65,875 results match your criteria virulence factor


Proteins from the core genome of Corynebacterium ulcerans respond for pathogenicity and reveal promising vaccine targets for diphtheria.

Microb Pathog 2021 Oct 20:105263. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Laboratory of Genomics and Bioinformatics, Center of Genomics and Systems Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen able to transmit the acute infection diphtheria to humans. Although there is a well-established vaccine based on the toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, another species of this genus known to cause the disease, there is still no vaccine formulations described for C. ulcerans; this fact contributes to the increase in cases of infection that has been observed. Read More

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October 2021

Screening and Assessment of Pisatin Demethylase Activity (PDA ).

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2391:185-190

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Plants produce low molecular weight compounds with antimicrobial activity in response to microbial attack termed phytoalexins. The first phytoalexin identified was (+) pisatin from pea, and several fungi are able to detoxify pisatin to a less inhibitory compound, including F. oxysporum f. Read More

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January 2022

In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized with Beech Bark Extract.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Oct 11;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, "George Emil Palade" University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureș, 38 Gheorghe Marinescu Street, 540139 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Biosynthesis is a green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This study aimed to assess the antifungal activity of two silver nanoparticle solutions, synthesized using beech bark extract (BBE) and acetate and nitrate silver salts (AgNP Acetate BBE and AgNP Nitrate BBE), their influence on biofilm production, their potential synergistic effects with fluconazole, on different spp., and their influence on virulence factors of . Read More

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October 2021

Nanomaterials in the Management of Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.

The exploration of multiplexed bacterial virulence factors is a major problem in the early stages of infection therapy. Traditional methods for detecting (, such as serological experiments, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction, and isothermal microcalorimetry have some drawbacks. As a result, detecting in a timely, cost-effective, and sensitive manner is critical for various areas of human safety and health. Read More

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September 2021

Biofilm Formation of Clinical Strains Isolated from Tracheostomy Tubes and Their Association with Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence and Genetic Diversity.

Pathogens 2021 Oct 18;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Molecular Medical Microbiology, Chair of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 18 Czysta Street, 31-121 Krakow, Poland.

(1) Background: Due to the commonness of tracheotomy procedures and the wide use of biomaterials in the form of tracheostomy tubes (TTs), the problem of biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) is growing. Bacterial colonization of TTs results in the development of biofilms on the surface of biomaterials, which may contribute to the development of invasive infections in tracheostomized patients. (2) Methods: Clinical strains of , isolated from TTs, were characterized according to their ability to form biofilms, as well as their resistance to antibiotics, whether they harbored ESβL genes, the presence of selected virulence factors and genetic diversity. Read More

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October 2021

Bacteria-Cancer Interface: Awaiting the Perfect Storm.

Pathogens 2021 Oct 14;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Biomedicine, The Skou Building, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 10, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Epidemiological evidence reveal a very close association of malignancies with chronic inflammation as a result of persistent bacterial infection. Recently, more studies have provided experimental evidence for an etiological role of bacterial factors disposing infected tissue towards carcinoma. When healthy cells accumulate genomic insults resulting in DNA damage, they may sustain proliferative signalling, resist apoptotic signals, evade growth suppressors, enable replicative immortality, and induce angiogenesis, thus boosting active invasion and metastasis. Read More

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October 2021

Seroprevalence of and Infection and Impact of Related Risk Factors in People from Eastern Slovakia.

Pathogens 2021 Sep 29;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia.

The genus is a rapidly expanding group of ubiquitous bacteria that occur mainly in different animal species, but some can also be transmitted to humans. Three species, , , and , are responsible for the majority of human cases. The severity of the clinical symptoms often depends on the immune status of the patient, but others factors such as the species of the pathogen, virulence factors, and bacterial load also can play an important role. Read More

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September 2021

Zinc Deprivation as a Promising Approach for Combating Methicillin-Resistant : A Pilot Study.

Pathogens 2021 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) infections are a global health burden with an urgent need for antimicrobial agents. Studies have shown that host immune responses limit essential metals such as zinc during infection, leading to the limitation of bacterial virulence. Thus, the deprivation of zinc as an important co-factor for the activity of many enzymes can be a potential antimicrobial approach. Read More

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September 2021

Preparation and Pharmacokinetic Characterization of an Anti-Virulence Compound Nanosuspensions.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Sep 29;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide public health threat due to the rapid evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. CCG-211790 is a novel anti-virulence compound that does not kill bacteria but could ameliorate human diseases by inhibiting expression of virulence factors, thereby applying less selection pressure for antibiotic resistance. However, its potential clinical use is restricted because of its poor aqueous solubility, resulting in formulation challenges. Read More

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September 2021

Antifungal Resistance and Virulence Factors, a Perfect Pathogenic Combination.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Sep 22;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca, Ixtapaluca 56530, Mexico.

