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The Risks and Benefits of Myopia Control.

Ophthalmology 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Children's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: The prevalence of myopia is increasing around the world, stimulating interest in methods to slow its progression. The primary justification for slowing myopia progression is to reduce the risk of vision loss through sight-threatening ocular pathology in later life. The paper analyzes whether the potential benefits of slowing myopia progression by one diopter justify the potential risks associated with treatments. Read More

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Sexual orientation and functional limitations: Cross-sectional analyses from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: To assess the association between sexual orientation and functional limitations in a large representative sample of the English population.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS). Read More

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Effect of gestational age at birth, sex, and race on foveal structure in children.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological and Vision Sciences, State University of New York College of Optometry, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Premature birth, race, and sex are contributing risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and have long-term impact on children's retinal structure. Few studies investigate impact of race and sex on macular structure in children born preterm. This study compared foveal structure in preterm and full-term children. Read More

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Spatiotopic updating across saccades in the absence of awareness.

J Vis 2021 May;21(5)

State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Despite the continuously changing visual inputs caused by eye movements, our perceptual representation of the visual world remains remarkably stable. Visual stability has been a major area of interest within the field of visual neuroscience. The early visual cortical areas are retinotopic-organized, and presumably there is a retinotopic to spatiotopic transformation process that supports the stable representation of the visual world. Read More

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Effect of ECG-gating retinal photographs on retinal vessel caliber measurements in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes.

Curr Eye Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose/Aim of this study:Retinal vessel caliber is an independent risk marker of cardiovascular disease risk. However, variable mechanical delays in capturing retinal photographs and cardiac cycle-induced retinal vascular changes have shown to reduce the accuracy of retinal vessel caliber measurements, but this has only ever been investigated in healthy subjects. This cross-sectional study is the first study to investigate this issue in type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Different types of macular telangiectasia in two eyes of a patient.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May 7:11206721211016314. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Medical Retina and Vitreoretinal Surgery, Pittsburg, PA, USA.

Purpose: To report a case of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) showing the features of type 3 disease in one eye and type 2 disease in the other eye.

Methods: Descriptive case report.

Case Description: A 50-year-old well-controlled diabetic man presented with complaints of distorted vision in the right eye for the past 1 year. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of current machine learning classifiers for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eye (Lond) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Background And Objective: The objective of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the diagnostic accuracy of current machine learning classifiers for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Artificial intelligence diagnostic algorithms can automatically detect and diagnose AMD through training data from large sets of fundus or OCT images. The use of AI algorithms is a powerful tool, and it is a method of obtaining a cost-effective, simple, and fast diagnosis of AMD. Read More

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Artificial intelligence for improving sickle cell retinopathy diagnosis and management.

Eye (Lond) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Sickle cell retinopathy is often initially asymptomatic even in proliferative stages, but can progress to cause vision loss due to vitreous haemorrhages or tractional retinal detachments. Challenges with access and adherence to screening dilated fundus examinations, particularly in medically underserved areas where the burden of sickle cell disease is highest, highlight the need for novel approaches to screening for patients with vision-threatening sickle cell retinopathy. This article reviews the existing literature on and suggests future research directions for coupling artificial intelligence with multimodal retinal imaging to expand access to automated, accurate, imaging-based screening for sickle cell retinopathy. Read More

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Age-related macular degeneration.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2021 05 6;7(1):31. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in the industrialized world. AMD is characterized by accumulation of extracellular deposits, namely drusen, along with progressive degeneration of photoreceptors and adjacent tissues. AMD is a multifactorial disease encompassing a complex interplay between ageing, environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility. Read More

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Re: Shang et al.: The Association between vision impairment and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Ophthalmology. 2021 Jan 8;S0161-6420(20)31206-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.12.029 [Epub ahead of print]).

Ophthalmology 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; The University of Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

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Hypotony maculopathy and photoreceptor folds with disruptions after vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane removal: two case reports.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 7;15(1):255. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: Hypotony maculopathy has been classically reported as a complication of glaucoma surgery or ocular trauma. There have been only a few reports of hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Here, we report two cases of hypotony maculopathy occurring after PPV for epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal and characteristic photoreceptor folds observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Read More

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Analysis of Comparative Clinical Data in Ophthalmology: An Approach.

Curr Eye Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Visual Acuity, Vitreous Hemorrhage, and Other Ocular Outcomes After Vitrectomy vs Aflibercept for Vitreous Hemorrhage Due to Diabetic Retinopathy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Joslin Diabetes Center, Beetham Eye Institute, Harvard Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Although there were no differences in mean visual acuity (VA) over 24 weeks after vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) vs aflibercept in a randomized clinical trial among eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), post hoc analyses may influence treatment choices.

