116,862 results match your criteria virus identified

Aerosolization risk during endoscopic transnasal surgery: a prospective qualitative and quantitative microscopic analysis of particles spreading in the operating room.

J Neurosurg 2021 Sep 17:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

1Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Surgical Specialties, ASST Sette Laghi, Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy.

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest public health emergency of this century. The primary mode of viral transmission is droplet transmission through direct contact with large droplets generated during breathing, talking, coughing, and sneezing. However, the virus can also demonstrate airborne transmission through smaller droplets (< 5 μm in diameter) generated during various medical procedures, collectively termed aerosol-generating procedures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

In vitro selection of Remdesivir resistance suggests evolutionary predictability of SARS-CoV-2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 17;17(9):e1009929. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Remdesivir (RDV), a broadly acting nucleoside analogue, is the only FDA approved small molecule antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. To date, there are no reports identifying SARS-CoV-2 RDV resistance in patients, animal models or in vitro. Here, we selected drug-resistant viral populations by serially passaging SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in the presence of RDV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Cyclophilin A: a possible host modulator in Chandipura virus infection.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, 130/1 Sus Road, Pashan, Pune, 411021, India.

Chandipura virus (CHPV), belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, has been identified as one of the causes of pediatric encephalitis in India. Currently, neither vaccines nor therapeutic drugs are available against this agent. Considering that the disease progresses very fast with a high mortality rate, working towards the development of potential therapeutics against it will have a public health impact. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Production, Titration and Imaging of Zika Virus in Mammalian Cells.

Bio Protoc 2018 Dec 20;8(24):e3115. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, H7V 1B7, Laval, QC, Canada.

Since the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the US in 2016, this flavivirus has emerged as a major threat for public health. Indeed, it is now clear that ZIKV is vertically transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus and this may lead to severe neurological development defects including (but not restricted to) neonate microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been identified in the late 1940s, very little was known about its epidemiology, symptoms and molecular biology before its reemergence 60 years later. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2018

Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals that CXCL10, IRF7, MX1, RSAD2, and STAT1 are related to the chronic stage of spinal cord injury.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1248

Department of Orthopedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: The process of spinal cord injury involves acute, subacute, and chronic stages; however, the specific pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to clarify specific modules and hub genes that associated with SCI.

Methods: The gene expression profiles GEO Series (GSE)45006 and GEO Series (GSE)2599 were downloaded, and the co-expression network modules were identified by the WGCNA package. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The ongoing evolution of variants of concern and interest of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil revealed by convergent indels in the amino (N)-terminal domain of the spike protein.

Virus Evol 2021 14;7(2):veab069. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 351, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil.

Mutations at both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike (S) glycoprotein can alter its antigenicity and promote immune escape. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Brazil with mutations of concern in the RBD independently acquired convergent deletions and insertions in the NTD of the S protein, which altered the NTD antigenic-supersite and other predicted epitopes at this region. Importantly, we detected the community transmission of different P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A genome-wide association study identifies genes that contribute to differences in the outcome of infection with two strains that differ in their evolutionary history and degree of host specialization.

Virus Evol 2021 30;7(2):veab063. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Instituto de Biología Integrativa de Sistemas (I2SysBio), CSIC-Universitat de València, Catedrático Agustín Escardino 9, Paterna, València 46980, Spain.

Viruses lie in a continuum between generalism and specialism depending on their ability to infect more or less hosts. While generalists are able to successfully infect a wide variety of hosts, specialists are limited to one or a few. Even though generalists seem to gain an advantage due to their wide host range, they usually pay a pleiotropic fitness cost within each host. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RV144 vaccine imprinting constrained HIV-1 evolution following breakthrough infection.

Virus Evol 2021 9;7(2):veab057. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

US Military HIV Research Program, WRAIR, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

The scale of the HIV-1 epidemic underscores the need for a vaccine. The multitude of circulating HIV-1 strains together with HIV-1's high evolvability hints that HIV-1 could adapt to a future vaccine. Here, we wanted to investigate the effect of vaccination on the evolution of the virus post-breakthrough infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Scoping future outbreaks: a scoping review on the outbreak prediction of the WHO Blueprint list of priority diseases.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Sep;6(9)

Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The WHO's Research and Development Blueprint priority list designates emerging diseases with the potential to generate public health emergencies for which insufficient preventive solutions exist. The list aims to reduce the time to the availability of resources that can avert public health crises. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic illustrates that an effective method of mitigating such crises is the pre-emptive prediction of outbreaks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Direct-acting antiviral regimens in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A real-world single-center experience.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Background And Study Aims: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has always been identified as a major health threat and a potential cause of liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and other associated problems. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has represented a paradigm shift in HCV management. In this study, we aim to observe the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR12) in a large scale of patients at a single center as well as record the post-treatment changes in the hematologic, hepatic, and renal biochemical profiles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Association of HLA genotypes, AB0 blood type and chemokine receptor 5 mutant CD195 with the clinical course of COVID-19.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Sep 16;26(1):107. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Medical Faculty, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Background: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5).

