatic system and surface water, causing pollution to the environment. In this study, after environmental (4 µg/L) levels of CFA challenge, the LvFABP, LvACS gene expressions, total haemocyte count (THC), relative enzymes (SOD1 and GST) activities in Litopenaeus vannamei were observed to decrease. In the meantime LvFATP, LvRXR expression and the level of NEFA were upregulated in L. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An invertebrate gene encoding a Mab21-containing protein involves in antiviral response through regulating the STING pathway.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 16;121:104101. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China; The Innovation of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

The cGAS-STING pathway plays essential roles in detecting cytosolic dsDNA and initiating antiviral and antibacterial responses in vertebrates. However, knowledge about its function in antiviral response of invertebrates is very limited. In the present study, a gene encoding a Mab21-containing protein, a cGAS homologue, was identified from a decapod crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei and designated as LvMab21cp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reciprocal regulation of RIG-I and XRCC4 connects DNA repair with RIG-I immune signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2187. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The RNA-sensing pathway contributes to type I interferon (IFN) production induced by DNA damaging agents. However, the potential involvement of RNA sensors in DNA repair is unknown. Here, we found that retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a key cytosolic RNA sensor that recognizes RNA virus and initiates the MAVS-IRF3-type I IFN signaling cascade, is recruited to double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and suppresses non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Improved prime editors enable pathogenic allele correction and cancer modelling in adult mice.

Nat Commun 2021 04 9;12(1):2121. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Prime editors (PEs) mediate genome modification without utilizing double-stranded DNA breaks or exogenous donor DNA as a template. PEs facilitate nucleotide substitutions or local insertions or deletions within the genome based on the template sequence encoded within the prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA). However, the efficacy of prime editing in adult mice has not been established. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNA Interference in Aquaculture: A Small Tool for Big Potential.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;69(15):4343-4355. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genetics and Biotechnology, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fish Resources, Suez University, Suez 43518, Egypt.

For decades, the tight regulatory functions of DNA and RNA have been the focus of extensive research with the goal of harnessing RNA molecules (e.g., microRNA and small interfering RNA) to control gene expression and to study biological functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNA Interference Strategies for Future Management of Plant Pathogenic Fungi: Prospects and Challenges.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), University of Bologna, viale Fanin 44, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Plant pathogenic fungi are the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants and represent a persistent and significant threat to agriculture worldwide. Conventional approaches based on the use of pesticides raise social concern for the impact on the environment and human health and alternative control methods are urgently needed. The rapid improvement and extensive implementation of RNA interference (RNAi) technology for various model and non-model organisms has provided the initial framework to adapt this post-transcriptional gene silencing technology for the management of fungal pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Virulent African horse sickness virus serotype 4 interferes with the innate immune response in horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Mar 31;91:104836. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Tropical Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. For the development of new generation AHS vaccines or antiviral treatments, it is crucial to understand the host immune response against the virus and the immune evasion strategies the virus employs. To achieve this, the current study used transcriptome analysis of RNA sequences to characterize and compare the innate immune responses activated during the attenuated AHSV serotype 4 (attAHSV4) (in vivo) and the virulent AHSV4 (virAHSV4) (in vitro) primary and secondary immune responses in horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 24 h. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toll-like receptor 3 is an endogenous sensor of cell death and a potential target for induction of long-term cardiac transplant survival.

Am J Transplant 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pathology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Inflammation posttransplant is directly linked to cell death programs including apoptosis and necrosis. Cell death leads to the release of cellular contents which can promote inflammation. Targeting of these pathways should be an effective strategy to prevent transplant rejection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of RNA epigenetic modification in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

Curr Stem Cell Rep 2020 Dec 12;6(4):144-155. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Section of Hematology, Yale Cancer Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Purpose Of Review: RNA epigenetic modifications have been identified as novel, dynamic regulators of gene expression, with important impacts on stem cell fate decisions. Here we examine the functions of RNA modifications, with a focus on -methyladenosine (mA), in hematopoietic stem cells under normal conditions and in malignancy.

Recent Findings: The mA RNA modification is a critical regulator of hematopoiesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Protective Role of Activated Protein C against Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C)-Induced Inflammation.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States.

