105 results match your criteria virtually pneumococcal

Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

The human microbiome, which consists of a collective cluster of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in the human body, plays a key role in host health and immunity. The human nasal cavity harbors commensal bacteria that suppress the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. However, dysbiosis of the nasal microbial community is associated with many diseases, such as acute respiratory infections including otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis and allergic respiratory diseases including asthma. Read More

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Emergence of gram-negative organisms as the cause of infections in patients with sickle cell disease.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 01 31;68(1):e28784. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Patients with sickle cell disease are at higher risk of infections with encapsulated bacteria due to immature immune responses and functional asplenia. We aimed to study our patient population for the emergence of gram-negative organisms other than Salmonella as the cause of osteomyelitis and document a vast decrease in Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia rates.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 158 patients with sickle cell disease registered at our hospital. Read More

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January 2021

SARS-CoV2 coronavirus: so far polite with children. Debatable immunological and non-immunological evidence.

F Álvez

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2020 Sep - Oct;48(5):500-506. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Vaccines and Pediatric Infections (GENVIP), Infectious Diseases and Vaccines Unit (UNIV), University Clinical Hospital, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectology, Spain. Electronic address:

The reasons for the relative resistance of children to certain infections such as that caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV2 are not yet fully clear. Deciphering these differences can provide important information about the pathogenesis of the disease. Regarding the SARS-CoV2 virus, children are at the same risk of infection as the general population of all ages, with the most serious cases being found in infants. Read More

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October 2020

Reduction of antimicrobial resistant pneumococci seven years after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Iceland.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(3):e0230332. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Background: Penicillin non-susceptible (PNSP) and multi-resistant pneumococci have been prevalent in Iceland since early nineties, mainly causing problems in treatment of acute otitis media. The 10-valent protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV) was introduced into the childhood vaccination program in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) in Iceland 2011-2017. Read More

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New Strategy Is Needed to Prevent Pneumococcal Meningitis.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 04;39(4):298-304

Department of Microbiology and Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) target the pneumococcal capsular types that most commonly cause fatal pneumonia and sepsis. Because these types were eliminated by the vaccines, it became apparent that in immunized populations, most invasive pneumococcal diseases, including bacteremia, sepsis and complicated pneumonia, were greatly reduced. However, the protective effects of PCVs against another invasive disease, meningitis, has shown much less or no decrease in disease incidence. Read More

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Novel Immunoprotective Proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae Identified by Opsonophagocytosis Killing Screen.

Infect Immun 2018 09 22;86(9). Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Center for Infectious Disease Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

The success of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines represents a major advance in the prevention of pneumococcal disease, but the power of these vaccines is limited by partial spectrum of coverage and high cost. Vaccines using immunoprotective proteins are a promising alternative type of pneumococcal vaccines. In this study, we constructed a library of antisera against conserved pneumococcal proteins predicted to be associated with cell surface or virulence using a combination of bioinformatic prediction and immunization of rabbits with recombinant proteins. Read More

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September 2018

The Pneumococcal Type 1 Pilus Genes Are Thermoregulated and Are Repressed by a Member of the Snf2 Protein Family.

J Bacteriol 2017 08 11;199(15). Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

In , the type 1 pilus is involved in many steps of pathogenesis, including adherence to epithelial cells, mediation of inflammation, escape from macrophages, and the formation of biofilms. The type 1 pilus genes are expressed in a bistable fashion with cells switching between "on" and "off" expression states. Bistable expression of these genes is due to their control by RlrA, a positive regulator subject to control by a positive-feedback loop. Read More

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Improving pneumococcal vaccination rates of medical inpatients in urban Nepal using quality improvement measures.

BMJ Qual Improv Rep 2016 10;5(1). Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Patan Hospital, Nepal.

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality in low income countries. In Nepal, there is a high lung disease burden and incidence of pneumonia due to multiple factors including indoor air pollution, dust exposure, recurrent infections, and cigarette smoking. Despite the ready availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines (PNV), vaccine coverage rates remain suboptimal globally. Read More

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November 2016

Ten-Year Study of Acute Otitis Media in Rochester, NY.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 09;35(9):1027-32

From the Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Immunobiology, Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, Rochester, New York.

