4,514 results match your criteria virus-host interactions

The pivotal roles of the host immune response in the fine-tuning the infection and the development of the vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 11:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

SARS-CoV2 infection induces various degrees of infections ranging from asymptomatic to severe cases and death. Virus/host interplay contributes substantially to these outcomes. This highlights the potential roles of the host immune system in fighting virus infections. Read More

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Noncanonical Functions and Cellular Dynamics of the Mammalian Signal Recognition Particle Components.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 25;8:679584. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex fundamental for co-translational delivery of proteins to their proper membrane localization and secretory pathways. Literature of the past two decades has suggested new roles for individual SRP components, 7SL RNA and proteins SRP9, SRP14, SRP19, SRP54, SRP68 and SRP72, outside the SRP cycle. These noncanonical functions interconnect SRP with a multitude of cellular and molecular pathways, including virus-host interactions, stress response, transcriptional regulation and modulation of apoptosis in autoimmune diseases. Read More

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Facile method for delivering chikungunya viral replicons into mosquitoes and mammalian cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12321. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 11490, Taiwan.

Reverse genetics is an important tool in the elucidation of viral replication and the development of countermeasures; however, these methods are impeded by laborious and inefficient replicon delivery methods. This paper demonstrates the use of a baculovirus to facilitate the efficient delivery of autonomous CHIKV replicons into mosquito and mammalian cells in vitro as well as adult mosquitoes in vivo. The efficacy of this approach was verified via co-localization among an eGFP reporter, nsP1, and dsRNA as well as through the inhibition of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) null mutation (DDAA) in nsP4, or the treatment of a known antiviral compound (6-azauridine). Read More

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Network medicine links SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 infection to brain microvascular injury and neuroinflammation in dementia-like cognitive impairment.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 06 9;13(1):110. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Background: Dementia-like cognitive impairment is an increasingly reported complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this complication remain unclear. A better understanding of causative processes by which COVID-19 may lead to cognitive impairment is essential for developing preventive and therapeutic interventions. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) protein interacts with PDZ-domain-2 of host tight junction protein ZO1.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0251955. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of an ongoing global pandemic leading to severe respiratory disease in humans. SARS-CoV-2 targets epithelial cells in the respiratory tract and lungs, which can lead to amplified chloride secretion and increased leak across epithelial barriers, contributing to severe pneumonia and consolidation of the lungs as seen in many COVID-19 patients. There is an urgent need for a better understanding of the molecular aspects that contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced pathogenesis and for the development of approaches to mitigate these damaging pathologies. Read More

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Mechanistic basis of post-treatment control of SIV after anti-α4β7 antibody therapy.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 9;17(6):e1009031. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America.

Treating macaques with an anti-α4β7 antibody under the umbrella of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during early SIV infection can lead to viral remission, with viral loads maintained at < 50 SIV RNA copies/ml after removal of all treatment in a subset of animals. Depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes in controllers resulted in transient recrudescence of viremia, suggesting that the combination of cART and anti-α4β7 antibody treatment led to a state where ongoing immune responses kept the virus undetectable in the absence of treatment. A previous mathematical model of HIV infection and cART incorporates immune effector cell responses and exhibits the property of two different viral load set-points. Read More

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Zika Virus Induces an Atypical Tripartite Unfolded Protein Response with Sustained Sensor and Transient Effector Activation and a Blunted BiP Response.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0036121. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

To study how the Zika virus (ZIKV) interacts with the host unfolded protein response (UPR), we undertook a kinetics study. We show that ZIKV infection triggers an atypical tripartite UPR in A549 cells involving transient activation of the effectors X-box-binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein, and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 during early infection and sustained activation of all three UPR sensors: RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE1α), and ATF6. Sustained phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and rRNA degradation coincide with host translational shutoff, cell lysis, and virus release during late infection. Read More

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Single-Cell Characterization of Calcium Influx and HIV-1 Infection using a Multiparameter Optofluidic Platform.