Patient And Methods: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Autophagy protein NRBF2 attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress via promoting autophagosome maturation by interacting with Rab7 after SAH.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Sep 16;18(1):210. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is the first to show that activation of autophagy protein nuclear receptor binding factor 2 (NRBF2) could reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated inflammation and oxidative stress after SAH.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to endovascular perforation to establish a model of SAH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

An overview of human proteins and genes involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Gene 2021 Sep 13:145963. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, USA; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. Electronic address:

As of July 2021, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to more than 200 million infections and more than 4.2 million deaths globally. Complications of severe COVID-19 include acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and coagulation dysfunction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Stability and conformation of the dimeric HIV-1 genomic RNA 5'UTR.

Biophys J 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine and School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Boston, MA, 02111, USA; Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecules Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA. Electronic address:

During HIV-1 assembly the viral Gag polyprotein specifically selects the dimeric RNA genome for packaging into new virions. The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the dimeric genome may adopt a conformation that is optimal for recognition by Gag. Further conformational rearrangement of the 5'UTR, promoted by the NC domain of Gag, is predicted during virus maturation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Histone demethylase LSD1 promotes RIG-I poly-ubiquitination and anti-viral gene expression.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 16;17(9):e1009918. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Under RNA virus infection, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in host cells recognizes viral RNA and activates the expression of type I IFN. To investigate the roles of protein methyltransferases and demethylases in RIG-I antiviral signaling pathway, we screened all the known related enzymes with a siRNA library and identified LSD1 as a positive regulator for RIG-I signaling. Exogenous expression of LSD1 enhances RIG-I signaling activated by virus stimulation, whereas its deficiency restricts it. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Broadly directed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell response includes frequently detected peptide specificities within the membrane and nucleoprotein in patients with acute and resolved COVID-19.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 16;17(9):e1009842. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Infectious Diseases Unit, I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.

The aim of this study was to define the breadth and specificity of dominant SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes using a comprehensive set of 135 overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleoprotein (N) in a cohort of 34 individuals with acute (n = 10) and resolved (n = 24) COVID-19. Following short-term virus-specific in vitro cultivation, the single peptide-specific CD4+ T cell response of each patient was screened using enzyme linked immuno spot assay (ELISpot) and confirmed by single-peptide intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. 97% (n = 33) of patients elicited one or more N, M or E-specific CD4+ T cell responses and each patient targeted on average 21. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

HAV infection in Brazilian men who have sex with men: The importance of surveillance to avoid outbreaks.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(9):e0256818. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil.

Background: Hepatitis A is a fecal-oral infection caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been reported as target groups for HAV infection. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors, and circulating strains associated with HAV infection among MSM and TW in Central Brazil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Construction, investigation and application of the TEV protease variants with the improved oxidative stability.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Sep 10;31(1). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, 230036, P. R. China.

Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is a useful tool for removing fusion tag, but wild type TEVp is less stable under the oxidized redox state. In this work, we introduced and combined C19S, C110S and C130S into the TEVp variant containing T17S, L56V, N68D, I77V and S135G for improving protein solubility, and S219V for inhibiting self-proteolysis. The solubility and cleavage activity of the constructed variants in strains including BL21(DE3), BL21(DE3)pLys, Rossetta(DE3) and Origami(DE3) under the same induction conditions were analyzed and compared. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S protein is critical for S mediated syncytia formation and virus entry.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The First Affifiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.

SARS-CoV-2 causes the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. S protein is the key viral protein for associating with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. There are many kinds of post-translational modifications in S protein. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

approach to design a multi-epitopic vaccine candidate targeting the non-mutational immunogenic regions in envelope protein and surface glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Sep 16:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

The novel corona virus (COVID-19) is a causative agent for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and responsible for the current human pandemic situation which has caused global social and economic commotion. The currently available vaccines use whole viruses whereas there is scope for peptide based vaccines. Thus, the global raise in statistics of this infection at an alarming rate evoked us to determine a novel and effective vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

regulatory variant with potential effect on efficacy of HIV and cancer drugs commonly prescribed in South Africa.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2000, South Africa.

