19,695 results match your criteria visual object

Approach trajectory and solar position affect host plant attractiveness to the small white butterfly.

Vision Res 2021 Jun 11;186:140-149. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

While it is well documented that insects exploit polarized sky light for navigation, their use of reflected polarized light for object detection has been less well studied. Recently, we have shown that the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, distinguishes between host and non-host plants based on the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) of light reflected from their leaves. To determine how polarized light cues affect host plant foraging by female P. Read More

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Neuromorphic Time-Multiplexed Reservoir Computing With On-the-Fly Weight Generation for Edge Devices.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The human brain has evolved to perform complex and computationally expensive cognitive tasks, such as audio-visual perception and object detection, with ease. For instance, the brain can recognize speech in different dialects and perform other cognitive tasks, such as attention, memory, and motor control, with just 20 W of power consumption. Taking inspiration from neural systems, we propose a low-power neuromorphic hardware architecture to perform classification on temporal data at the edge. Read More

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Top-down and bottom-up guidance in normal aging during scene search.

Psychol Aging 2021 Jun;36(4):433-451

School of Psychology.

Age-related differences in visual search have been extensively studied using simple item arrays, showing an attentional decline. Little is known about how aging affects attentional guidance during search in more complex scenes. To study this issue, we analyzed eye-movement behavior in realistic scene search. Read More

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Cortical connectivity in the face of congenital structural changes-A case of homozygous LAMC3 mutation.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

A.S. Brain Research Center and National Magnetic Resonance Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

The homozygous LAMC3 gene mutation is associated with severe bilateral smoothening and thickening of the lateral occipital cortex . Despite this and further significant changes in gray matter structure, a patient harboring this mutation exhibited a range of remarkably intact perceptual abilities . One possible explanation of this perceptual sparing could be that the white matter structural integrity and functional connectivity in relevant pathways remained intact. Read More

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Monocular Diplopia in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 4;8(5):002509. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostomatology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

Background: Diplopia is the double vision of a single object, and can be binocular or monocular. Binocular diplopia is caused by the misalignment of the visual axes, with images falling on the fovea of the fixating eye and on the extra-foveal retina of the non-fixating eye, as a consequence of both neurological (i.e. Read More

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Object-Gaze Distance: Quantifying Near- Peripheral Gaze Behavior in Real-World Applications.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 May 19;14(1). Epub 2021 May 19.

ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Eye tracking (ET) has shown to reveal the wearer's cognitive processes using the measurement of the central point of foveal vision. However, traditional ET evaluation methods have not been able to take into account the wearers' use of the peripheral field of vision. We propose an algorithmic enhancement to a state-of-the-art ET analysis method, the Object- Gaze Distance (OGD), which additionally allows the quantification of near-peripheral gaze behavior in complex real-world environments. Read More

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Beyond the tracked line of sight - Evaluation of the peripheral usable field of view in a simulator setting.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 Apr 26;12(3). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen, Germany.

Combining advanced gaze tracking systems with the latest vehicle environment sensors opens up new fields of applications for driver assistance. Gaze tracking enables researchers to determine the location of a fixation, and under consideration of the visual saliency of the scene, to predict visual perception of objects. The perceptual limits, for stimulus identification, found in literature have mostly been determined in laboratory conditions using isolated stimuli, with a fixed gaze point, on a single screen with limited coverage of the field of view. Read More

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Eye movements in real and simulated driving and navigation control - Foreword to the Special Issue.

J Eye Mov Res 2021 Jun 3;12(3). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The control of technological systems by human operators has been the object of study for many decades. The increasing complexity in the digital age has made the optimization of the interaction between system and human operator particularly necessary. In the present thematic issue, ten exemplary articles are presented, ranging from observational field studies to experimental work in highly complex navigation simulators. Read More

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A Rose by Any Other Verb: The Effect of Expectations and Word Category on Processing Effort in Situated Sentence Comprehension.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:661898. Epub 2021 May 28.

Language Science and Technology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Recent work has shown that linguistic and visual contexts jointly modulate linguistic expectancy and, thus, the processing effort for a (more or less) expected critical word. According to these findings, uncertainty about the upcoming referent in a visually-situated sentence can be reduced by exploiting the selectional restrictions of a preceding word (e.g. Read More

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Appreciation of Art as a Perception : Introducing Richir's Concept of "Perceptive" .

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:576608. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Philosophy, Institut für Transzendentalphilosophie und Phänomenologie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

In the , Heidegger claimed that the work of art opens to us the , the opening of the world. Two problematics arise from this. First, his idea of "world-disclosure" evoked a sense of (which captures, for me, the idea of credulism in perception). Read More

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Attribute Amnesia in the Auditory Domain.

