28,741 results match your criteria virus neutralization


COVID-19 mRNA vaccination generates greater IgG levels in women compared to men.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Genetic Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Question: Is antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination similar in women and men?

Findings: In a community cohort without prior COVID-19 infection, the first vaccine dose produced higher IgG levels and percent inhibition of spike-ACE2 receptor binding, a surrogate measure of virus neutralization, in women compared to men (7.0µg/ml; 51.6% vs 3. Read More

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Coordinated Fc-effector and neutralization functions in HIV-infected children define a window of opportunity for HIV vaccination.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg South Africa Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK Antibody Immunity Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: Antibody function has been extensively studied in HIV infected adults but is relatively understudied in children. Emerging data suggests enhanced development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in children, but Fc effector functions in this group are less well-defined. Here, we profiled overall antibody function in HIV infected children. Read More

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BNT162b2-elicited neutralization of B.1.617 and other SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Nature 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve around the world, generating new variants that are of concern based on their potential for altered transmissibility, pathogenicity, and coverage by vaccines and therapeutics. Here we report that 20 human sera, drawn 2 or 4 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2, neutralize engineered SARS-CoV-2 with a USA-WA1/2020 genetic background (a virus strain isolated in January 2020) and spike glycoproteins from the newly emerged B.1. Read More

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Structural basis for accommodation of emerging B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 variants by two potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.

Structure 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10029, USA; Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains, B.1.1. Read More

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Development of Lentiviral Vectors Pseudotyped With Influenza B Hemagglutinins: Application in Vaccine Immunogenicity, mAb Potency, and Sero-Surveillance Studies.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:661379. Epub 2021 May 24.

Viral Pseudotype Unit, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent & University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom.

Influenza B viruses (IBV) cause respiratory disease epidemics in humans and are therefore components of seasonal influenza vaccines. Serological methods are employed to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity prior to licensure. However, classical methods to assess influenza vaccine immunogenicity such as the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) and the serial radial hemolysis assay (SRH), have been proven to have many limitations. Read More

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Heterologous immunization with Covishield and Pfizer vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 elicits a robust humoral immune response.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 05 31;15(5):653-656. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Understanding the efficacy and durability of heterologous immunization schedules against SARS-CoV-2 is critical, as supply demands and vaccine choices become significant issues in the global vaccination strategy. Here we characterize the neutralizing antibodies produced in two subjects who received combination immunizations against SARS-CoV-2, first with Covishield (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine, followed 33 days later with a second dose (booster) shot of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Serum samples were collected 25 days following the primary vaccination and 13 days after the secondary Pfizer vaccination. Read More

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Function is more reliable than quantity to follow up the humoral response to the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS- CoV-2 Spike protein after natural infection or COVID-19 vaccination.

medRxiv 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

On this work we report that despite of a decline in the total anti-Spike antibodies the neutralizing antibodies remains at a similar level for an average of 98 days in a longitudinal cohort of 59 Hispanic/Latino exposed to SARS-CoV-2. We are also reporting that the percentage of neutralization correlates with the IgG titers and that in the first collected samples, IgG1 was the predominant isotype (62.71%), followed by IgG4 (15. Read More

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Functional characterization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited antibodies in immunologically nave and pre-immune humans.

bioRxiv 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the authorization of vaccines for emergency use has been crucial in slowing down the rate of infection and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. In order to investigate the longitudinal serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 natural infection and vaccination, a large-scale, multi-year serosurveillance program entitled SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence and Respiratory Tract Assessment) was initiated at 4 locations in the U.S. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 4;68:103410. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic currently prevails worldwide. To understand the immunological signature of SARS-CoV-2 infections and aid the search and evaluation of new treatment modalities and vaccines, comprehensive characterization of adaptive immune responses towards SARS-CoV-2 is needed.

Methods: We included 203 recovered SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in Denmark between April 3 and July 9 2020, at least 14 days after COVID-19 symptom recovery. Read More

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E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 restricts hepatitis B virus replication by targeting HBx for proteasomal degradation.

Antiviral Res 2021 Jun 4:105107. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, China. Electronic address:

As a cytosol ubiquitin ligase and antibody receptor, Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) has been reported to mediate the restriction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) through an HBx-antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN) mechanism. However, whether TRIM21 limits HBV replication by targeting viral proteins remains unclarified. In this study, we demonstrate that TRIM21 inhibits HBV gene transcription and replication in HBV plasmid transfected and HBV-infected hepatoma cells. Read More

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[Preventive Vaccination with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protects Mice from Lethal Infection Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):478-490

Gamaleya National Research Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, 123098 Russia.

Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect almost all organs and tissues, cause genital herpes-the most common sexually transmitted disease-disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), and lead to severe complications in children. Despite the available drugs, the incidence of HSV-1/2 continues to rise. None of the prophylactic vaccine candidates have shown a protective effect in trials nor approval for use in clinical practice. Read More

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A human antibody of potent efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques showed strong blocking activity to B.1.351.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1930636

Shanghai Jemincare Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), interacts with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via its spike 1 protein during infection. After the virus sequence was published, we identified two potent antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) from antibody libraries using a phage-to-yeast (PtY) display platform in only 10 days. Our lead antibody JMB2002, now in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ChiCTR2100042150), showed broad-spectrum blocking activity against hACE2 binding to the RBD of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B. Read More

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AAV-mediated expression of NFAT decoy oligonucleotides protects from cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

Basic Res Cardiol 2021 Jun 4;116(1):38. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein and University of Kiel , Arnold-Heller-Str. 3 , Kiel, Germany.

Previous studies have underlined the substantial role of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in hypertension-induced myocardial hypertrophy ultimately leading to heart failure. Here, we aimed at neutralizing four members of the NFAT family of transcription factors as a therapeutic strategy for myocardial hypertrophy transiting to heart failure through AAV-mediated cardiac expression of a RNA-based decoy oligonucleotide (dON) targeting NFATc1-c4. AAV-mediated dON expression markedly decreased endothelin-1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and resulted in efficient expression of these dONs in the heart of adult mice as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Read More

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A Narrative Review of a Pulmonary Aerosolized Formulation or a Nasal Drop Using Sera Containing Neutralizing Antibodies Collected from COVID-19-Recovered Patients as a Probable Therapy for COVID-19.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 May;46(3):151-168

School of Pharmacy, Al-Hawash Private University, Homs, Syria.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a new contagion during December 2019, since which time it has triggered a rampant spike in fatality rates worldwide due to insufficient medical treatments and a lack of counteragents and prompted the World Health Organization to declare COVID-19 a public health emergency. It is, therefore, vital to accelerate the screening of new molecules or vaccines to win the battle against this pandemic. Experiences from previous epidemiological data on coronaviruses guide investigators in designing and exploring new compounds for a safe and cost-effective treatment. Read More

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Protective neutralizing antibodies from human survivors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

Cell 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a World Health Organization priority pathogen. CCHFV infections cause a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever for which specific treatments and vaccines are urgently needed. Here, we characterize the human immune response to natural CCHFV infection to identify potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) targeting the viral glycoprotein. Read More

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IMMUNO-COV v2.0: Development and Validation of a High-Throughput Clinical Assay for Measuring SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibody Titers.

mSphere 2021 Jun 2:e0017021. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Imanis Life Sciences, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Neutralizing antibodies are key determinants of protection from future infection, yet well-validated high-throughput assays for measuring titers of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are not generally available. Here, we describe the development and validation of IMMUNO-COV v2.0, a scalable surrogate virus assay, which titrates antibodies that block infection of Vero-ACE2 cells by a luciferase-encoding vesicular stomatitis virus displaying SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (VSV-SARS2-Fluc). Read More

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Antibodies from rabbits immunized with HIV-1 clade B SOSIP trimers can neutralize multiple clade B viruses by destabilizing the envelope glycoprotein.

J Virol 2021 Jun 2:JVI0009421. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam Infection & Immunity Institute, Amsterdam UMC, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1105AZ, The Netherlands.

The high HIV-1 viral diversity is a formidable hurdle for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) would offer a solution, but so far immunization strategies have failed to elicit bNAbs efficiently. To overcome the obstacles, it is important to understand the immune responses elicited by current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens. Read More

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Evidence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats living with owners with a history of COVID-19 in Lima - Peru.

bioRxiv 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

SARS-CoV-2 can infect a variety of wild and domestic animals worldwide. Of these, domestic cats are highly susceptible species and potential viral reservoirs. As such, it is important to investigate disease exposure in areas with active community transmission and high disease prevalence. Read More

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Molecular Aspects Concerning the Use of the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain as a Target for Preventive Vaccines.

ACS Cent Sci 2021 May 19;7(5):757-767. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Finlay Vaccine Institute, 200 and 21 Street, Havana 11600, Cuba.

The development of recombinant COVID-19 vaccines has resulted from scientific progress made at an unprecedented speed during 2020. The recombinant spike glycoprotein monomer, its trimer, and its recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) induce a potent anti-RBD neutralizing antibody response in animals. In COVID-19 convalescent sera, there is a good correlation between the antibody response and potent neutralization. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 variants, spike mutations and immune escape.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK.

Although most mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome are expected to be either deleterious and swiftly purged or relatively neutral, a small proportion will affect functional properties and may alter infectivity, disease severity or interactions with host immunity. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 was followed by a period of relative evolutionary stasis lasting about 11 months. Since late 2020, however, SARS-CoV-2 evolution has been characterized by the emergence of sets of mutations, in the context of 'variants of concern', that impact virus characteristics, including transmissibility and antigenicity, probably in response to the changing immune profile of the human population. Read More

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Kinetics of Neutralizing Antibodies of COVID-19 Patients Tested Using Clinical D614G, B.1.1.7, and B 1.351 Isolates in Microneutralization Assays.

