33,332 results match your criteria vitro toxic

Phytochemical add-on therapy to DMARDs therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: In vitro and in vivo bases, clinical evidence and future trends.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 17:105618. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Inflammation Pharmacology Division, CSIR- Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, J&K, India-180001; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India. Electronic address:

The use of biologically active compounds derived from plants i.e. phytochemicals, have been known for ages for their pharmacological activities in the treatment of autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Read More

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Release and cytotoxicity screening of the printer emissions of a CdTe Quantum Dots-based fluorescent ink.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

LEITAT Technological Center, Carrer de la Innovació 2, 08225, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The fluorescent properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) containing quantum dots (QDs) have led to novel products and applications in the ink and pigment industry. The toxic effects of the emissions associated to the use of printing ink containing CdTe QDs might differ from those of conventional formulations which do not integrate nanoparticles, as CdTe QDs might be emitted. Within this work, the airborne emissions of a water-soluble fluorescent ink containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated CdTe QDs of 3-5 nm diameter have been characterized and studied under controlled conditions during household inkjet printing in a scenario simulating the use phase. Read More

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Doxorubicin loaded magnetism nanoparticles based on cyclodextrin dendritic-graphene oxide inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation.

Biomol Concepts 2021 Apr 20;12(1):8-15. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz, University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of various types of cancer. However, its poor solubility, undesirable side effects, and short half-life have remained a challenge. We used a formulation based on graphene oxide as an anticancer drug delivery system for DOX in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, to address these issues. Read More

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Extracellular histones are a target in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, WC1E 6HX, United Kingdom.

Acute myocardial infarction causes lethal cardiomyocyte injury during ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R). Histones have been described as important Danger Associated Molecular Proteins (DAMPs) in sepsis. Aims The objective of this study was to establish whether extracellular histone release contributes to myocardial infarction. Read More

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Characterization of DinJ-YafQ toxin-antitoxin module in Tetragenococcus halophilus: activity, interplay, and evolution.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China.

Tetragenococcus halophilus is a moderately halophilic lactic acid bacterium widely used in high-salt food fermentation because of its coping ability under various stress conditions. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are widely distributed and play important roles in stress response, but those specific for genus Tetragenococcus have never been explored. Here, a bona fide TA module named DinJ-YafQ was characterized in T. Read More

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Catalytically Enhanced Cas9 through Directed Protein Evolution.

CRISPR J 2021 Apr;4(2):223-232

Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Guided by the extensive knowledge of CRISPR-Cas9 molecular mechanisms, protein engineering can be an effective method in improving CRISPR-Cas9 toward desired traits different from those of their natural forms. Here, we describe a directed protein evolution method that enables selection of catalytically enhanced CRISPR-Cas9 variants (CECas9) by targeting a shortened protospacer within a toxic gene. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method with a previously characterized Type II-C Cas9 from (AceCas9) and show by enzyme kinetics an up to fourfold improvement of the catalytic efficiency by AceCECas9. Read More

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Role of model organisms and nanocompounds in human health risk assessment.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 20;193(5):285. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova, 16132, Italy.

Safeguarding the environment is one of the most serious modern challenges, as increasing amounts of chemical compounds are produced and released into the environment, causing a serious threat to the future health of the Earth as well as organisms and humans on a global scale. Ecotoxicology is an integrative science involving different physical, chemical, biological, and social aspects concerned with the study of toxic effects caused by natural or synthetic pollutants on any constituents of ecosystems, including animals (including humans), plants, or microorganisms, in an integral context. In recent decades, this science has undergone considerable development by addressing environmental risk assessments through the biomonitoring of indicator species using biomarkers, model organisms, and nanocompounds in toxicological assays. Read More

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Selenomethionine protects hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells against cobalt nanoparticles by stimulating antioxidant actions and DNA repair functions.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 19;13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) can differentiate into all blood lineages to maintain hematopoiesis, wound healing, and immune functions. Recently, cobalt-chromium alloy casting implants have been used extensively in total hip replacements; however, cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) released from the alloy were toxic to HSCs and HPCs. We aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the toxic effect of CoNPs on HSCs/HPCs and to determine the protective effect of selenomethionine (SeMet) against CoNPs and . Read More

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Uptake and assimilation of nitrite in the acidophilic red alga Cyanidium caldarium Geitler.