Despite the high disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and colorectal cancer (CRC) in South Africa (SA), treatment-relevant pharmacogenetic variants are understudied. Using publicly available genotype and gene expression data, a bioinformatic pipeline was developed to identify liver expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). A novel -eQTL, rs28967009, was identified for , which is predicted to upregulate expression thereby potentially affecting the metabolism of dolutegravir and irinotecan, which are extensively prescribed in SA for HIV and colorectal cancer treatment, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Inflammatory epithelial cytokines after respiratory syncytial viral infection are associated with reduced lung function.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Program in Translational Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in early life predispose children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to more severe lung function decline in later life. The mechanisms explaining the associations between RSV and progression of CF lung disease are not clear. In this study, a human bronchial epithelial cell line and primary human nasal epithelial cells (PNECs) from individuals with CF and healthy control donors were infected with RSV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surgical resection for patients with pulmonary aspergillosis in the national inpatient sample.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Aug;13(8):4977-4987

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: The role of lung resection in patients with pulmonary aspergillosis is generally reserved for those with localized disease who fail medical management. We used a national database to investigate the influence of preoperative patient comorbidities on inpatient mortality and need for surgery.

Methods: Patients admitted with pulmonary aspergillosis between 2007 to 2015 were identified in the National Inpatient Sample dataset. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unique protein features of SARS-CoV-2 relative to other Sarbecoviruses.

Virus Evol 2021 23;7(2):veab067. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

MRC/UVRI & LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, Plot 51-59 Nakiwogo Road, P.O Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda.

Defining the unique properties of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protein sequences has potential to explain the range of Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity. To achieve this we compared proteins encoded by all Sarbecoviruses using profile Hidden Markov Model similarities to identify protein features unique to SARS-CoV-2. Consistent with previous reports, a small set of bat- and pangolin-derived Sarbecoviruses show the greatest similarity to SARS-CoV-2 but are unlikely to be the direct source of SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phylodynamics reveals the role of human travel and contact tracing in controlling the first wave of COVID-19 in four island nations.

Virus Evol 2021 8;7(2):veab052. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Computational Evolution, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.

New Zealand, Australia, Iceland, and Taiwan all saw success in controlling their first waves of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). As islands, they make excellent case studies for exploring the effects of international travel and human movement on the spread of COVID-19. We employed a range of robust phylodynamic methods and genome subsampling strategies to infer the epidemiological history of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in these four countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Slippery when wet: cross-species transmission of divergent coronaviruses in bony and jawless fish and the evolutionary history of the .

Virus Evol 2021 31;7(2):veab050. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.

The comprise a genetically diverse group of positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus families that infect a range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Recent metagenomic studies have identified nido-like virus sequences, particularly those related to the , in a range of aquatic hosts including fish, amphibians, and reptiles. We sought to identify additional members of the in both bony and jawless fish through a combination of total RNA sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) and data mining of published RNA sequencing data and from this reveal more of the long-term patterns and processes of coronavirus evolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety Warning for ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccine in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2021 1;13(1):e2021059. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Haematology, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos, Muscat, Oman.

Vaccines against acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV2) are critical weapons to control the spread of the deadly Coronavirus 2019(COVId-19) virus worldwide. Although these vaccines are generally safe, their widespread use has produced reports of rare complications, including vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VIITT), particularly in connection with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We have identified three cases of sickle cell disease (SCD) experiencing a severe vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) shortly after the vaccine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Time to Evaluate the Clinical Repercussions of Zika Virus Vertical Transmission? A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:699115. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Vertical transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) can be associated with several clinical features in newborn infants. The goal of the present review was to analyze the current state of knowledge regarding clinical repercussions following perinatal exposure to ZIKV in children up to 3 years of age. A systematic review of published studies was carried out, without the restriction of language or date of publication, identified in the databases PubMed, Virtual Health Library (BVS), Scopus, and Web of Science and the catalog for CAPES theses and dissertations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessing health-related quality of life and health utilities in patients with chronic hepatitis B-related diseases in China: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 15;11(9):e047475. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics & Henan Key Laboratory for Tumor Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China

Objectives: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utilities of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection, including compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DC) and different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), have not been well described in China. This study aimed to evaluate HRQoL and utilities and provide parameters for the economic evaluation of CHB-related diseases.

Methods: We conducted a multicentre cross-sectional and study to measure the HRQoL of patients with CHB, CC, DC and HCC using the Chinese short form (SF) 36 health survey V. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Predictors of academic performance during the covid-19 outbreak: impact of distance education on mental health, social cognition and memory abilities in an Italian university student sample.

BMC Psychol 2021 Sep 15;9(1):142. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Public Health, Life and Environmental Science, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the impact of distance education (DE) on mental health, social cognition, and memory abilities in a sample of university students during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and to identify the predictors of academic performance.

Methods: Two hundred and three students (76.4% women, mean age 24. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021