J Vis Exp 2021 May 18(171). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai;

HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that affects more than 37 million people worldwide. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience comorbidity related to chronic inflammation despite antiretroviral therapy. However, these inflammatory signaling has not been fully characterized. Read More

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Ribosomal Protein L13 Participates in Innate Immune Response Induced by Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:616402. Epub 2021 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Office International des Epizootie (OIE)/China National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

In addition to ribosomal protein synthesis and protein translation, ribosomal proteins also participate in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, immune responses, and viral replication. Here, we show that ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13) participates in the antiviral immune response induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), inhibiting FMDV replication. The overexpression of RPL13 promoted the induction and activation of the promoters of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon-β (IFN-β) genes, and the expression and protein secretion of the antiviral factor IFN-β and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Read More

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Reads Binning Improves the Assembly of Viral Genome Sequences From Metagenomic Samples.

Kai Song

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:664560. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Qingdao University, Qingdao China.

Metagenomes can be considered as mixtures of viral, bacterial, and other eukaryotic DNA sequences. Mining viral sequences from metagenomes could shed insight into virus-host relationships and expand viral databases. Current alignment-based methods are unsuitable for identifying viral sequences from metagenome sequences because most assembled metagenomic contigs are short and possess few or no predicted genes, and most metagenomic viral genes are dissimilar to known viral genes. Read More

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Harmless or Threatening? Interpreting the Results of Molecular Diagnosis in the Context of Virus-Host Relationships.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:647730. Epub 2021 May 21.

National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinary Research, Oeiras, Portugal.

Molecular methods, established in the 1980s, expanded and delivered tools for the detection of vestigial quantities of nucleic acids in biological samples. Nucleotide sequencing of these molecules reveals the identity of the organism it belongs to. However, the implications of such detection are often misinterpreted as pathogenic, even in the absence of corroborating clinical evidence. Read More

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Proteomic analysis of host cellular proteins co-immunoprecipitated with duck enteritis virus gC.

J Proteomics 2021 Jun 5;245:104281. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, China. Electronic address:

Duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, causes a contagious, lethal viral disease in Anseriformes (waterfowls). In virus infection, host-virus interaction plays a crucial role in virus replication and pathogenesis. In our previous study, mRFP was fused with the C-terminus of DEV glycoprotein C (gC) to construct a fluorescent-tag DEV virus rgCRFP. Read More

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Structural dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants: a health monitoring strategy for anticipating Covid-19 outbreaks.

J Infect 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

INSERM UMR_S 1072, 13015 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, 13015 Marseille, France.

Objectives: The Covid-19 pandemic has been marked by sudden outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in both the N-terminal (NTD) and receptor binding (RBD) domains of the spike protein. The goal of this study was to predict the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants from genomic sequence data.

Methods: We used a target-based molecular modeling strategy combined with surface potential analysis of the NTD and RBD. Read More

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: Exploring Molecular Weapons in the Arsenal of a Negative-Sense RNA Virus.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; email:

Rice stripe disease caused by (RSV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses of rice and causes enormous losses in production. RSV is transmitted from plant to plant by the small brown planthopper () in a circulative-propagative manner. The recent reemergence of this pathogen in East Asia since 2000 has made RSV one of the most studied plant viruses over the past two decades. Read More

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"Just in Time": The Role of Cryo-Electron Microscopy in Combating Recent Pandemics.

Joachim Frank

Biochemistry 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, United States.

Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), whose full power was not realized until the advent of powerful detectors in 2012, has a unique position as a method of structure determination as it is capable of providing information about not only the structure but also the dynamical features of biomolecules. This information is of special importance in understanding virus-host interaction and explains the crucial role of cryo-EM in the efforts to find vaccinations and cures for pandemics the world has experienced in the past decade. Read More

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3D Cell Culture Models in COVID-19 Times: A Review of 3D Technologies to Understand and Accelerate Therapeutic Drug Discovery.