In recent years, a progressive increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by has been observed. The objective of this literature review was to study the epidemiology, drug resistance, and virulence factors associated with the complex. For this purpose, a systematic review (January 2001-February 2021) was conducted on the PubMed, Scielo, and Cochrane search engines with the following terms: " complex (, , )" associated with "pathogenicity" or "epidemiology" or "antibiotics resistance" or "virulence factors" with language restrictions of English and Spanish. Read More

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September 2021

Transcriptome Data and Metabolic Modelling Investigate the Interplay of Ser/Thr Kinase PknB, Its Phosphatase Stp, the Regulon and the Operon for Metabolic Adaptation.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 14;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Bioinformatics, Biocenter, Am Hubland, University of Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

Serine/threonine kinase PknB and its corresponding phosphatase Stp are important regulators of many cell functions in the pathogen Genome-scale gene expression data of strain NewHG (sigB) elucidated their effect on physiological functions. Moreover, metabolic modelling from these data inferred metabolic adaptations. We compared wild-type to deletion strains lacking , or both. Read More

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October 2021

Virulence Potential and Treatment Options of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) .

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 6;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh 13317-4233, Saudi Arabia.

is an opportunistic pathogen which is undoubtedly known for a high rate of morbidity and mortality in hospital-acquired infections. . causes life-threatening infections, including; ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), meningitis, bacteremia, and wound and urinary tract infections (UTI). Read More

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October 2021

The Case against Antibiotics and for Anti-Virulence Therapeutics.

Microorganisms 2021 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA.

Although antibiotics have been indispensable in the advancement of modern medicine, there are downsides to their use. Growing resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics is leading to an epidemic of infections untreatable by first-line therapies. Resistance is exacerbated by antibiotics used as growth factors in livestock, over-prescribing by doctors, and poor treatment adherence by patients. Read More

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September 2021

versus Genus : Conservation, Adaptive Evolution and Specific Virulence Genes.

Microorganisms 2021 Sep 23;9(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Functional Genomics & Systems Biology Group, Department of Bioinformatics, Biocenter, Am Hubland, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

is an important fungal genus containing economically important species, as well as pathogenic species of animals and plants. Using eighteen fungal species of the genus , we conducted a comprehensive investigation of conserved genes and their evolution. This also allows us to investigate the selection pressure driving the adaptive evolution in the pathogenic species Among single-copy orthologs (SCOs) for and the closely related species , we identified 122 versus 50 positively selected genes (PSGs), respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Cell Wall Integrity Pathway Involved in Morphogenesis, Virulence and Antifungal Susceptibility in .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 5;7(10). Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28222 Madrid, Spain.

Due to its location, the fungal cell wall is the compartment that allows the interaction with the environment and/or the host, playing an important role during infection as well as in different biological functions such as cell morphology, cell permeability and protection against stress. All these processes involve the activation of signaling pathways within the cell. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the main route responsible for maintaining the functionality and proper structure of the cell wall. Read More

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October 2021

Unveiling the Role Displayed by Transcription Factor in Pathogen-Fruit Interaction.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 3;7(10). Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, 46113 Moncada, Spain.

ZnCys transcription factors are unique to fungi and are involved in different regulatory functions. In this study, we have identified the gene, which encodes a putative Zn (II) 2Cys6 DNA-binding protein. Elimination of in Pd1 strain caused increased virulence during citrus infection. Read More

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October 2021

Bacterial Quorum-Quenching Lactonase Hydrolyzes Fungal Mycotoxin and Reduces Pathogenicity of -Suggesting a Mechanism of Bacterial Antagonism.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 2;7(10). Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Migal-Galilee Research Institute, Kiryat Shmona 11016, Israel.

is a necrotrophic wound fungal pathogen that secrets virulence factors to kill host cells including cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs), proteases, and mycotoxins such as patulin. During the interaction between and its fruit host, these virulence factors are strictly modulated by intrinsic regulators and extrinsic environmental factors. In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in research on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity in ; however, less is known regarding the bacteria-fungal communication in the fruit environment that may affect pathogenicity. Read More

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October 2021

The Distribution of Virulence Genes in Genomes Worldwide Derived from the NCBI Pathogen Detection Database.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;12(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-598, RJ, Brazil.

() is responsible for 80% of human campylobacteriosis and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis globally. The relevant public health risks of are caused by particular virulence genes encompassing its virulome. We analyzed 40,371 publicly available genomes of deposited in the NCBI Pathogen Detection Database, combining their epidemiologic metadata with an in silico bioinformatics analysis to increase our current comprehension of their virulome from a global perspective. Read More

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September 2021

Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized with Spruce Bark Extract-A Molecular Aggregate with Antifungal Activity against Species.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Oct 17;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, "George Emil Palade" University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureș, 38 Gheorghe Marinescu Street, Mureș, 540139 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Due to their high content of biomolecules, combined with silver's well known antimicrobial potential, silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using spruce bark (AgNP SBEs) demonstrate antibacterial and antioxidant activity, making them a versatile option for developing new antimicrobial agents that might be used for medical treatment or as adjuvants for the classical agents. This study aims to analyze if silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) mediated by spruce bark extract (SBE) and silver salts (AgNP SBE Acetate, AgNP SBE Nitrate) presents antifungal activity against five different spp., synergistic activity with fluconazole, and if they interact with some virulence factors of . Read More

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October 2021

Imipenem Resistance Mediated by Gene in .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Bacterial Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si 39660, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

Treatment of infectious diseases caused by carbapenem-resistant is becoming a greater challenge. This study aimed to identify the imipenem resistance mechanism in isolated from a dog. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Read More

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September 2021

  and Antibiotic Efflux Pump Variants Exhibit Increased Virulence.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Sep 25;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Antibiotic-resistant infections are the primary cause of mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Yet, it has only recently become appreciated that resistance mutations can also increase virulence, even in the absence of antibiotics. Moreover, the mechanisms by which resistance mutations increase virulence are poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Nanostructures as Targeted Therapeutics for Combating Oral Bacterial Diseases.

