32,742 results match your criteria visual areas

In vivo method to evaluate antioxidative activity using UVA-induced carbonylated protein on human skin.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.

Background: Skin is continuously exposed to oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the ultraviolet (UV) light, and it is important to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Carbonylated proteins (CPs) are candidate markers of oxidative modification as a result from the ROS. We aimed to develop the CPs based method to assess the efficacy of antioxidants in human skin. Read More

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Hierarchy in sensory processing reflected by innervation balance on cortical interneurons.

Sci Adv 2021 May 14;7(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Brain Science of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

Sensory processing is subjected to modulation by behavioral contexts that are often mediated by long-range inputs to cortical interneurons, but their selectivity to different types of interneurons remains largely unknown. Using rabies-virus tracing and optogenetics-assisted recording, we analyzed the long-range connections to various brain regions along the hierarchy of visual processing, including primary visual cortex, medial association cortices, and frontal cortices. We found that hierarchical corticocortical and thalamocortical connectivity is reflected by the relative weights of inputs to parvalbumin-positive (PV) and vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive (VIP) neurons within the conserved local circuit motif, with bottom-up and top-down inputs preferring PV and VIP neurons, respectively. Read More

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Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Versus Kyphoplasty for Thoracolumbar Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures in Patients with Distant Lumbosacral Pain.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):E349-E356

Department of Spinal Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: In clinical practice, we have found that the pain caused by thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) is sometimes not limited to the level of the fractured vertebrae but instead occurs in areas far away from the injured vertebrae, such as the lower back, area surrounding the iliac crest, or buttocks, and this type of pain is known as distant lumbosacral pain. The pathogenesis of pain in distant regions caused by thoracolumbar OVCF remains unclear.

Objectives: To compare the clinical efficacy and imaging outcomes of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of distant lumbosacral pain accompanied by thoracolumbar OVCF and to explore the possible pathogenesis of distant lumbosacral pain caused by thoracolumbar OVCF. Read More

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Contributions of the Monkey Inferior Temporal Areas TE and TEO to Visual Categorization.

Cereb Cortex 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The ability to categorize images is thought to depend on neural processing within the ventral visual stream. Recently, we reported that after removal of architectonic area TE, the terminal region of the ventral stream, monkeys were still able to categorize images as cats or dogs moderately well. Here, we investigate the contribution of TEO, the architectonically defined region located one step earlier than area TE in the ventral stream. Read More

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Convolutional Neural Network to Stratify the Malignancy Risk of Thyroid Nodules: Diagnostic Performance Compared with the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Implemented by Experienced Radiologists.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

From the Department of Radiology (G.R.K., J.H.Y., V.Y.P., J.Y.K.), Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Center for Clinical Imaging Data Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Background And Purpose: Comparison of the diagnostic performance for thyroid cancer on ultrasound between a convolutional neural network and visual assessment by radiologists has been inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the convolutional neural network compared with the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer using ultrasound images.

Materials And Methods: From March 2019 to September 2019, seven hundred sixty thyroid nodules (≥10 mm) in 757 patients were diagnosed as benign or malignant through fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, or an operation. Read More

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Differences between the child and adult brain in the local functional structure of the cerebral cortex.

Neuroimage 2021 May 10:118150. Epub 2021 May 10.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Imaging studies on neuronal network formation provide relevant information as to how the brain matures during adolescence. We used a novel imaging approach combining well-established MRI measures of local functional connectivity that jointly provide qualitatively different information relating to the functional structure of the cerebral cortex. To investigate the adolescent transition into adulthood, we comparatively assessed 169 preadolescents aged 8-12 years and 121 healthy adults. Read More

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How Academic Medical Centers Can Navigate the Pandemic and its Aftermath: Solutions for Three Major Issues.

Acad Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

B.F. Godley is Adjunct Professor, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Texas, Medical Branch. T.J. Lawley is William P. Timmie Professor of Dermatology and Former Dean at Emory School of Medicine. A. Rubenstein is Professor in the Department of Medicine and the Division of Endocrinology and Former Dean and Executive Vice President at the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. P.A. Pizzo is the David and Susan Heckerman Professor of Pediatrics and of Microbiology and Immunology at Stanford and Former Dean, School of Medicine and Founding Director of the Stanford Distinguished Careers Institute, Stanford University; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1000-6516.

The COVID-19 crisis has seriously affected academic medical centers (AMCs) on multiple levels. Combined with many trends that were already under way pre-pandemic, the current situation has generated significant disruption and underscored the need for change within and across AMCs. In this article, the authors explore some of the major issues and propose actionable solutions in 3 areas of concentration. Read More

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Factors related to the onset and recurrence of flares in hidradenitis suppurativa patients treated with adalimumab.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Dermatology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is characterized by periodic worsening of symptoms. However, clinical parameters associated with flare are still to be established. The aim was too investigate factors associated with flare outbreak in HS patients in treatment with adalimumab. Read More

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Fundus albipunctatus photoreceptor microstructure revealed using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 16;22:101090. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, Department of Ophthalmology, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Fundus albipunctatus is an inherited cause of congenital stationary night blindness. The objective of this report is to describe structural changes occurring in a macular phenotype of a novel RDH5 mutation producing fundus albipunctatus using high-resolution imaging. A 62-year-old male with longstanding night blindness underwent imaging and genetic evaluation. Read More

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Buoys with looming eyes deter seaducks and could potentially reduce seabird bycatch in gillnets.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 May 5;8(5):210225. Epub 2021 May 5.

RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, UK.

