1,157,342 results match your criteria virus


Prediction of Covid-19 spreading and optimal coordination of counter-measures: From microscopic to macroscopic models to Pareto fronts.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249676. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Zuse Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The Covid-19 disease has caused a world-wide pandemic with more than 60 million positive cases and more than 1.4 million deaths by the end of November 2020. As long as effective medical treatment and vaccination are not available, non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, self-isolation and quarantine as well as far-reaching shutdowns of economic activity and public life are the only available strategies to prevent the virus from spreading. Read More

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Rapid Serological Tests for Sars-Cov-2: Diagnostic Performance of Four Commercial Assays.

Med Princ Pract 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

To assess the diagnostic performance of lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFA) of four different manufacturers to identify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgM, IgG or total), comparing them with the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or clinical defined (definite or probable SARS-CoV-2 infection respectively).

Methods: 119 serum samples were randomly selected by convenience and distributed in the groups: (1) Group with SARS-CoV-2 infection [n=82; RT-qPCR positive (definite, n=70), and probable (n=12)]; (2) other diseases [n= 27; other viruses identified (n=8), SARS of other etiologies (n=19)]; (3) healthy control group (n=10). LFA essays of four manufacturers were compared: MedTest Coronavírus (COVID-19) IgG/IgM (MedLevensohn, Brazil); COVID-19 IgG/IgM ECO Test (Ecodiagnóstica, Brazil); Camtech COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test Kit (Camtech Diagnostics Pte Ltd, Singapore); and one Step COVID-19 Test for total antibodies (Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech Co, China). Read More

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Rotavirus cell entry: not so simple after all.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Apr 19;48:42-48. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Rotaviruses are important agents of severe gastroenteritis in young children, and show a very selective cell and tissue tropism, as well as significant age and host restriction. In the last few years, these properties have been associated with the initial interaction of the virus with histo-blood group antigens on the cell surface, although post-attachment interactions have also been found to define the susceptibility to infection of human enteroids. These initial interactions seem also to determine the virus entry pathway, as well as the induction of signaling cascades that influence the virus intracellular vesicular traffic and escape from endosomes. Read More

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Variations outside the conserved motifs of PB1 catalytic active site may affect replication efficiency of the RNP complex of influenza A virus.

Virology 2021 Apr 9;559:145-155. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Influenza and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65212, USA; Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, College of Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. Electronic address:

PB1 functions as the catalytic subunit of influenza virus RNA polymerase complex and plays an essential role in viral RNA transcription and replication. To determine plasticity in the PB1 enzymatic site and map catalytically important residues, 658 mutants were constructed, each with one to seven mutations in the enzymatic site of PB1. The polymerase activities of these mutants were quantified using a minigenome assay, and polymerase activity-associated residues were identified using sparse learning. Read More

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[Proposal for territorial analysis to face the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic based on the Profile of pneumonia and Influenza in Ecuador 2016-2018].

Aten Primaria 2021 Feb 23;53(5):102021. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Quito, Ecuador.

Objective: The present study seeks to analyse sociodemographic determinants related to severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and calculate the priorization index in the cantons of Ecuador to identify areas probably most vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission.

Design: This descriptive ecological observational study.

Setting: 224 cantons (geographical area) of Ecuador with secondary data sources of hospital information. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular evolution of the hemagglutinin gene and epidemiological insight into low-pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Egypt.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 14;136:540-549. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Reference Laboratory for Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza 12618, Egypt.

Despite the low pathogenicity of the H9N2 avian influenza viruses, they can induce severe economic losses in various poultry sectors in conjunction with other factors. In Egypt, low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 became endemic in 2011 and has undergone continuous genetic evolution since then. The regular monitoring of the evolution of the virus is necessary to control its spread. Read More

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Cauda equina syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 2-associated meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) after posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery: Case report and review of literature.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 1;205:106624. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Shohada Tajrish Comprehensive Neurosurgical Center of Excellence, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Elsberg syndrome is a rare but well-defined clinical condition, including acute or subacute lumbosacral meningoradiculitis, which might be accompanied by myelitis and is often associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. We report the case of an immunocompetent 24-year-old man who presented with perineal pain, saddle hypoesthesia, and urinary retention associated with Elsberg syndrome due to HSV-2 infection 20-day after the posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium enhancement showed mildly enhanced and swollen right sacral nerve roots. Read More

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Natural killer cells play an important role in virus infection control: Antiviral mechanism, subset expansion and clinical application.

Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 19:108727. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the important role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of various viral infections attracted more interest, via non-specific activation, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and activating receptors, as well as specific activation, such as memory-like NK generation. In response to different viral infections, NK cells fight viruses in different ways, and different NK subsets proliferate. For instance, cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces NKG2C + CD57 + KIR+ NK cells to expand 3-6 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces KIR3DS1+/KIR3DL1 NK cells to expand in the acute phase of infection. Read More

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Characterisation and validation of an in vitro transactivation assay based on the 22Rv1/MMTV_GR-KO cell line to detect human androgen receptor agonists and antagonists.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 19:112206. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, 17546, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We describe the characterisation and validation of an androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assay for detection of AR agonists and antagonists using a stably transfected human prostate cancer cell line. This 22Rv1/mouse mammary tumour virus glucocorticoid knock-out cell line based AR transactivation assay was validated by criteria in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidance Document 34 to determine if the assay performed equally well to the AR EcoScreen Assay included in Test Guideline for AR Transactivation (OECD TG 458). There was no Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) crosstalk, and no changes in the AR DNA sequence in cells after the successful knock out of GR. Read More

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Analysis of the molecular and biological variability of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates from Iran and Iraq.