Amodio Fuggi

New Phytol 1993 Oct;125(2):351-360

Dipartimento di Agrochimica ed Agrobiologia, Facoltà di Agraria, Universita di Reggio Calabria, Piazza S. Francesco, Gallina di Reggio Calabria, 89061 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

The acidophilic red alga, Cyanidium caldarium Geitler, could use nitrite as a nitrogen source for growth, although this compound was very toxic in acidic media. Growth could be sustained when nitrite was added continuously at a rate lower than the maximum rate of nitrite assimilation for the culture. Nitrite assimilation was derepressed in cells growing on nitrate or nitrite, under nitrogen limitation and by nitrogen starvation. Read More

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October 1993

The cell cycle in plant development.

Dennis Francis

New Phytol 1992 Sep;122(1):1-20

School of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff CF1 3TL, UK.

The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular controls of the cell cycle in relation to higher plant development. An analysis is made of the current models of the cell cycle based on the biochemistry and genetics of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. What emerges are universal mechanisms observed in a wide range of taxonomic groups involving a group of protein kinases which regulate the transition from both post-synthetic interphase (G2) to mitosis and from pre-synthetic interphase (G1) to DNA synthetic-(S) phase. Read More

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September 1992


New Phytol 1986 Dec;104(4):621-629

The Botany School, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.

Culture filtrates of Alternaria brassicicola (Schw.) Wilts, were found to be toxic to secondary embryoids of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera (Metzg. Read More

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December 1986

In vitro toxic synergistic effects of exogenous pollutants-trimethylamine and its metabolites on human respiratory tract cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 6;783:146915. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development (Department of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The wide presence of volatile organic amines in atmosphere has been clarified to relate to adverse effects on human respiratory health. However, toxic effects of them on human respiratory tract and their metabiotic mechanism of in vivo transformation have not been elucidated yet. Herein, cell viability and production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) were first investigated during acute exposure of trimethylamine (TMA) to bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE), along with identification of toxic metabolites and metabolic mechanisms of TMA from headspace atmosphere and cell culture. Read More

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In vitro evaluation of loaded chitosan membranes for pain relief and infection prevention.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Wounds resulting from surgeries, implantation of medical devices, and musculoskeletal trauma result in pain and can also result in infection of damaged tissue. Up to 80% of these infections are due to biofilm formation either on the surface of implanted devices or on surrounding wounded tissue. Bacteria within a biofilm have intrinsic growth and development characteristics that allow them to withstand up to 1,000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics, demonstrating the need for new therapeutics to prevent and treat these infections. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of supplemental melatonin for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder in children: an overview.

Sleep Med X 2020 Dec 19;2:100022. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy Department Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD) is the most frequently occurring intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, with the highest prevalence in adolescence. Melatonin is the first-choice drug treatment. However, to date melatonin (in a controlled-release formulation) is only authorised for the treatment of insomnia in children with autism or Smiths-Magenis syndrome. Read More

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December 2020

A Novel Green Approach to Synthesize Curcuminoid-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrids: Adroit Biomaterials for Future Antimicrobial Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 30;6(14):9600-9608. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Soratha Mawatha, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka.

Thermal instability, photodegradation, and poor bioavailability of natural active ingredients are major drawbacks in developing effective natural product-based antimicrobial formulations. These inherited issues could be fruitfully mitigated by the introduction of natural active ingredients into various nanostructures. This study focuses on the development of a novel green mechanochemical synthetic route to incorporate curcuminoids into Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides. Read More

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Role of colony-forming tissue stem cells in the macula flava of the human vocal fold in vivo.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 22;6(2):283-290. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Kurume University School of Medicine Kurume Japan.

