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The pharmacodynamics of minocycline alone and in combination with rifampicin against Staphylococcus aureus studied in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model of infection.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Bristol Centre for Antimicrobial Research & Evaluation (BCARE), North Bristol NHS Trust, Department of Infection Sciences, Pathology Sciences Building-Phase 2, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK.

Background: Tetracyclines are widely used as oral therapy of MRSA infection, however, the pharmacodynamic underpinning is absent.

Objectives: We employed an in vitro pharmacokinetic model to study the pharmacodynamics of minocycline alone and in combination with rifampicin.

Methods: An exposure-ranging design was used to establish fAUC/MIC targets for static, -1 log drop and -2 log drop effects against Staphylococcus aureus for minocycline and in combination with rifampicin. Read More

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Evaluation of CVC1302 for Improved Efficacy of FMD-Inactivated Vaccine in Oxidative Stressed Mice Generated with PCV2 Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Research Center of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

This study aimed to explore the effect of the immunopotentiator CVC1302 on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in animals placed under oxidative stress. We established oxidative stress models using porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-infected PK-15 cells and mice model both and , respectively. The efficacy of CVC1302 on PK-15 cells or in addition to the FMD vaccine was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histopathological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Read More

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A Novel in Vitro and in Silico System for Analysing Complex Mechanobiological Behaviour of Chondrocytes in 3D Hydrogel Constructs.

J Biomech Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Physiological loading is essential for the maintenance of articular cartilage through regulation of tissue remodelling. To correctly understand the behaviour of chondrocytes in their native environment, cell stimulating devices/bioreactors have been developed to examine the effect of mechanical stimuli on chondrocytes. This study describes the design and validation of a novel system for analysing chondrocyte deformation patterns. Read More

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Rifampicin and Letermovir as potential repurposed drug candidate for COVID-19 treatment: insights from an in-silico study.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, 201310, India.

Introduction: Drug repurposing is the need of the hour considering the medical emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, cytokine storm by the host immune system has been linked with high viral load, loss of lung function, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure, and subsequent fatal outcome.

Objective: This study aimed to identify potential FDA approved drugs that can be repurposed for COVID-19 treatment using an in-silico analysis. Read More

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Immuno-Isolating Dual Poly(ethylene glycol) Capsule Prevents Cancer Cells from Spreading Following Mouse Ovarian Tissue Auto-Transplantation.

Regen Med Front 2019 16;2019(1). Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

For female cancer survivors, premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common complication of anticancer treatments. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation before treatment, followed by auto-transplantation after remission is a promising option to restore fertility and ovarian endocrine function. However, auto-transplantation is associated with the risk of re-introducing malignant cells harbored in the stroma of the ovarian autograft. Read More

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September 2019

Zika Virus Infection of Human Iris Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:644153. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Precision Medicine Theme, South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

During recent Zika epidemics, adults infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) have developed organ-specific inflammatory complications. The most serious Zika-associated inflammatory eye disease is uveitis, which is commonly anterior in type, affecting both eyes and responding to corticosteroid eye drops. Mechanisms of Zika-associated anterior uveitis are unknown, but ZIKV has been identified in the aqueous humor of affected individuals. Read More

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An Improved 2-Aminoimidazole Based Anti-Biofilm Coating for Orthopedic Implants: Activity, Stability, and Biocompatibility.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:658521. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Orthopedic device-related infections remain a serious challenge to treat. Central to these infections are bacterial biofilms that form on the orthopedic implant itself. These biofilms shield the bacteria from the host immune system and most common antibiotic drugs, which renders them essentially antibiotic-tolerant. Read More

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Surface porous poly-ether-ether-ketone based on three-dimensional printing for load-bearing orthopedic implant.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 May 4;120:104561. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150080, China.

Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent biocompatibility and similar elastic modulus as bones but yet suffers from poor osseointegration. In order to balance PEEK's mechanical and osseointegration properties, a novel surface porous PEEK (SP-PEEK) is successfully fabricated by fused deposition modelling three-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) and characterized by mechanical and osteogenesis in vitro tests. Moreover, the effects of pore diameter and pore layer number on the mechanical behaviors of SP-PEEK are investigated by theoretical model and numerical simulation. Read More

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Development of paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite core-shell nanoparticles as a stimuli-responsive drug delivery system.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):202030. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.

Biodegradable nanoparticles have been well studied as biocompatible delivery systems. Nanoparticles of less than 200 nm in size can facilitate the passive targeting of drugs to tumour tissues and their accumulation therein via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Recent studies have focused on stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) for improving the effectiveness of chemotherapy; for example, pH-sensitive DDS depend on the weakly acidic and neutral extracellular pH of tumour and normal tissues, respectively. Read More

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Antimicrobial effectiveness of wound matrices containing native extracellular matrix with polyhexamethylene biguanide.

Int Wound J 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Organogenesis Inc., Canton, Massachusetts, USA.

A variety of wound matrix materials that are designed to help heal both acute and chronic wounds are currently available. Because wounds often encounter opportunistic microbes that can delay healing, the effectiveness of these materials is often suboptimal, resulting in delayed or compromised wound healing. The importance of reducing and controlling wound microbes is well recognised and there are several antimicrobial options available to address this unmet clinical need. Read More

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Sagittal reduction of spinal deformity: superior versus lateral screw-rod connection.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Aix-Marseille Université, APHM, CNRS, ISM, CHU Timone, Unité de chirurgie rachidienne, 264 rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction Spinal malalignment can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. Various sagittal parameters are used as realignment goals; however, about 50% of patients end up being under-corrected postoperatively. To improve the correction, prebent rods are available with a radius of curvature corresponding to the patient's "ideal" sagittal alignment. Read More

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Antibacterial application of gentamicin-silk protein coating with smart release function on titanium, polyethylene, and AlO materials.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 26;124:112069. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Peri-implant infection after hip and knee arthroplasty is a common and serious complication. Titanium (Ti), polyethylene (PE), and AlO materials used as joint prosthesis materials have good biocompatibility and mechanical strength but no antibacterial effect. This study aimed to provide a theoretical basis for the design and manufacture of joint prosthesis materials with antibacterial effect. Read More

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Mitochondria-targeted high-load sound-sensitive micelles for sonodynamic therapy to treat triple-negative breast cancer and inhibit metastasis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 25;124:112054. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Life Science, Institute of Engineering Medicine, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, of which 10-20% accounts for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is more aggressive, lacks an effective treatment target, and has a higher metastasis rate compared to other types of breast cancers. These characteristics result in poor therapeutic and prognostic outcomes in patients with TNBC. Read More

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Antimicrobial Power of Organic Acids and Nature-Identical Compounds against Two spp.: An In Vitro Study.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 29;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

DIMEVET, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.

Vibrosis is one of the major threats in aquaculture farming, and due to the increasing antimicrobial resistance of different species, there is an urgent need to replace conventional treatments with more sustainable solutions. Antimicrobial molecules such as organic acids (OA) and nature-identical compounds (NIC) are currently finding a central role in the infection management of terrestrial livestock, but little is known about their usage in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary screening of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of a wide panel of OA and NIC against 2 species characteristic of the Mediterranean area, and , through minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration tests. Read More

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ATRX Alteration Contributes to Tumor Growth and Immune Escape in Pleomorphic Sarcomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

INSERM U1037, Cancer Research Center in Toulouse (CRCT), OncoSarc, 31000 Toulouse, France.

Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of a cohort of 67 leiomyosarcomas has been revealed to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in leiomyosarcomas after and . While its function is well described in the alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism, we wondered whether its alteration could have complementary effects on sarcoma oncogenesis. alteration is associated with the down-expression of genes linked to differentiation in leiomyosarcomas, and to immunity in an additional cohort of 60 poorly differentiated pleomorphic sarcomas. Read More

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Collagen fibre-mediated mechanical damage increases calcification of bovine pericardium for use in bioprosthetic heart valves.