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145674. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

During the growing season of 2018, several field-grown cucurbit plants in different parts of Iraq and Iran were surveyed for the presence of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), using two degenerate primer pairs (CIF/Rev and NIb2F/3R) targeting the two separated partial regions of the potyvirus genome (CI and NIb respectively). 7 out of 20 samples were confirmed to be infected with ZYMV. Phylogenetic analyses based on the CI gene grouped all Iranian and two Iraqi (ZYMV1 and ZYMV2) isolates together with isolates from the Middle East in the subgroup (AI), whereas the other Iraqi (ZYMV3 and ZYMV4) isolates were clustered in the subgroup (DI), which was only consisted of American isolates. Read More

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Downregulation of miR-218 by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus facilitates viral replication via inhibition of type I interferon responses.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 19:100683. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National Poultry Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are reported to be involved in virus-host interaction. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and microRNAs inhibitors to screen possible microRNAs that can inhibit PRRSV infection on its target cell, porcine alveolar macrophages. Read More

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Discovery of an imidazonaphthyridine and a riminophenazine as potent anti-Zika virus agents through a replicon-based high-throughput screening.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 19:198388. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100, Jardim Santa Angelina, São Carlos, 13563-120, Brazil.

The 2015/16 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic led to almost 1 million confirmed cases in 84 countries and was associated to the development of congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. More recently, a ZIKV African lineage was identified in Brazil raising concerns about a future outbreak. The long-term consequences of viral infection emphasizes the need for the development of effective anti-ZIKV drugs. Read More

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Establishing a gold standard method for the detection of Cherax reovirus using reverse transcriptase, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction.

J Virol Methods 2021 Apr 19:114169. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, 1 Solander Road, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia. Electronic address:

Cherax reovirus infects redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and it may be involved in mortalities between 5-20% and stunting of up to 40% of survivors. The sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was used to develop a reverse transcription, quantitative, PCR (RT-qPCR) which was specific against seven other crustacean viruses (Athtab bunyavirus, Chequa iflavirus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, Gill-associated virus, Taura syndrome virus, White spot syndrome virus, and Penaeus stylirostris Penstylhamaparvovirus) although GAV produced a reaction that was easily separated by melt curve analysis. A strong linear correlation (r = 0. Read More

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Advanced Lyophilised Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (L-LAMP) based point of care technique for the detection of dengue virus.

J Virol Methods 2021 Apr 19:114168. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Parasite Host Biology, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Sector-8, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110077, India. Electronic address:

Dengue virus infects millions of the people globally each year and its diagnosis remains a challenge. Conventionally used diagnostic methods are complex and time consuming. LAMP technique is a potential alternative for diagnosis of dengue virus. Read More

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Coronavirus activates an altruistic stem cell mediated defense mechanism that reactivates dormant tuberculosis: implications in COVID-19 pandemic.

Am J Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Stem Cell and Infectious Diseases, KaviKrishna Laboratory, Guwahati Biotech Park, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India; Department of Stem Cell and Infection, Thoreau Lab for Global Health, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, US. Electronic address:

We postulate that similar to bacteria, adult stem cells may also exhibit an altruistic defense mechanism to protect their niche against external threat. Here, we report mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based altruistic defense against a mouse model of coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) infection of lung. MHV-1 infection led to reprogramming of CD271+MSCs in the lung to an "enhanced stemness" phenotype that exhibits altruistic behavior as per our previous work in human embryonic stem cells. Read More

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Increased resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variant P.1 to antibody neutralization.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about altered sensitivity to antibody-mediated immunity. The relative resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1. Read More

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Risk of Transmitting Coronavirus Disease 2019 During Nebulizer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

There is an urgent need to understand the risk of viral transmission during nebulizer treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To assess the risk of transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and influenza with administration of drugs via nebulizer. We searched multiple electronic databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, preprint databases, and clinicaltrials. Read More

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Site-Specific Lipidation Enhances IFITM3 Membrane Interactions and Antiviral Activity.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, United States.