Objective: To compare exploratory outcomes between treatment groups that may affect treatment choices for patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites included adults with vision loss due to PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage for whom vitrectomy was considered. Read More

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Visual Outcomes and Complications After Lensectomy for Traumatic Cataract in Children.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Importance: The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group Cataract Registry provides a multicenter assessment of visual outcomes and complications after lensectomy for traumatic pediatric cataract.

Objective: To report visual acuity (VA) and the cumulative proportion with strabismus, glaucoma, and other ocular complications by 15 months after lensectomy for traumatic cataract among children younger than 13 years at the time of surgery.

Design, Setting, And Participants: From June 18, 2012, to July 8, 2015, 1266 eyes of 994 children from 33 pediatric eye care practices seen within 45 days after lensectomy were enrolled in a multicenter, prospective observational registry. Read More

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Modifications to Combined Trabeculectomy and Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery: Outcomes and Adaptability in Resource-constrained Areas.

J Glaucoma 2021 Feb;30(2):148-156

VST Glaucoma Center, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus.

Precis: We describe standardization and simplification of classic trabeculectomy combined with manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) to effectively manage the 2 leading and often coexisting causes of blindness and vision impairment in resource-constrained areas.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe modifications to trabeculectomy combined with MSICS and report on the outcomes of this technique. The modifications consist of standardization and simplification of the surgical steps. Read More

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February 2021

Improving health-related quality of life in glaucoma during 11 years and its association with vision loss and treatment of the disease.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of glaucoma on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health in the ageing population of Finland.

Methods: Altogether 7380 and 5774 Finnish individuals aged 30 years and older with known eye disease status were studied in 2000 and 2011, respectively, in two population-based surveys, including an 11-year follow-up of 4683 participants. Data on HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L, 15D), depression (BDI), psychological distress (GHQ-12) and eye disease diagnoses were obtained from self-reported assessments. Read More

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Characterization of Tunable Poly-ε-Lysine-Based Hydrogels for Corneal Tissue Engineering.

Macromol Biosci 2021 May 6:e2100036. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Eye and Vision Science, Institute of Life Course and Medical Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L7 8TX, UK.

A family of poly-ε-lysine hydrogels can be synthesized by crosslinking with bis-carboxylic acids using carbodiimide chemistry. In addition to creating hydrogels using a simple cast method, a fragmented method is used to introduce increased porosity within the hydrogel structure. Both methods have created tunable characteristics ranging in their mechanical properties, transparency, and water content, which is of interest to corneal tissue engineering and can be tailored to specific cellular needs and applications. Read More

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Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Meibomian Gland Lipids.

Authors:
Jianzhong Chen

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2306:157-170

Department of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The precorneal tear film keeps the eye surface moist and helps to maintain normal eye function. The outermost lipid layer of the tear film, which attenuates tear film evaporation, contains meibum secreted from the meibomian gland. Most meibum lipids are neutral, including wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs), along with some polar lipids including free fatty acids (FFAs), O-acyl-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs), and trace phospholipids. Read More

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January 2021

Drift and Directional Selection Are the Evolutionary Forces Driving Gene Expression Divergence in Eye and Brain Tissue of Heliconius Butterflies.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):581-594

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried 82152, Germany.

Characterization of gene expression patterns across species - and the evolutionary forces driving them - can reveal processes that have remained conserved across species, as well as those that have changed in a species- specific manner... Read More

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October 2019

Drift and Directional Selection Are the Evolutionary Forces Driving Gene Expression Divergence in Eye and Brain Tissue of Heliconius Butterflies.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):581-594

Division of Evolutionary Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried 82152, Germany.

Characterization of gene expression patterns across species - and the evolutionary forces driving them - can reveal processes that have remained conserved across species, as well as those that have changed in a species- specific manner... Read More

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October 2019

Portable Diagnostic System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Screening Using Visual Evoked Potentials.

Eye Brain 2021 29;13:111-127. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

NeuroFieldz Inc, Newton, MA, USA.

Background: Delayed Dark-Adapted vision Recovery (DAR) is a biomarker for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), however its measurement is burdensome for patients and examiners.

Methods: In this study, we developed a portable, wireless and user-friendly system that employs a headset with a smartphone to deliver controlled photo-bleach and monocular pattern reversal stimuli, while using custom electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes and electronics in order to measure Dark-Adapted Visual Evoked Potentials (DAVEP) objectively and separately at the peripheral and central visual field. This is achieved in one comfortable 20-minute session, without requiring subject reporting. Read More

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Endogenous Bacterial Endophthalmitis Caused by Iliopsoas Abscess.