Bycatch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries is a global conservation issue with an estimated 400 000 seabirds killed each year. To date, no underwater deterrents trialled have consistently reduced seabird bycatch across operational fisheries. Using a combination of insights from land-based strategies, seabirds' diving behaviours and their cognitive abilities, we developed a floating device exploring the effect of large eyespots and looming movement to prevent vulnerable seabirds from diving into gillnets. Read More

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Outcome measurements following palatal soft tissue graft harvesting: A review.

J Clin Exp Dent 2021 May 1;13(5):e527-e535. Epub 2021 May 1.

DDS, PhD. Professor, Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are two of the most commonly techniques performed in periodontal and peri-implant plastic surgery. Although several outcome measurements have been proposed for evaluation of palatal wound healing and patient morbidity, a comprehensive review about these variables is lacking. The objective of this review is to present comprehensive information about outcome measurements related to postoperative palatal wound healing and postoperative patient-reported morbidity after FGG or CTG procedures. Read More

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Segmenting surface boundaries using luminance cues.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10074. Epub 2021 May 12.

McGill Vision Research Unit, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3G1A4, Canada.

Segmenting scenes into distinct surfaces is a basic visual perception task, and luminance differences between adjacent surfaces often provide an important segmentation cue. However, mean luminance differences between two surfaces may exist without any sharp change in albedo at their boundary, but rather from differences in the proportion of small light and dark areas within each surface, e.g. Read More

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Visual intracortical and transthalamic pathways carry distinct information to cortical areas.

Neuron 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University College London, London, UK; Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Sensory processing involves information flow between neocortical areas, assumed to rely on direct intracortical projections. However, cortical areas may also communicate indirectly via higher-order nuclei in the thalamus, such as the pulvinar or lateral posterior nucleus (LP) in the visual system of rodents. The fine-scale organization and function of these cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways remains unclear. Read More

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The Mechanism of Macular Sparing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

Patients with homonymous hemianopia sometimes show preservation of the central visual fields, ranging up to 10°. This phenomenon, known as macular sparing, has sparked perpetual controversy. Two main theories have been offered to explain it. Read More

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Cognitive processing of sexual cues in asexual individuals and heterosexual women with desire/arousal difficulties.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251074. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Asexuality is defined as a unique sexual orientation characterized by a lack of sexual attraction to others. This has been challenged, with some experts positing that it is better explained as a sexual dysfunction. Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD) is characterized by absent/reduced sexual interest/arousal paired with personal distress, with two subtypes: acquired and lifelong. Read More

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Ghost-Free Deep High-Dynamic-Range Imaging Using Focus Pixels for Complex Motion Scenes.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 May 12;PP. Epub 2021 May 12.

Multi-exposure image fusion inevitably causes ghost artifacts owing to inaccurate image registration. In this study, we propose a deep learning technique for the seamless fusion of multi-exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images using a focus-pixel sensor. For auto-focusing in mobile cameras, a focus-pixel sensor originally provides left (L) and right (R) luminance images simultaneously with a full-resolution RGB image. Read More

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Patient Concerns Regarding Suspended Ophthalmic Care Due to COVID-19.

J Glaucoma 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: The temporary cessation and profound changes in ophthalmic care delivery that occurred as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic have yet to be fully understood. Our objective is to assess patients' self-reported impact of healthcare lockdown measures on their fears and anxieties during the crisis period of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City.

Methods: We conducted a digital, self-reported, patient care survey distributed by electronic mail (e-mail) at Columbia University's department of ophthalmology outpatient faculty practice. Read More

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Correlated structure of neuronal firing in macaque visual cortex limits information for binocular depth discrimination.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, United Kingdomgrid.4991.5.

Variability in cortical neural activity potentially limits sensory discriminations. Theoretical work shows that information required to discriminate two similar stimuli is limited by the correlation structure of cortical variability. We investigated these information-limiting correlations by recording simultaneously from visual cortical areas V1 and V4 in macaque monkeys, performing a binocular, stereo-depth discrimination task. Read More

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Discordant Quantitative and Visual CT Assessments in the Diagnosis of Emphysema.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1231-1242. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Purpose: Visual assessment of computed tomography (CT) of the lung is routinely employed in the diagnosis of emphysema. Quantitative CT (QCT) can complement visual CT but must be well validated. QCT emphysema is defined as ≥5% of lung volume occupied by low attenuation areas ≤-950 Hounsfield units (LAA-950). Read More

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Delineating visual, auditory and motor regions in the human brain with functional neuroimaging: a BrainMap-based meta-analytic synthesis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9942. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-7: Brain and Behaviour), Research Centre Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany.

Most everyday behaviors and laboratory tasks rely on visual, auditory and/or motor-related processes. Yet, to date, there has been no large-scale quantitative synthesis of functional neuroimaging studies mapping the brain regions consistently recruited during such perceptuo-motor processing. We therefore performed three coordinate-based meta-analyses, sampling the results of neuroimaging experiments on visual (n = 114), auditory (n = 122), or motor-related (n = 251) processing, respectively, from the BrainMap database. Read More

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A network linking scene perception and spatial memory systems in posterior cerebral cortex.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2632. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.

The neural systems supporting scene-perception and spatial-memory systems of the human brain are well-described. But how do these neural systems interact? Here, using fine-grained individual-subject fMRI, we report three cortical areas of the human brain, each lying immediately anterior to a region of the scene perception network in posterior cerebral cortex, that selectively activate when recalling familiar real-world locations. Despite their close proximity to the scene-perception areas, network analyses show that these regions constitute a distinct functional network that interfaces with spatial memory systems during naturalistic scene understanding. Read More

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Face and voice perception: Monkey see, monkey hear.

Curr Biol 2021 May;31(9):R435-R437

Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Primate brains contain specialized areas for perceiving social cues. New research shows that only some of these areas integrate visual faces with auditory voices. Read More

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