Objectives: Our previous investigations showed that tissue stem cells in the maculae flavae (a stem cell niche) form colonies in vivo like stem cells in vitro. However, the roles of colony-forming cells in the maculae flavae in vivo have not yet been determined.This study investigated the metabolism of the colony-forming tissue stem cells in the maculae flavae of the human adult vocal fold. Read More

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In-vitro and in-silico evaluation of the anti-chikungunya potential of leaf extract and their synthesized silver nanoparticles.

Virusdisease 2021 Apr 11:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, (Hr) India.

Chikungunya is a notorious viral infection, which affects a large segment of world populations in absence of vaccines and antivirals. The current study evaluates of anti-chikungunya activities of leaves extract and their green synthesized silver nanoparticles. Green synthesized nanoparticles were well characterized for their size and stability by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their functional groups were analyzed by FTIR. Read More

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Adipose-derived stem cells protect motor neurons and reduce glial activation in both and models of ALS.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 27;21:413-433. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN), Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, The University of Sheffield, 385 Glossop Rd., Sheffield S10 2HQ, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative condition for which new therapeutic options are urgently needed. We injected GFP adipose-derived stem cells (EGFP-ADSCs) directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of transgenic SOD1 mice, a well-characterized model of familial ALS. Despite short-term survival of the injected cells and limited engraftment efficiency, EGFP-ADSCs improved motor function and delayed disease onset by promoting motor neuron (MN) survival and reducing glial activation. Read More

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Acute severe autoimmune hepatitis with anti-rods and rings autoantibodies; literature first evidence.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(1):89-94

Clinical Investigation Laboratory, ASST Bergamo Est, Seriate, Bergamo, Italy.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was defined as a progressive, chronic inflammatory autoimmune liver disease (ALD). The diagnosis of AIH requires the presence of characteristic clinical and laboratory features, and the exclusion of other clinical conditions that cause chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. AIH can have an acute onset that mimics an acute viral or toxic hepatitis or an acute severe (fulminant, ASF) presentation that satisfies criteria for acute liver. Read More

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January 2021

Chimeric CTLA4-CD28-CD3z T Cells Potentiate Antitumor Activity Against CD80/CD86-Positive B Cell Malignancies.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:642528. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells have been recognized as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hematological malignancies; however, clinical success using CAR T cells for the treatment of solid tumors are still limited since the T-cell function is inhibited by negative signals in the microenvironment of solid tumors. CTLA4 is a well-known immune checkpoint molecule, thus we developed a novel CAR by converting this negative signal to positive signal. The CAR developed consists of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CTLA4 and the cytoplasmic domains of CD28 and CD3z (CTLA4-CAR T). Read More

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In Silico Identification of Multi-target Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Peptides from Quinoa Seed Proteins.

Int J Pept Res Ther 2021 Apr 9:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Malaysia.

Peptides are promising antagonists against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To expedite drug discovery, a computational approach is widely employed for the initial screening of anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates. This study aimed to investigate the potential of peptides from quinoa seed proteins as multi-target antagonists against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain, main protease, and papain-like protease. Read More

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Precise engineering of hybrid molecules-loaded macromolecular nanoparticles shows and antitumor efficacy toward the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):776-786

Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Cancers continue to be the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the development and improvement of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in cancer management, effective tumor ablation strategies are still in need due to high cancer patient mortality. Hence, we have established a new approach to achieve treatment-actuated modifications in a tumor microenvironment by using synergistic activity between two potential anticancer drugs. Read More

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December 2021

Non-phosphorylated Tau slows down Aβ aggregation, binds to Aβ oligomers and reduces Aβ toxicity.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 15:100664. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The formation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques accompanies the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tangles are made of fibrillar aggregates formed by the microtubule-associated protein tau, while plaques comprise fibrillar forms of amyloid-β (Aβ). Both form toxic oligomers during aggregation, and are thought to interact synergistically to each promote the accumulation of the other. Read More

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Dynamic modelling of tetrazolium-based microbial toxicity assay-a parametric proxy of traditional dose-response relationship.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biotechnology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641114, India.