Biomedicines 2021 Oct 10;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Division of Research and Development, Pharmin USA, LLC, San Jose, CA 95128, USA.

Pathogenic oral biofilms are now recognized as a key virulence factor in many microorganisms that cause the heavy burden of oral infectious diseases. Recently, new investigations in the nanotechnology field have propelled the development of novel biomaterials and approaches to control bacterial biofilms, either independently or in combination with other substances such as drugs, bioactive molecules, and photosensitizers used in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to target different cells. Moreover, nanoparticles (NPs) showed some interesting capacity to reverse microbial dysbiosis, which is a major problem in oral biofilm formation. Read More

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October 2021

Plague Prevention and Therapy: Perspectives on Current and Future Strategies.

Biomedicines 2021 Oct 9;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.

Plague, caused by the bacterial pathogen , is a vector-borne disease that has caused millions of human deaths over several centuries. Presently, human plague infections continue throughout the world. Transmission from one host to another relies mainly on infected flea bites, which can cause enlarged lymph nodes called buboes, followed by septicemic dissemination of the pathogen. Read More

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October 2021

In-Depth Analysis of the Role of the Acinetobactin Cluster in the Virulence of .

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:752070. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Servicio de Microbiología del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), A Coruña, Spain.

is a multidrug-resistant pathogen that represents a serious threat to global health. possesses a wide range of virulence factors that contribute to the bacterial pathogenicity. Among them, the siderophore acinetobactin is one of the most important, being essential for the development of the infection. Read More

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October 2021

FliW and CsrA Govern Flagellin (FliC) Synthesis and Play Pleiotropic Roles in Virulence and Physiology of R20291.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:735616. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States.

flagellin FliC is associated with toxin gene expression, bacterial colonization, and virulence, and is also involved in pleiotropic gene regulation during infection. However, how expression is regulated in remains unclear. In , flagellin homeostasis and motility are coregulated by flagellar assembly factor (FliW), flagellin Hag (FliC homolog), and Carbon storage regulator A (CsrA), which is referred to as partner-switching mechanism "FliW-CsrA-Hag. Read More

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October 2021

Iron-Rich Conditions Induce OmpA and Virulence Changes of .

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:725194. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Fujian Longyan First Hospital/Longyan First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Longyan, China.

Iron ions affect the expression of outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a major pathogenic protein in To analyze the effect of iron ions on the expression of the OmpA protein of and explore its association with the virulence of OmpA. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct gene deletion strains and gene repair strains. The OmpA protein expression of under culture with different contents of iron ions was detected. Read More

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October 2021

A Substituted Diphenyl Amide Based Novel Scaffold Inhibits Virulence in a Infection Model.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:723133. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Antimicrobial compounds can combat microbes through modulating host immune defense, inhibiting bacteria survival and growth, or through impeding or inhibiting virulence factors. In the present study, a panel of substituted diphenyl amide compounds previously found to disrupt bacterial quorum sensing were investigated and several were found to promote survival in the model when provided therapeutically to treat a Gram-positive bacterial infection from methicillin-resistant strain MW2. Out of 21 tested compounds, -4-Methoxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propanamide (AMI 82B) was the most potent at disrupting . Read More

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October 2021

Prevalence of ExoY Activity in Reference Panel Strains and Impact on Cytotoxicity in Epithelial Cells.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:666097. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Unité de Biochimie des Interactions Macromoléculaires, Département de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3528, Paris, France.

ExoY is among the effectors that are injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS) of into host cells. Inside eukaryotic cells, ExoY interacts with F-actin, which stimulates its potent nucleotidyl cyclase activity to produce cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs). ExoY has broad substrate specificity with GTP as a preferential substrate . Read More

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October 2021

Full-length TprK of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in lipid nanodiscs is a monomeric porin.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Aug 25;153:109897. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing 210042, China. Electronic address:

TprK is a key virulence factor of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) due to its ability to undergo intra-strain antigenic variation through gene conversion. Read More

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Emerging roles of ferroptosis in infectious diseases.

FEBS J 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (IPBS), University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France.

In living organisms, lipid peroxidation is a continuously occurring cellular process and therefore involved in various physiological and pathological contexts. Among the broad variety of lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constitute a major target of oxygenation either when released as mediators by phospholipases or when present in membranous phospholipids. The last decade has seen the characterization of an iron- and lipid peroxidation-dependent cell necrosis, namely ferroptosis that involves the accumulation of peroxidized PUFA-containing phospholipids. Read More

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October 2021