2,882 results match your criteria virus-1 hsv-1

Organoid modeling of Zika and herpes simplex virus 1 infections reveals virus-specific responses leading to microcephaly.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter (VBC), Vienna 1030, Austria; Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1030, Austria. Electronic address:

Viral infection in early pregnancy is a major cause of microcephaly. However, how distinct viruses impair human brain development remains poorly understood. Here we use human brain organoids to study the mechanisms underlying microcephaly caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

IFN-λ Regulates Neutrophil Biology to Suppress Inflammation in Herpes Simplex Virus-1-Induced Corneal Immunopathology.

J Immunol 2021 Apr;206(8):1866-1877

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849;

HSV-1 infection of the cornea causes a severe immunoinflammatory and vision-impairing condition called herpetic stromal keratitis (SK). The virus replication in corneal epithelium followed by neutrophil- and CD4 T cell-mediated inflammation plays a dominant role in SK. Although previous studies demonstrate critical functions of type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) in HSV-1 infection, the role of recently discovered IFN-λ (type III IFN), specifically at the corneal mucosa, is poorly defined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potent Antiviral Activity against HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 by Antimicrobial Peptoids.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;14(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Viral infections, such as those caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and SARS-CoV-2, affect millions of people each year. However, there are few antiviral drugs that can effectively treat these infections. The standard approach in the development of antiviral drugs involves the identification of a unique viral target, followed by the design of an agent that addresses that target. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Species-Specific Deamidation of RIG-I Reveals Collaborative Action between Viral and Cellular Deamidases in HSV-1 Lytic Replication.

mBio 2021 03 30;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Section of Infection and Immunity, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a sensor that recognizes cytosolic double-stranded RNA derived from microbes to induce host immune response. Viruses, such as herpesviruses, deploy diverse mechanisms to derail RIG-I-dependent innate immune defense. In this study, we discovered that mouse RIG-I is intrinsically resistant to deamidation and evasion by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TBK1 recruitment to STING activates both IRF3 and NF-κB that mediate immune defense against tumors and viral infections.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148;

The induction of type I interferons through the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is considered a major outcome of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) activation that drives immune responses against DNA viruses and tumors. However, STING activation can also trigger other downstream pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and autophagy, and the roles of interferon (IFN)-independent functions of STING in infectious diseases or cancer are not well understood. Here, we generated a STING mouse strain with a mutation (S365A) that disrupts IRF3 binding and therefore type I interferon induction but not NF-κB activation or autophagy induction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gastrodin Inhibits Virus Infection by Promoting the Production of Type I Interferon.

Front Pharmacol 2020 19;11:608707. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays a critical role in the antiviral immune response. However, viruses have developed different strategies to suppress the production of IFN-I for its own escape and amplification. Therefore, promoting the production of IFN-I is an effective strategy against virus infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The herpesvirus accessory protein γ134.5 facilitates viral replication by disabling mitochondrial translocation of RIG-I.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 26;17(3):e1009446. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

RIG-I and MDA5 are cytoplasmic RNA sensors that mediate cell intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. While it has been well-established that RIG-I and MDA5 recognize RNA viruses, their interactive network with DNA viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), remains less clear. Using a combination of RNA-deep sequencing and genetic studies, we show that the γ134. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome Sequence of the Virulent Model Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain McKrae Demonstrates the Presence of at Least Two Widely Used Variant Strains.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Mar 25;10(12). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain McKrae was isolated in 1965 and has been utilized by many laboratories. Three HSV-1 strain McKrae stocks have been sequenced previously, revealing discrepancies in key genes. We sequenced the genome of HSV-1 strain McKrae from the laboratory of James M. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Entry receptor bias in evolutionarily distant HSV-1 clinical strains drives divergent ocular and nervous system pathologies.

Ocul Surf 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection leads to varying pathologies including the development of ocular lesions, stromal keratitis and encephalitis. While the role for host immunity in disease progression is well understood, the contribution of genetic variances in generating preferential viral entry receptor usage and resulting immunopathogenesis in humans are not known.