Activated protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant plasma serine protease which exhibits potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we studied protective effects of APC on the proinflammatory function of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, in cellular and animal models. Poly(I:C) induced histone H3 extranuclear translocation via interaction with toll-like receptor 3 in two established endothelial cell lines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PU14, a Novel Matrix Protein, Participates in Pearl Oyster, Pinctada Fucata, Shell Formation.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2021 Apr 10;23(2):189-200. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Biomineralization is a widespread biological process, involved in the formation of shells, teeth, and bones. Shell matrix proteins have been widely studied for their importance during shell formation. In 2015, our group identified 72 unique shell matrix proteins in Pinctada fucata, among which PU14 is a matrix protein detected in the soluble fraction that solely exists in the prismatic layer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tilapia dsRNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR): An interferon-induced antiviral effector with translation inhibition activity.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 2;112:74-80. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

The dsRNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is one of key antiviral effectors induced by interferons (IFNs), and its functions are largely unknown in tilapia, an important commercial fish species suffering from several viral infectious diseases. In the present study, a PKR gene named On-PKR was identified and cloned from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. On-PKR gene was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest expression level observed in head kidney and liver, and was rapidly induced in all organs/tissues tested following the stimulation of poly(I:C). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repurposing the Antiemetic Metoclopramide as an Antiviral Against Dengue Virus Infection in Neuronal Cells.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 2;10:606743. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes to humans and is a threat worldwide. No effective new drugs have been used for anti-dengue treatment, and repurposing drugs is an alternative approach to treat this condition. Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) is a host receptor positively associated with DENV infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

B-type allatostatin regulates immune response of hemocytes in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jul 22;120:104050. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Fisheries, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021, China. Electronic address:

B-type allatostatins (AST-B) are neuropeptides that have important physiological roles in arthropods, they have also been identified in a number of crustacean species. Recent research on neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory system in invertebrates has exploded, it reveals that the NEI network plays an indispensable role in optimizing the immune response and maintaining homeostasis. Herein, mud crab Scylla paramamosain provides a primitive and ancient model to study crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Electroporation-mediated RNA Interference Method in Odonata.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 6(168). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST);

Dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata) represent one of the most ancestral insects with metamorphosis, in which they change their habitat, morphology, and behavior drastically from aquatic larvae to terrestrial/aerial adults without pupal stage. Odonata adults have a well-developed color vision and show a remarkable diversity in body colors and patterns across sexes, stages, and species. While many ecological and behavioral studies on Odonata have been conducted, molecular genetic studies have been scarce mainly due to the difficulty in applying gene functional analysis to Odonata. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The effects of RNA editing in cancer tissue at different stages in carcinogenesis.

RNA Biol 2021 Feb 17:1-16. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

International Centre for Cancer Vaccine Science (ICCVS), University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.

RNA editing is one of the most prevalent and abundant forms of post-transcriptional RNA modification observed in normal physiological processes and often aberrant in diseases including cancer. RNA editing changes the sequences of mRNAs, making them different from the source DNA sequence. Edited mRNAs can produce editing-recoded protein isoforms that are functionally different from the corresponding genome-encoded protein isoforms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Establishment of a TLR3 homozygous knockout human induced pluripotent stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Apr 21;52:102187. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Division of Intractable Diseases, Center for Biomedical Sciences, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju 28160, Republic of Korea; National Stem Cell Bank of Korea, Korea Institute of Health, Cheongju 28160, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family plays an important role in the recognition of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, followed by the activation of innate immunity. TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic material produced by positive-strand RNA viruses and DNA viruses, and is activated by viral infection. Upon recognition, TLR3 promotes the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 to enhance the expression and secretion of type I interferons that signal other cells to enhance their antiviral defenses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hiltonol Cocktail Kills Lung Cancer Cells by Activating Cancer-Suppressors, PKR/OAS, and Restraining the Tumor Microenvironment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 5;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Clinical trials showed that Hiltonol, a stable dsRNA representing an advanced form of polyI:C (polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid), is an adjuvant cancer-immunomodulator. However, its mechanisms of action and effect on lung cancer have not been explored pre-clinically. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The immune-inflammatory response of oligodendrocytes in a murine model of preterm white matter injury: the role of TLR3 activation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Feb 8;12(2):166. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Université de Paris, Inserm UMR 1141 NeuroDiderot, F-75019, Paris, France.