Acta Med Okayama 2021 Apr;75(2):249-253

Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

A 79-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 10-day history of gradually worsening binocular vision and severe backache. Further investigations revealed poor bilateral best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA), bilateral vitreous opacities, gray-white lesions scattered throughout the retina, and a left iliopsoas abscess on CT that later grew out methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. Read More

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Eye movement characteristics provide an objective measure of visual processing changes in patients with visual snow syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9607. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, 6th Floor, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Visual snow syndrome (VSS) is a poorly understood neurological disorder that features a range of disabling sensory changes. Visual processing changes revealed previously in VSS appear consistent with poor attentional control, specifically, with difficulty controlling environmentally driven shifts of attention. This study sought to confirm this proposal by determining whether these changes were similarly evident where attention is internally driven. Read More

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Investigating the neuroPRotective effect of Oral Omega-3 Fatty acid Supplementation in type 1 diabetes (nPROOFS1): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Diabetes 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

This randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial (ACTRN12618000705280) evaluated the effects of oral omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on peripheral nerves in type 1 diabetes. Participants with type 1 diabetes were assigned (1:1) to omega-3 (fish oil; 1800 mg/day) or placebo (olive oil; 600 mg/day) supplements for 180 days. Primary outcome was change from baseline in central corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL) at day 180. Read More

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Improving outcomes for primary school children at risk of cerebral visual impairments (the CVI project): study protocol for the process evaluation of a feasibility cluster-randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 May 5;11(5):e044856. Epub 2021 May 5.

Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Introduction: Brain-related visual impairments, also known as cerebral visual impairment (CVI), are related to damage or poor function in the vision-related areas of the brain. There is broad agreement that CVI is an appropriate term to describe visual impairments that are not accounted by disorders of the eye or optic nerve, but differences remain as to which impairments can be included in this term. The CVI project is a programme of work that includes the development of a complex intervention to share knowledge with teachers, so that they can make both targeted and universal changes to support children with CVI. Read More

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Frequency and phenotypic characteristics of RPE65 mutations in the Chinese population.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 13;16(1):174. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Eye Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital, College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: The retinoid isomerohydrolase RPE65 has received considerable attention worldwide since a successful clinical gene therapy was approved in 2017 as the first treatment for vision loss associated with RPE65-mediated inherited retinal disease. Identifying patients with RPE65 mutations is a prerequisite to assessing the patients' eligibility to receive RPE65-targeted gene therapies, and it is necessary to identify individuals who are most likely to benefit from gene therapies. This study aimed to investigate the RPE65 mutations frequency in the Chinese population and to determine the genetic and clinical characteristics of these patients. Read More

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Comparison of Quality of Life Questionnaires in Patients with Low Vision

Turk J Ophthalmol 2021 04;51(2):83-88

Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey

Objectives: To compare the quality of life assessed by the Low Vision Quality of Life Questionnaire (LVQOL) and National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with low vision.

Materials And Methods: A total of 64 consecutive patients who presented to the Ankara University Low Vision Rehabilitation Department for the first time were included in the study. Patients aged 18 or older who had a best-corrected visual acuity of less than 20/60 or a visual field of equal to or less than 20° from the fixation point in the better eye were included. Read More

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Environmental features contributing to falls in persons with vision impairment: The role of home lighting and home hazards.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287; Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Glaucoma Division, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114.

Purpose: To evaluate whether home hazards and lighting levels are associated with higher fall rates in adults with varying degrees of visual field (VF) damage from glaucoma.

Methods: Participants with diagnosed or suspected glaucoma provided three years of prospective falls data via monthly falls diaries. Fall locations were determined via post-fall phone questionnaire. Read More

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The Progression of Stargardt Disease using Volumetric Hill of Vision Analyses Over 24 Months: ProgStar Report No.15.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel (IOB), Basel, Switzerland; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report the yearly rate of change in macular function in patients with Stargardt disease type 1 (STGD1) over 24 months and to establish a new volumetric visual function index for use in clinical trials investigating the efficacy on retinal sensitivity.

Design: International, multicenter, prospective cohort study with five study visits every 6 months over 24 months.

Participants And Main Outcome Measures: A total of 233 individuals with genetically confirmed STGD1 (≥ 1 disease-causing ABCA4 variant). Read More

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Viability of performing multiple 24-2 visual field examinations at the same clinical visit: the Frontloading Fields Study (FFS).

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Centre for Eye Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW; School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW.

Purpose: To assess the viability in terms of time taken for testing and repeatability of frontloading (performing multiple perimetric examinations) in a single clinic visit.

Design: Reliability enhancement analysis.

Participants: 329 healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma subjects within a glaucoma clinic undergoing perimetric testing using SITA-Faster twice for each eye within the same session. Read More

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