Microbial toxicity of test substances in tetrazolium assay is often quantified while referring to their IC values. However, the implication of such an estimate is very limited and can differ across studies depending on prevailing test conditions. In this work, a factorial design-based end-point microbial toxicity assay was performed, which suggests a significant interaction (P= 0. Read More

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BPA and BPA alternatives BPS, BPAF, and TMBPF, induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in rat and human stem cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 15;216:112210. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Saint Mary's College of California, Department of Biology, Moraga, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical found in everyday plastic products and materials. Due to scientific findings on the reproductive, developmental, and cellular defects caused by BPA and heightened public awareness, manufacturers have begun to use new chemicals in place of BPA in "BPA-free" products. These alternatives are chemical analogs of BPA and include dozens of new compounds that have undergone relatively little testing and oversight, including: bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and the recently developed tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF; the monomer of valPure V70). Read More

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Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of oleanolic acid saponins bearing an acetylated l-arabinose moiety.

Carbohydr Res 2021 Apr 14;503:108311. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China. Electronic address:

A series of oleanolic acid derivatives bearing acetyl-substituted l-arabinose moiety has been synthesized and screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against ten cancer cell lines and four normal cell lines. The antiproliferative evaluation indicated that synthetic derivatives showed excellent selectivity, as they were toxic against only A431 cell line. Among them, the compound 6 possesses the best inhibitory activity. Read More

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The selective cytotoxicity of silver thiosulfate, a silver complex, on MCF-7 breast cancer cells through ROS-induced cell death.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan.

Background: Silver is a transition metal that is known to be less toxic than platinum. However, only few studies have reported the anticancer effects of some silver complexes and their possibility as an alternative to platinum complex. This study investigated the anticancer effects of the silver thiosulfate complex (STS), [Ag(SO)], consisting of silver and sodium thiosulfate. Read More

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An α-synuclein decoy peptide prevents cytotoxic α-synuclein aggregation caused by fatty acid binding protein 3.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 13:100663. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering/Graduate School of Engineering,; Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Science,; Center for Research on Green Sustainable Chemistry, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552, Japan. Electronic address:

α-synuclein (αSyn) is a protein known to form intracellular aggregates during the manifestation of Parkinson's disease. Previously, it was shown that αSyn aggregation was strongly suppressed in the midbrain region of mice that did not possess the gene encoding the lipid transport protein fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3). An interaction between these two proteins was detected in vitro, suggesting that FABP3 may play a role in the aggregation and deposition of αSyn in neurons. Read More

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Near-Infrared-Active Copper Molybdenum Sulfide Nanocubes for Phonon-Mediated Clearance of Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Aggregates.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 335 Science Road, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Ternary chalcogenide materials have attracted significant interest in recent years because of their unique physicochemical and optoelectronic properties without relying on precious metals, rare earth metals, or toxic elements. Copper molybdenum sulfide (CuMoS, CMS) nanocube is a biocompatible ternary chalcogenide nanomaterial that exhibits near-infrared (NIR) photocatalytic activity based on its low band gap and electron-phonon coupling property. Here, we study the efficacy of CMS nanocubes for dissociating neurotoxic Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates under NIR light. Read More

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Discovery of a Highly Selective and Potent TRPC3 Inhibitor with High Metabolic Stability and Low Toxicity.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 5;12(4):572-578. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, United States.

The overactivation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and hypertension. Pyrazole 3 (Pyr3) is reported as the most selective TRPC3 inhibitor, but it has two inherent structural limitations: (1) the labile ester moiety leads to its rapid hydrolysis to the inactive Pyr8 , and (2) the alkylating trichloroacrylic amide moiety is known to be toxic. To circumvent these limitations, we designed a series of conformationally restricted Pyr3 analogues and reported that compound maintains high potency and selectivity for human TRPC3 over its closely related TRP channels. Read More

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