Perception 2021 Jun 13:3010066211022175. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Individuals are often unable to report an attribute of an object to which they recently attended, if they expected to report a different attribute, a phenomenon known as attribute amnesia (AA). To date, all AA studies have occurred in the visual domain. The purpose of this study was to explore the boundary conditions of AA by testing if AA also occurs in the auditory domain and, if so, for which attributes. Read More

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Object expectations alter information use during visual recognition.

Cognition 2021 Jun 9;214:104803. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Prior expectations influence how we perceive and recognize objects. However, how they do so remains unclear, especially in the case of real-world complex objects. Expectations of objects may affect which features are used to recognize them subsequently. Read More

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Cognitive load influences oculomotor behavior in natural scenes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12405. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Psychology Department, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, USA.

Cognitive neuroscience researchers have identified relationships between cognitive load and eye movement behavior that are consistent with oculomotor biomarkers for neurological disorders. We develop an adaptive visual search paradigm that manipulates task difficulty and examine the effect of cognitive load on oculomotor behavior in healthy young adults. Participants (N = 30) free-viewed a sequence of 100 natural scenes for 10 s each, while their eye movements were recorded. Read More

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Effects of stereopsis on vection, presence and cybersickness in head-mounted display (HMD) virtual reality.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12373. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Kensington, Australia.

Stereopsis provides critical information for the spatial visual perception of object form and motion. We used virtual reality as a tool to understand the role of global stereopsis in the visual perception of self-motion and spatial presence using virtual environments experienced through head-mounted displays (HMDs). Participants viewed radially expanding optic flow simulating different speeds of self-motion in depth, which generated the illusion of self-motion in depth (i. Read More

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Memory for Surface Objects in an Arena by the Horse (Equus ferus caballus) Under Saddle: Evidence for Dual Process Theory of Spatial Representation.

Behav Processes 2021 Jun 8:104442. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Canada.

Place memory, the ability to remember locations, is a feature of many animal species. This episodic-like memory is displayed in the foraging behavior of animals and has been studied in many different kinds of laboratory spatial tasks. A horse stallion, Equus ferus caballus, will create "dung-heaps or stud-piles" by defecation in the same place suggesting that the behavior is central to spatial behavior but to date there has been little investigation of horse olfactory/spatial behavior. Read More

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Structural connectivity differs between males and females in the brain object manipulation network.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253273. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Korea Brain Bank, Korea Brain Research Institute, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Object control skills are one of the most important abilities in daily life. Knowledge of object manipulation is an essential factor in improving object control skills. Although males and females equally try to use object manipulation knowledge, their object control abilities often differ. Read More

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Visual and movement memories steer foraging bumblebees along habitual routes.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 11;224(11). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurobiology and Cognitive Interaction Technology Center of Excellence (CITEC) , Bielefeld University, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany.

One persistent question in animal navigation is how animals follow habitual routes between their home and a food source. Our current understanding of insect navigation suggests an interplay between visual memories, collision avoidance and path integration, the continuous integration of distance and direction travelled. However, these behavioural modules have to be continuously updated with instantaneous visual information. Read More

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Unsupervised changes in core object recognition behavior are predicted by neural plasticity in inferior temporal cortex.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, United States.

Temporal continuity of object identity is a feature of natural visual input, and is potentially exploited -- in an unsupervised manner -- by the ventral visual stream to build the neural representation in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. Here we investigated whether plasticity of individual IT neurons underlies human core-object-recognition behavioral changes induced with unsupervised visual experience. We built a single-neuron plasticity model combined with a previously established IT population-to-recognition-behavior linking model to predict human learning effects. Read More

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A Turntable Setup for Testing Visual and Tactile Grasping Movements in Non-human Primates.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 25;15:648483. Epub 2021 May 25.

Neuroscience Laboratory, Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH, Göttingen, Germany.

Grasping movements are some of the most common movements primates do every day. They are important for social interactions as well as picking up objects or food. Usually, these grasping movements are guided by vision but proprioceptive and haptic inputs contribute greatly. Read More

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Translational and Rotational Arrow Cues (TRAC) Navigation Method for Manual Alignment Tasks.

ACM Trans Appl Percept 2020 Mar 10;17(1):1-19. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

University of Utah.

Many tasks in image-guided surgery require a clinician to manually position an instrument in space, with respect to a patient, with five or six degrees of freedom (DOF). Displaying the current and desired pose of the object on a 2D display such as a computer monitor is straightforward. However, providing guidance to accurately and rapidly navigate the object in 5-DOF or 6-DOF is challenging. Read More

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HTS-based discovery and optimization of novel positive allosteric modulators of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 29;222:113560. Epub 2021 May 29.