Acta Biomater 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

In cases of aortic stenosis, bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), with glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium leaflets (GLBP), are often implanted to replace the native diseased valve. Widespread use of BHVs, however, is restricted due to inadequate long-term durability, owing specifically to premature leaflet failure. Mechanical fatigue damage and calcification remain the primary leaflet failure modes, where glutaraldehyde treatment is known to accelerate calcification. Read More

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Nitric-oxide releasing chitosan nanoparticles towards effective treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Nitric Oxide 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Lasers and Applications, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, CEP 05508-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem caused by Leishmania parasites that produce destructive and disfiguring skin conditions. There is an urgent need for alternative topical therapies due to the limitations of current systemic treatments. Recently, we have synthesized nitric oxide-releasing chitosan nanoparticles (NONPs) and shown their potential in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis. Read More

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Effective screening strategies for detection of asymptomatic COVID-19 travelers at airport quarantine stations: Exploratory findings in Japan.

Glob Health Med 2021 Apr;3(2):107-111

Bureau of International Health Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method using nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS RT-qPCR) is regarded as the reference standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, when using NPS RT-qPCR at busy airport quarantine stations, there are constraints on testing capacity, time, travelerstolerance, and availability of personal protective equipment for quarantine officers. A feasible alternative is therefore needed to test incoming travelers, especially when passenger numbers increase with the resumption of business, tourism, and economic activities. Read More

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Effect of virtual cement gap settings on the marginal fit of cemented resin-ceramic crowns on implant abutments.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 May;125(5):804.e1-804.e6

Lecturer, Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt.

Statement Of Problem: Agreement on the perfect virtual cement space value for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) implant-supported resin-ceramic crowns with the best marginal adaptation is lacking. The range of cement gap settings in some CAD design software programs is wide (0 to 200 μm), and manufacturer recommendations regarding the best cement gap setting for certain types of ceramics is not specific.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of virtual cement gap settings on the marginal fit of cemented resin-ceramic crowns on implant abutments. Read More

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Quantifying supraspinatus tendon responses to exposures emulative of human physiological levels in an animal model.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 25;122:110476. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo Canada. Electronic address:

Rotator cuff pathology typically originates in the supraspinatus tendon, but uncertainty exists on how combinations of glenohumeral elevation angle and load intensity influence responses of the intact, functional supraspinatus unit. This study exposed the supraspinatus tendon to mechanical loading scenarios emulative of derived muscle force and postural conditions measured in vivo to document its responses. Right shoulders from 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were placed into one of eight testing groups combining glenohumeral elevation angles (0/30/60/75°) and a high or low load intensity for 1500 cycles at 0. Read More

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Artesunate restores the levels of inhibitory synapse proteins and reduces amyloid-β and C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of the amyloid precursor protein in an AD-mouse model.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 30;113:103624. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia, characterized histopathologically by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is a major component of amyloid plaques and is released together with carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic cleavage, thought to contribute to synapse dysfunction and loss along the progression of AD. Artemisinins, primarily antimalarial drugs, reduce neuroinflammation and improve cognitive capabilities in mouse models of AD. Read More

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Increased dietary availability of selenium in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) improves its plasma antioxidant capacity and resistance to infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

Vet Res 2021 May 1;52(1):64. Epub 2021 May 1.

Laboratorio de Genómica y Genética de Interacciones Biológicas (LG2IB), Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimento, Universidad de Chile, El Líbano, Macul, 5524, Santiago, Chile.

Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS), caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, is the most important infectious disease in the Chilean salmon farming industry. An opportunity to control this disease is to use functional micronutrients to modulate host mechanisms of response to the infection. Since P. Read More

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Efficacy of Spironolactone Treatment in Murine Models of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:636265. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratorio de Bioquímica de Tripanosomatídeos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Translational studies involving the reuse and association of drugs are approaches that can result in higher success rates in the discovery and development of drugs for serious public health problems, including leishmaniasis. If we consider the number of pathogenic species in relation to therapeutic options, this arsenal is still small, and each drug possesses a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. In the search for new drugs, we performed a drug screening of promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of fifty available drugs belonging to several classes according to their pharmacophoric group. Read More

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Experimental study exploring the factors that promote rib fragility in the elderly.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9307. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Trauma Research Centre Ulm, University of Ulm, Helmholtzstraße 14, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Rib fractures represent a common injury type due to blunt chest trauma, affecting hospital stay and mortality especially in elderly patients. Factors promoting rib fragility, however, are little investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to explore potential determinants of human rib fragility in the elderly. Read More

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Identification and Validation of Nutrient State-Dependent Serum Protein Mediators of Human CD4 T Cell Responsiveness.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Mitochondrial Biology and Metabolism, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Intermittent fasting and fasting mimetic diets ameliorate inflammation. Similarly, serum extracted from fasted healthy and asthmatic subjects' blunt inflammation in vitro, implicating serum components in this immunomodulation. To identify the proteins orchestrating these effects, SOMAScan technology was employed to evaluate serum protein levels in healthy subjects following an overnight, 24-h fast and 3 h after refeeding. Read More

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Fracture Load of CAD/CAM Fabricated Cantilever Implant-Supported Zirconia Framework: An In Vitro Study.

Molecules 2021 Apr 13;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.

The fracture resistance of computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing CAD/CAM fabricated implant-supported cantilever zirconia frameworks (ISCZFs) is affected by the size/dimension and the micro cracks produced from diamond burs during the milling process. The present in vitro study investigated the fracture load for different cross-sectional dimensions of connector sites of implant-supported cantilever zirconia frameworks (ISCZFs) with different cantilever lengths (load point). A total of 48 ISCZFs (Cercon, Degudent; Dentsply, Deutschland, Germany) were fabricated by CAD/CAM and divided into four groups based on cantilever length and reinforcement of distal-abutment: Group A: 9 mm cantilever; Group B: 9 mm cantilever with reinforced distal-abutment; Group C: 12 mm cantilever; Group D: 12 mm cantilever with reinforced distal-abutment ( = 12). Read More

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Comparative Study of Two Insulinlike Proteases in .

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 16;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China.

is a common protozoan pathogen responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in humans and animals. The small genome of has 22 genes encoding insulinlike proteases (INS) with diverse sequences, suggesting that members of the protein family may have different biological functions in the life cycle. In this study, two members of the INS family, CpINS-4 and CpINS-6 with the Zn-binding motif "HXXEH" but different numbers of function domains, were expressed in and used in the generation of polyclonal antibodies. Read More

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Preliminary In Vitro Wear Assessment of Ceramic Cemented Femoral Components Coupled with Polyethylene Menisci.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Dell'Innovazione, Università del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Success of total knee replacement (TKR) depends on the prosthetic design and materials. The use of metal components is well established with the disadvantage of allergic reactions. Ceramics have been recently proposed because of high wear resistance, excellent biocompatibility, wettability, and suitable mechanical properties. Read More

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Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of 3D8, a Nucleic Acid-Hydrolyzing Single-Chain Variable Fragment (scFv), Targeting SARS-CoV-2 and Multiple Coronaviruses In Vitro.

Viruses 2021 04 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.

The virus behind the current pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the etiology of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and poses a critical public health threat worldwide. Effective therapeutics and vaccines against multiple coronaviruses remain unavailable. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv), a recombinant antibody, exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses owing to its nucleic acid-hydrolyzing property. Read More

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Direct 3D Printing of Clear Orthodontic Aligners: Current State and Future Possibilities.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Milan, 20100 Milan, Italy.

The recent introduction of three-dimensional (3D) printing is revolutionizing dentistry and is even being applied to orthodontic treatment of malocclusion. Clear, personalized, removable aligners are a suitable alternative to conventional orthodontic appliances, offering a more comfortable and efficient solution for patients. Including improved oral hygiene and aesthetics during treatment. Read More

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