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are -palmitoylated proteins in vertebrates that restrict a diverse range of viruses. -palmitoylated IFITM3 in particular engages incoming virus particles, prevents their cytoplasmic entry, and accelerates their lysosomal clearance by host cells. However, how -palmitoylation modulates the structure and biophysical characteristics of IFITM3 to promote its antiviral activity remains unclear. Read More

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The Burden of Immune-Mediated Skin Disease in HIV/AIDS Inpatients.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Immune-mediated skin disease (IMSD) in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may manifest during acute infection, AIDS, or as part of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. People living with HIV/AIDS have an increased incidence of psoriasis and eosinophilic folliculitis . Numerous other IMSDs have been described in the context of HIV/AIDS in case reports and series. Read More

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Occurrence and Functions of m6A and Other Covalent Modifications in Plant mRNA1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):79-96

University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is indispensable for the execution of developmental programs and environmental adaptation. Among the many cellular mechanisms that regulate mRNA fate, covalent nucleotide modification has emerged as a major way of controlling the processing, localization, stability, and translatability of mRNAs. This powerful mechanism is conserved across eukaryotes and controls the cellular events that lead to development and growth. Read More

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January 2020

Prevalence of congenital anomalies at birth among live births in the state of Maranhão from 2001 to 2016: temporal and spatial analysis.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 16;24(suppl 1):e210020. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Postgraduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Department of Genetics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.

Objectives: To analyze the prevalence at birth and the spatial and temporal distribution of congenital anomalies (CAs) among live births in the state of Maranhão in 2001 to 2016. To describe demographic, gestational and neonatal variables of interest.

Methods: Ecological, population-based study, using secondary data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC). Read More

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Consensus for the management of analgesia, sedation and delirium in adults with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2021 Jan-Mar;33(1):48-67

Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos General San Martín - La Plata, Argentina.

Objective: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources.

Methods: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Read More

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November 2020

Pathological findings and morphologic correlation of the lungs of autopsied patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Brazilian Amazon using transmission electron microscopy.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 12;54:e0850. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Tropical, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

Introduction: Electron microscopy (EM) is a rapid and effective tool that can be used to create images of a whole spectrum of virus-host interactions and, as such, has long been used in the discovery and description of viral mechanisms.

Methods: Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the pulmonary pathologies of postmortem lung sections from three patients who died from infection with SARS-associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new member of the Coronaviridae family.

Results: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was predominant in all three patients. Read More

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Epidemiological profile and lethality of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in an endemic area in Northeast Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 12;54:e0795. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Pós-Graduação em Biociência Animal, Recife, PE, Brasil.

Introduction: The association of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a concern worldwide, and this co-infection is linked to increased lethality. The Northeast is the region that mostly reports cases of VL in Brazil. The knowledge of risk factors associated with VL/HIV co-infection and its impact on lethality is extremely important. Read More

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Neurological Complications in Patients with Infective Endocarditis: Insights from a Tertiary Centre.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Apr;116(4):682-691

Hospital Garcia de Orta EPE - Cardiologia,1 Almada - Portugal.

Background: Neurological complications are common in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Recent data suggest that neurologic events are a major determinant of prognosis, and that surgery is critical in improving the outcome.

Objective: To characterize patients with IE and neurological complications and to determine predictors of embolization to the central nervous system (CNS) and mortality. Read More

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Population mobility, demographic, and environmental characteristics of dengue fever epidemics in a major city in Southeastern Brazil, 2007-2015.

Cad Saude Publica 2021 16;37(4):e00079620. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

Around 14% of world dengue virus (DENV) cases occur in the Americas, most of them in Brazil. While socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral correlates have been analyzed thoroughly, the role played by population mobility on DENV epidemics, especially at the local level, remains scarce. This study assesses whether the daily pattern of population mobility is associated with DENV incidence in Campinas, a Brazilian major city with over 1. Read More

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The SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronavirus spike proteins are fine-tuned towards temperature and proteases of the human airways.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 22;17(4):e1009500. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Rega Institute, Leuven, Belgium.

The high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 is related to abundant replication in the upper airways, which is not observed for the other highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We here reveal features of the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which optimize the virus towards the human respiratory tract. First, the S proteins exhibit an intrinsic temperature preference, corresponding with the temperature of the upper or lower airways. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) at Mercy Health Hospitals, Toledo, Ohio.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250400. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Pulmonary and Critical Care, Mercy St Vincent Medical Centre, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America.

Importance: The ongoing pandemic of the novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented challenge to global health, never experienced before.

Objective: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Mercy Hospitals.

Design And Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study designed to include every COVID-19 subject aged 18 years or older admitted to Mercy Saint (St) Vincent, Mercy St Charles, and Mercy St Anne's hospital in Toledo, Ohio from January 1, 2020 through June 15th, 2020. Read More

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Temporal clustering of disorder events during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250433. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Computational Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed multiple public health, socio-economic, and institutional crises. Measures taken to slow the spread of the virus have fostered significant strain between authorities and citizens, leading to waves of social unrest and anti-government demonstrations. We study the temporal nature of pandemic-related disorder events as tallied by the "COVID-19 Disorder Tracker" initiative by focusing on the three countries with the largest number of incidents, India, Israel, and Mexico. Read More

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Clinical utility of hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcAg) assay to identify active HCV infection in hemodialysis and renal transplant patients.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250263. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: The prevalence of HCV infection is high and it is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis and renal transplant patients. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires both HCV antibody screening and confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT). Hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcAg) is a reliable direct viral marker to identify active HCV infection. Read More

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