Pharmacological and Drug Safety Research, Gedeon Richter Plc., Budapest, Hungary.

HTS campaign of the corporate compound collection resulted in a novel, oxalic acid diamide scaffold of α7 nACh receptor positive allosteric modulators. During the hit expansion, several derivatives, such as 4, 11, 17 demonstrated not only high in vitro potency, but also in vivo efficacy in the mouse place recognition test. The advanced hit molecule 11 was further optimized by the elimination of the putatively mutagenic aromatic-amine building block that resulted in a novel, aminomethylindole compound family. Read More

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Frontal cortical regions associated with attention connect more strongly to central than peripheral V1.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 7;238:118246. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

The functionality of central vision is different from peripheral vision. Central vision is used for fixation and has higher acuity, making it useful for everyday activities such as reading and object identification. The central and peripheral representations in primary visual cortex (V1) also differ in how higher-order processing areas modulate their responses. Read More

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Objects that direct visuospatial attention produce the search advantage for facing dyads.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

When hidden among pairs of individuals facing in the same direction, pairs of individuals arranged front-to-front are found faster in visual search tasks than pairs of individuals arranged back-to-back. Two rival explanations have been advanced to explain this search advantage for facing dyads. According to one account, the search advantage reflects the fact that front-to-front targets engage domain-specific social interaction processing that helps stimuli compete more effectively for limited attentional resources. Read More

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Visual perception and camouflage response to 3D backgrounds and cast shadows in the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 10;224(11). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Biology , University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

To conceal themselves on the seafloor, European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, express a large repertoire of body patterns. Scenes with 3D relief are especially challenging because it is not possible either to directly recover visual depth from the 2D retinal image or for the cuttlefish to alter its body shape to resemble nearby objects. Here, we characterised cuttlefish camouflage responses to 3D relief, and to cast shadows, which are complementary depth cues. Read More

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Comparison of Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery and Conventional Phacoemulsification in Shallow Anterior Chambers and Glaucoma.

J Ophthalmol 2020 16;2020:3690528. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning 530021, Guangxi, China.

Purpose: To compare femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification in shallow anterior chamber cataract patients with glaucoma or zonulysis.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective review of cataract surgeries in shallow anterior chamber and glaucoma patients between January 2016 and December 2018 in which a LenSx femtosecond laser was used. The outcome measures included pre- and postoperative uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density (ECD), endothelial cell loss (ECL), and object scatter index (OSI). Read More

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November 2020

[Early clinical efficacy analysis of personalized three-dimensional printing talus prosthesis in the treatment of collapse talus necrosis].

Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;59(6):470-476

Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Center, the First Affiliated Hospital to Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

To examine the preliminary clinical efficacy of custom-made three-dimensional(3D) printed talus prosthesis in the treatment of collapse talus necrosis. The clinical data of 8 patients who received 3D printed custom-made talus prostheses replacement for severe collapsed necrosis of the talus at the Orthopaedic Sports Medical Center, the First Affiliated Hospital to Army Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.All patients were male,with an average age of 38. Read More

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Semantic congruency effects of prime words on tool visual exploration.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 5;152:105758. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, Suor Orsola Benincasa University, Naples, Italy.

Most recent research on human tool use highlighted how people might integrate multiple sources of information through different neurocognitive systems to exploit the environment for action. This mechanism of integration is known as "action reappraisal". In the present eye-tracking study, we further tested the action reappraisal idea by devising a word-priming paradigm to investigate how semantically congruent (e. Read More

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Distinct patterns of hippocampal activity associated with color and spatial source memory.

Hippocampus 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA.

The hippocampus is known to be involved in source memory across a wide variety of stimuli and source types. Thus, source memory activity in the hippocampus is thought to be domain-general such that different types of source information are similarly processed in the hippocampus. However, there is some evidence of domain-specificity for spatial and temporal source information. Read More

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Multiple adjoining word- and face-selective regions in ventral temporal cortex exhibit distinct dynamics.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

The map of category-selectivity in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) provides organizational constraints to models of object recognition. One important principle is lateral-medial response biases to stimuli that are typically viewed in the center or periphery of the visual field. However, little is known about the relative temporal dynamics and location of regions that respond preferentially to stimulus classes that are centrally viewed, like the face- and word-processing networks. Read More

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To look or not to look: dissociating presaccadic and covert spatial attention.

Trends Neurosci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Attention is a central neural process that enables selective and efficient processing of visual information. Individuals can attend to specific visual information either overtly, by making an eye movement to an object of interest, or covertly, without moving their eyes. We review behavioral, neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and computational evidence of presaccadic attentional modulations that occur while preparing saccadic eye movements, and highlight their differences from those of covert spatial endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (involuntary) attention. Read More

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