Methods: Ocular cultures were obtained from patients presenting distinct pathologies of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Herpes simplex virus 1 proteins can induce skin inflammation in an atopic dermatitis-like mouse model.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can induce in certain individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) severe cutaneous infections that can spread throughout the entire body, a condition named as AD complicated by eczema herpeticum (ADEH). It has been recently found that ADEH patients can produce specific IgE against HSV-1 proteins, which may contribute to lower protection against HSV-1. However, little is known about the capacity of these HSV-1 proteins to produce an inflammatory response at the skin level. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral infection of human neurons triggers strain-specific differences in host neuronal and viral transcriptomes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 22;17(3):e1009441. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Departments of Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) occurs in over half the global population, causing recurrent orofacial and/or genital lesions. Individual strains of HSV-1 demonstrate differences in neurovirulence in vivo, suggesting that viral genetic differences may impact phenotype. Here differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells were infected with one of three HSV-1 strains known to differ in neurovirulence in vivo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus-1 transcript in suspected viral keratitis corneal buttons and its clinical significance.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr;69(4):852-858

Ocular Microbiology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: The evaluation of Herpes Simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) transcript by different investigative methods (qPCR, PCR and IHC) in corneal buttons from suspected viral keratitis patients and the comparison of results with histopathological findings and clinical diagnosis.

Methods: Sixty corneal buttons, 30 suspected viral keratitis, and 30 controls (keratoconus and bullous keratopathy) obtained after primary penetrating keratoplasty, were included in the study. All the corneal buttons were subjected to reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene, conventional PCR for polymerase (pol) gene, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HSV-1 antigen respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cryo-Electron Tomography of the Herpesvirus Procapsid Reveals Interactions of the Portal with the Scaffold and a Shift on Maturation.

mBio 2021 03 16;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) requires seven proteins to package its genome through a vertex in its capsid, one of which is the portal protein, pUL6. The portal protein is also thought to facilitate assembly of the procapsid. While the portal has been visualized in mature capsids, we aimed to elucidate its role in the assembly and maturation of procapsids using cryo-electron tomography (cryoET). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antiviral activity of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles against HSV-1 in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

LAMCIFAR, Laboratório de Modelagem molecular e Pesquisa em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) affects a large part of the adult population. Anti-HSV-1 drugs, such as acyclovir, target thymidine kinase and viral DNA polymerase. However, the emerging of resistance of HSV-1 alerts for the urgency in developing new antivirals with other therapeutic targets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cohesin subunit Rad21 binds to the HSV-1 genome near CTCF insulator sites during latency .

J Virol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that has the ability to establish a lifelong infection in the host. During latency, HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized and are abundantly associated with histones in sensory neurons, yet the mechanisms that govern the latent-lytic transition remain unclear. We hypothesize that the latent-lytic switch is controlled by CTCF insulators, positioned within the HSV-1 latent genome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral Involvement in Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 04 9;12(7):1049-1060. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The prevalence of the disease is increasing and is expected to reach 141 million cases by 2050. Despite the risk factors associated with the disease, there is no known causative agent for AD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism and consequences of herpes simplex virus 1-mediated regulation of host mRNA alternative polyadenylation.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 8;17(3):e1009263. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, United States America.

Eukaryotic gene expression is extensively regulated by cellular stress and pathogen infections. We have previously shown that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several cellular stresses cause widespread disruption of transcription termination (DoTT) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in host genes and that the viral immediate early factor ICP27 plays an important role in HSV-1-induced DoTT. Here, we show that HSV-1 infection also leads to widespread changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA) of host mRNAs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CACO-2 cells: A continuous cell line with sensitive and broad-spectrum utility for respiratory virus culture.

J Virol Methods 2021 Mar 4;293:114120. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (RhMK) can be used for the detection of respiratory viruses, including influenza and parainfluenza. The human colon adeno-carcinoma cell line, CACO-2, has been previously used for the growth of multiple influenza viruses, including seasonal, novel and avian lineages.

Objective: We compared CACO-2, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), and RhMK cells for the isolation of viruses from patients presenting with influenza like-illness (ILI). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Application of Environment-Friendly Rhamnolipids against Transmission of Enveloped Viruses Like SARS-CoV2.

Viruses 2021 02 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Electron Microscopy Facility, 145 Linus Pauling Science Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

In the face of new emerging respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, vaccines and drug therapies are not immediately available to curb the spread of infection. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as mask-wearing and social distance, can slow the transmission. However, both mask and social distance have not prevented the spread of respiratory viruses SARS-CoV2 within the US. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Development of Genome Editing Approaches against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections.

Viruses 2021 02 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a herpesvirus that may cause cold sores or keratitis in healthy or immunocompetent individuals, but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals, such as neonates or immune-compromised patients. Like all other herpesviruses, HSV-1 can engage in lytic infection as well as establish latent infection. Current anti-HSV-1 therapies effectively block viral replication and infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

APOBECs and Herpesviruses.