Biomedicines 2021 May 26;9(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

CONACYT-Department of Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco A.C. (CIATEJ), Av. Normalistas 800, Colinas de las Normal, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44270, Mexico.

In the last decades, emerging viruses have become a worldwide concern. The fast and extensive spread of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has impacted the economy and human activity worldwide, highlighting the human vulnerability to infectious diseases and the need to develop and optimize technologies to tackle them. The three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models emulate major tissue characteristics such as the in vivo virus-host interactions. Read More

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Discovery and Characterization of Actively Replicating DNA and Retro-Transcribing Viruses in Lower Vertebrate Hosts Based on RNA Sequencing.

Viruses 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

In a previous study, a metatranscriptomics survey of RNA viruses in several important lower vertebrate host groups revealed huge viral diversity, transforming the understanding of the evolution of vertebrate-associated RNA virus groups. However, the diversity of the DNA and retro-transcribing viruses in these host groups was left uncharacterized. Given that RNA sequencing is capable of revealing viruses undergoing active transcription and replication, we collected previously generated datasets associated with lower vertebrate hosts, and searched them for DNA and retro-transcribing viruses. Read More

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Virus-Host Interaction Gets . PART I: Phage P1 Enhanced Development in an DksA-Deficient Cell.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Bacterial Molecular Genetics, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.

Bacteriophage P1 is among the best described bacterial viruses used in molecular biology. Here, we report that deficiency in the host cell DksA protein, an global transcription regulator, improves P1 lytic development. Using genetic and microbiological approaches, we investigated several aspects of P1 biology in an attempt to understand the basis of this phenomenon. Read More

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Organoids to Dissect Gastrointestinal Virus-Host Interactions: What Have We Learned?

Viruses 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Historically, knowledge of human host-enteric pathogen interactions has been elucidated from studies using cancer cells, animal models, clinical data, and occasionally, controlled human infection models. Although much has been learned from these studies, an understanding of the complex interactions between human viruses and the human intestinal epithelium was initially limited by the lack of nontransformed culture systems, which recapitulate the relevant heterogenous cell types that comprise the intestinal villus epithelium. New investigations using multicellular, physiologically active, organotypic cultures produced from intestinal stem cells isolated from biopsies or surgical specimens provide an exciting new avenue for understanding human specific pathogens and revealing previously unknown host-microbe interactions that affect replication and outcomes of human infections. Read More

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The Putative Roles and Functions of Indel, Repetition and Duplication Events in Alphavirus Non-Structural Protein 3 Hypervariable Domain (nsP3 HVD) in Evolution, Viability and Re-Emergence.

Viruses 2021 May 28;13(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Alphavirus non-structural proteins 1-4 (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4) are known to be crucial for alphavirus RNA replication and translation. To date, nsP3 has been demonstrated to mediate many virus-host protein-protein interactions in several fundamental alphavirus mechanisms, particularly during the early stages of replication. However, the molecular pathways and proteins networks underlying these mechanisms remain poorly described. Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology and Whole-Genome Analysis of Bovine Foamy Virus in Japan.

Viruses 2021 May 28;13(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Virus-Host Coevolution, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Bovine foamy virus (BFV) is a member of the foamy virus family in cattle. Information on the epidemiology, transmission routes, and whole-genome sequences of BFV is still limited. To understand the characteristics of BFV, this study included a molecular survey in Japan and the determination of the whole-genome sequences of 30 BFV isolates. Read More

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Genomic and Micro-Evolutionary Features of (Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1, VSBV-1).

Microorganisms 2021 May 25;9(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

(VSBV-1) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen discovered in several exotic squirrel species and associated with fatal human encephalitis. The dynamics of VSBV-1 spread and evolution in its presumed natural hosts are unknown. Here, we present the phylogeny, micro-evolution, cross-species transmission and spread of VSBV-1 at a temporal and spatial resolution within the limits of animal husbandry. Read More

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Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway by the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Protein of Arenavirus.

Viruses 2021 May 25;13(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China.