Viruses 2021 05 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Increasing evidence suggests that some newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) resist neutralization by antibodies elicited by the early-pandemic wild-type virus. We applied neutralization tests to paired recoveree sera ( = 38) using clinical isolates representing the first wave (D614G), VoC1, and VoC2 lineages (B.1. Read More

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Evidence of West Nile Virus Circulation in Lebanon.

Viruses 2021 May 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Immunology and Vector-Borne Diseases, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Fanar 6573/14, Lebanon.

West Nile virus (WNV) has never been reported from Lebanon. Yet, this country is located on the flyway of migratory birds in the Middle East region. Serological screening was conducted to assess the potential circulation of this virus. Read More

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Effectiveness of the SA 14-14-2 Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine in Myanmar.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 31;9(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine and Leading Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.

Myanmar is an endemic country for the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and the SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated JEV vaccine was first introduced as a catch-up vaccination campaign in 2017. To determine the effectiveness of vaccination by means of neutralizing antibody titers against JEV, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among five to 15-year-old monastic school children in Mandalay, Myanmar. A total of 198 students who had received vaccines were recruited, and single-time investigation of anti-JEV IgG and neutralizing antibodies against wild-type JEV were determined using anti-JEV IgG ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Read More

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A Virus-Like Particle-Based Vaccine Candidate against the Tick-Borne Powassan Virus Induces Neutralizing Antibodies in a Mouse Model.

Pathogens 2021 May 31;10(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

American Type Culture Collection (ATCC®), ATCC Federal Solutions, 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus circulating in North America and the Russian Far East that can cause severe neuroinvasive diseases, including encephalitis, meningitis, and meningoencephalitis. The reported neuroinvasive case fatality is about 10%, and approximately 50% of the survivors from the neuroinfection exhibit long-lasting or permanent neurological sequelae. Currently, treatment of POWV infection is supportive, and no FDA-approved vaccines or specific therapeutics are available. Read More

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Requirement of Fc-Fc Gamma Receptor Interaction for Antibody-Based Protection against Emerging Virus Infections.

Viruses 2021 05 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally screened and selected based on potency of neutralization in vitro, it is clear that additional factors contribute to the in vivo efficacy of a mAb beyond viral neutralization. Read More

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Prevalence of Linda Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in the Austrian Pig Population.

Viruses 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department for Pathobiology, Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

A novel pestivirus species, termed Lateral-shaking Inducing Neuro-Degenerative Agent virus (LindaV), was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria in 2015 related to severe congenital tremor cases. Since the initial outbreak LindaV has not been found anywhere else. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of LindaV infections in the domestic pig population of Austria. Read More

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Evaluation of a Pseudovirus Neutralization Assay for SARS-CoV-2 and Correlation with Live Virus-Based Micro Neutralization Assay.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 30;11(6). Epub 2021 May 30.

Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 128442, Jeddah 21362, Saudi Arabia.

The unusual cases of pneumonia outbreak were reported from Wuhan city in late December 2019. Serological testing provides a powerful tool for the identification of prior infection and for epidemiological studies. Pseudotype virus neutralization assays are widely used for many viruses and applications in the fields of serology. Read More

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Utility of Different Surrogate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (sELISAs) for Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies.

J Clin Med 2021 May 14;10(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Medical Virology, University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, 60596 Frankfurt, Germany.

The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is a preferred method for the detection of functional, SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies from serum samples. Alternatively, surrogate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using ACE2 as the target structure for the detection of neutralization-competent antibodies have been developed. They are capable of high throughput, have a short turnaround time, and can be performed under standard laboratory safety conditions. Read More

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Combination of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Delivered Oncolytic Virus with Prodrug Activation Increases Efficacy and Safety of Colorectal Cancer Therapy.

Biomedicines 2021 May 13;9(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Drug Development Center, Institute of New Drug Development, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

Although oncolytic viruses are currently being evaluated for cancer treatment in clinical trials, systemic administration is hindered by many factors that prevent them from reaching the tumor cells. When administered systemically, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) target tumors, and therefore constitute good cell carriers for oncolytic viruses. MSCs were primed with trichostatin A under hypoxia, which upregulated the expression of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor involved in tumor tropism, and coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor that plays an important role in adenoviral infection. Read More

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Human Milk from Previously COVID-19-Infected Mothers: The Effect of Pasteurization on Specific Antibodies and Neutralization Capacity.

Nutrients 2021 May 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, University of Amsterdam Emma Children's Hospital, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many put their hopes in the rapid availability of effective immunizations. Human milk, containing antibodies against syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may serve as means of protection through passive immunization. We aimed to determine the presence and pseudovirus neutralization capacity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19, and the effect of pasteurization on these antibodies. Read More

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