A leading cause of preterm birth is the exposure to systemic inflammation (maternal/fetal infection), which leads to neuroinflammation and white matter injury (WMI). A wide range of cytokines and chemokines are expressed and upregulated in oligodendrocytes (OLs) in response to inflammation and numerous reports show that OLs express several receptors for immune related molecules, which enable them to sense inflammation and to react. However, the role of OL immune response in WMI is unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Re-structuring lentiviral vectors to express genomic RNA via cap-dependent translation.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Mar 15;20:357-365. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Gene Transfer Technology Group, Institute for Women's Health, University College London, 86-96 Chenies Mews, London, UK.

Lentiviral (LV) vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) package two copies of their single-stranded RNA into vector particles. Normally, this RNA genome is reverse transcribed into a double-stranded DNA provirus that integrates into the cell genome, providing permanent gene transfer and long-term expression. Integration-deficient LV vectors have been developed to reduce the frequency of genomic integration and thereby limit their persistence in dividing cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Silencing of Double-Stranded Ribonuclease Improves Oral RNAi Efficacy in Southern Green Stinkbug .

Insects 2021 Jan 28;12(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Variability in RNA-interference (RNAi) efficacy among different insect orders poses a big hurdle in the development of RNAi-based pest control strategies. The activity of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNases) in the digestive canal of insects can be one of the critical factors affecting oral RNAi efficacy. Here, the involvement of these dsRNases in the southern green stinkbug was investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Corticosteroids and cellulose purification improve, respectively, the in vivo translation and vaccination efficacy of sa-mRNAs.

Mol Ther 2021 04 21;29(4):1370-1381. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratory of Gene Therapy, Department of Nutrition, Genetics and Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Heidestraat 19, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium; Cancer Research Institute (CRIG), Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Synthetic mRNAs are an appealing platform with multiple biomedical applications ranging from protein replacement therapy to vaccination. In comparison with conventional mRNA, synthetic self-amplifying mRNAs (sa-mRNAs) are gaining interest because of their higher and longer-lasting expression. However, sa-mRNAs also elicit an innate immune response, which may complicate their clinical application. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TARBP2 promotes tumor angiogenesis and metastasis by destabilizing antiangiogenic factor mRNAs.

Cancer Sci 2021 Mar 12;112(3):1289-1299. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Microcirculation, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Tumor angiogenesis is a crucial step in the further growth and metastasis of solid tumors. However, its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Here, we showed that TARBP2, an RNA-binding protein, played a role in promoting tumor-induced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo through degrading the mRNAs of antiangiogenic factors, including thrombospondin1/2 (THBS1/2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1), and serpin family F member 1 (SERPINF1), by targeting their 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Card1 nuclease provides defence during type III CRISPR immunity.

Nature 2021 02 18;590(7847):624-629. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Laboratory of Bacteriology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

In the type III CRISPR-Cas immune response of prokaryotes, infection triggers the production of cyclic oligoadenylates that bind and activate proteins that contain a CARF domain. Many type III loci are associated with proteins in which the CRISPR-associated Rossman fold (CARF) domain is fused to a restriction  endonuclease-like domain. However, with the exception of the well-characterized Csm6 and Csx1 ribonucleases, whether and how these inducible effectors provide defence is not known. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The involvement of insulin/ToR signaling pathway in reproductive performance of Rhodnius prolixus.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Mar 13;130:103526. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Insulins are peptide hormones widely studied for their important regulatory roles in metabolism, growth and development. In insects, insulin signaling along with the target of rapamycin (ToR) are involved in detecting and interpreting nutrient levels. Recently, by transcriptome analysis we reported an up-regulation of transcripts involved in insulin/ToR signaling in unfed Rhodnius prolixus; however, this signaling pathway is only activated in fed insects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The circadian cryptochrome, CRY1, is a pro-tumorigenic factor that rhythmically modulates DNA repair.

Nat Commun 2021 01 15;12(1):401. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA.

Mechanisms regulating DNA repair processes remain incompletely defined. Here, the circadian factor CRY1, an evolutionally conserved transcriptional coregulator, is identified as a tumor specific regulator of DNA repair. Key findings demonstrate that CRY1 expression is androgen-responsive and associates with poor outcome in prostate cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021