Arenaviruses cause chronic and asymptomatic infections in their natural host, rodents, and several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever that has a high mortality in infected humans, seriously threatening public health. There are currently no FDA-licensed drugs available against arenaviruses; therefore, it is important to develop novel antiviral strategies to combat them, which would be facilitated by a detailed understanding of the interactions between the viruses and their hosts. To this end, we performed a transcriptomic analysis on cells infected with arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a neglected human pathogen with clinical significance, and found that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was activated. Read More

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Unique Features of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pathogenesis and Clinical Significance.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 18;13(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10002, Taiwan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide, accounting for around 50% of cases. Chronic hepatitis B infection generates an inflammatory microenvironment, in which hepatocytes undergoing repeated cycles of damage and regeneration accumulate genetic mutations predisposing them to cancer. A striking male dominance in HBV-related HCC highlights the influence of sex hormones which interact with viral factors to influence carcinogenesis. Read More

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Revealing the Complexity of Sweepovirus-Deltasatellite-Plant Host Interactions: Expanded Natural and Experimental Helper Virus Range and Effect Dependence on Virus-Host Combination.

Microorganisms 2021 May 10;9(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Málaga (IHSM-CSIC-UMA), 29750 Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga, Spain.

Sweepoviruses are begomoviruses (genus , family ) with ssDNA genomes infecting sweet potato and other species of the family Convolvulaceae. Deltasatellites (genus , family ) are small-size non-coding DNA satellites associated with begomoviruses. In this study, the genetic diversity of deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses infecting plants was analyzed by further sampling the populations where the deltasatellite sweet potato leaf curl deltasatellite 1 (SPLCD1) was initially found, expanding the search to other geographical areas in southern continental Spain and the Canary Islands. Read More

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Exploring the Role of Glycans in the Interaction of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Human Receptor ACE2.

Viruses 2021 05 17;13(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. It has become a global pandemic and its frequent mutations may pose new challenges for vaccine design. During viral infection, the Spike RBD of SARS-CoV-2 binds the human host cell receptor ACE2, enabling the virus to enter the host cell. Read More

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Experimental Morogoro Virus Infection in Its Natural Host, .

Viruses 2021 05 7;13(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

Natural hosts of most arenaviruses are rodents. The human-pathogenic Lassa virus and several non-pathogenic arenaviruses such as Morogoro virus (MORV) share the same host species, namely (). In this study, we investigated the history of infection and virus transmission within the natural host population. Read More

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The Antiviral Role of Galectins toward Influenza A Virus Infection-An Alternative Strategy for Influenza Therapy.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 20;14(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Animal lectins are proteins with carbohydrate recognition activity. Galectins, the β-galactoside binding lectins, are expressed in various cells and have been reported to regulate several immunological and physiological responses. Recently, some galectins have been reported to regulate some viral infections, including influenza A virus (IAV); however, the mechanism is still not fully understood. Read More

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Phenotypic Divergence of P Proteins of Australian Bat Lyssavirus Lineages Circulating in Microbats and Flying Foxes.

Viruses 2021 05 4;13(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, 19 Innovation Walk (Bldg 76), Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.

Bats are reservoirs of many pathogenic viruses, including the lyssaviruses rabies virus (RABV) and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Lyssavirus strains are closely associated with particular host reservoir species, with evidence of specific adaptation. Associated phenotypic changes remain poorly understood but are likely to involve phosphoprotein (P protein), a key mediator of the intracellular virus-host interface. Read More

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Molecular Perspectives of SARS-CoV-2: Pathology, Immune Evasion, and Therapeutic Interventions.

Mol Cells 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Physiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not only affected human health but also diverted the focus of research and derailed the world economy over the past year. Recently, vaccination against COVID-19 has begun, but further studies on effective therapeutic agents are still needed. The severity of COVID-19 is attributable to several factors such as the dysfunctional host immune response manifested by uncontrolled viral replication, type I interferon suppression, and release of impaired cytokines by the infected resident and recruited cells. Read More

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