Viruses 2021 02 28;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The APOBEC family of DNA cytosine deaminases provides a broad and overlapping defense against viral infections. Successful viral pathogens, by definition, have evolved strategies to escape restriction by the APOBEC enzymes of their hosts. HIV-1 and related retroviruses are thought to be the predominant natural substrates of APOBEC enzymes due to obligate single-stranded DNA replication intermediates, abundant evidence for cDNA strand C-to-U editing (genomic strand G-to-A hypermutation), and a potent APOBEC degradation mechanism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

In Vitro Analysis of the Antioxidant and Antiviral Activity of Embelin against Herpes Simplex Virus-1.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 19;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes a wide range of infections from mild to life-threatening in the human population. There are effective treatments for HSV-1 infections that are limited due HSV-1 latency and development of resistance to current therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antiviral effects of embelin on HSV-1 in cultured Vero cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Efficient establishment of reactivatable latency by an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase substitution mutant with reduced neuronal replication.

Virology 2021 Apr 3;556:140-148. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, and Department of Infectious Diseases of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus 1 causes recurrent diseases by reactivating from latency, which requires the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene. An acyclovir-resistant mutation in TK, V204G, was previously repeatedly identified in a patient with recurrent herpetic keratitis. We found that compared with its parental strain KOS, a laboratory-derived V204G mutant virus was impaired in replication in cultured neurons despite little defect in non-neuronal cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cellular miR-101-1 Reduces Efficiently the Replication of HSV-1 in HeLa Cells.

Intervirology 2021 24;64(2):88-95. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

Introduction: Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are widely distributed in the human population. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is responsible for a spectrum of diseases, ranging from gingivostomatitis to keratoconjunctivitis, and encephalitis. The HSVs establish latent infections in nerve cells, and recurrences are common. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Disruption of innate defense responses by endoglycosidase HPSE promotes cell survival.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

The drive to withstand environmental stresses and defend against invasion is a universal trait extant in all forms of life. While numerous canonical signaling cascades have been characterized in detail, it remains unclear how these pathways interface to generate coordinated responses to diverse stimuli. To dissect these connections, we followed heparanase (HPSE), a protein best known for its endoglycosidic activity at the extracellular matrix but recently recognized to drive various forms of late-stage disease through unknown mechanisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Herpes simplex virus-1 KOS-63 strain is virulent and causes titer-dependent corneal nerve damage and keratitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4267. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Translational Ocular Immunology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

To investigate the acute clinical, immunological, and corneal nerve changes following corneal HSV-1 KOS-63 strain inoculation. Corneas of C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with either low dose (Ld) or high dose (Hd) HSV-1 KOS-63 or culture medium. Clinical evaluation was conducted up to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Exploring novel and potent cell penetrating peptides in the proteome of SARS-COV-2 using bioinformatics approaches.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0247396. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Among various delivery systems for vaccine and drug delivery, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been known as a potent delivery system because of their capability to penetrate cell membranes and deliver some types of cargoes into cells. Several CPPs were found in the proteome of viruses such as Tat originated from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), and VP22 derived from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). In the current study, a wide-range of CPPs was identified in the proteome of SARS-CoV-2, a new member of coronaviruses family, using in silico analyses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differential impact of various substitutions at codon 715 in region II of HSV-1 and HCMV DNA polymerases.

Antiviral Res 2021 Apr 12;188:105046. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Research Center in Infectious Diseases, CHU de Québec- Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

This study aimed at understanding the impact of different substitutions at codon 715 localized in the region II of the palm domain of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerases (pol). Here, we report a new theoretical mutation V715S that confers resistance of HSV-1 to foscarnet/acyclovir (5.6- and 9. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stunning symmetries involved in the self-assembly of the HSV-1 capsid.

J Korean Phys Soc 2021 Feb 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141 Korea.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is an enveloped dsDNA virus, infecting ~ 67% of humans. Here, we present the essential components of the HSV-1, focusing on stunning symmetries on the capsid. However, little is known about how the symmetries are involved dynamically in the self-assembly process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

UL28 and UL33 homologs of Marek's disease virus terminase complex involved in the regulation of cleavage and packaging of viral DNA are indispensable for replication in cultured cells.

Vet Res 2021 Feb 12;52(1):20. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, Henan, China.

Processing and packaging of herpesvirus genomic DNA is regulated by a packaging-associated terminase complex comprising of viral proteins pUL15, pUL28 and pUL33. Marek's disease virus (MDV) homologs UL28 and UL33 showed conserved functional features with high sequence identity with the corresponding Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) homologs. As part of the investigations into the role of the UL28 and UL33 homologs of oncogenic MDV for DNA packaging and replication in cultured cells, we generated MDV mutant clones deficient in UL28 or UL33 of full-length MDV genomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021