This review summarizes a prospective, longitudinal 10-year study in Rochester, NY, involving 760 children where virtually all clinically diagnosed acute otitis media (AOM) was confirmed by bacterial culture of middle ear fluid. This review describes detection of otopathogens in middle ear fluid, nasopharyngeal (NP) otopathogen colonization patterns, AOM risk factor analysis, biomarkers of AOM and antibody responses to NP colonization by otopathogens. After licensure of PCV13, there was an immediate drop in AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccine serotypes and shortly thereafer an increase in nonvaccine types 16, 21 and 35B. Read More

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September 2016

Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Mar 5;17(3):343. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Read More

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Comparison of the clinical presentations of Naegleria fowleri primary amoebic meningoencephalitis with pneumococcal meningitis: a case-control study.

Infection 2016 Aug 27;44(4):505-11. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare but fatal infection caused by Naegleria fowleri. The infection is acquired by deep nasal irrigation with infected water. Patients present with signs and symptoms similar to pneumococcal meningitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment and hence high mortality. Read More

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Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol 2015 ;33(3):16-22

The biofilm process in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is described. Virtually all wild-type pneumococci are capable of the biofilm formation. The pneumococcal capsule may reduce the biofilm production, and the propensity to form biofilms has a reverse correlation with the amount of the capsule material. Read More

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December 2015

Next generation protein based Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 ;12(1):194-205

a Research Institute; Rochester General Hospital ; Rochester , NY USA.

All currently available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines have limitations due to their capsular serotype composition. Both the 23-valent Spn polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and 7, 10, or 13-valent Spn conjugate vaccines (PCV-7, 10, -13) are serotype-based vaccines and therefore they elicit only serotype-specific immunity. Emergence of replacement Spn strains expressing other serotypes has consistently occurred following introduction of capsular serotype based Spn vaccines. Read More

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December 2016

Role of siglecs and related glycan-binding proteins in immune responses and immunoregulation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Mar 13;135(3):598-608. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital Medical Center, and Department of Pathology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Virtually all cells and extracellular material are heavily decorated by various glycans, yet our understanding of the structure and function of these moieties lags behind the understanding of nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Recent years have seen a tremendous acceleration of knowledge in the field of glycobiology, revealing many intricacies and functional contributions that were previously poorly appreciated or even unrecognized. This review highlights several topics relevant to glycoimmunology in which mammalian and pathogen-derived glycans displayed on glycoproteins and other scaffolds are recognized by specific glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), leading to a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cellular responses. Read More

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The impact of pneumolysin on the macrophage response to Streptococcus pneumoniae is strain-dependent.

PLoS One 2014 8;9(8):e103625. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the world's leading cause of pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis and otitis media. A major pneumococcal virulence factor is the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, which has the defining property of forming pores in cholesterol-containing membranes. In recent times a clinically significant and internationally successful serotype 1 ST306 clone has been found to express a non-cytolytic variant of Ply (Ply306). Read More

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Pneumococcal PspA and PspC proteins: potential vaccine candidates for experimental otitis media.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Sep 24;78(9):1517-21. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Departments of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Objective: Otitis media is the most commonly diagnosed disease in ambulatory care and Streptococcuspneumoniae continues to be the most common bacterial agent. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics underscores the need for better vaccines. Current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are modestly protective against otitis media; however, limited serotype coverage and serotype replacement have led to the investigation of pneumococcal proteins as potential vaccine candidates. Read More

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September 2014

Multilaboratory assessment of threshold versus fold-change algorithms for minimizing analytical variability in multiplexed pneumococcal IgG measurements.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2014 Jul 7;21(7):982-8. Epub 2014 May 7.

ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Departments of Pathology, Pediatrics, and Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Pneumococcal vaccination is frequently used to assess a patient's humoral immune function. The comparison of pre- and postvaccination levels of antipneumococcal antibodies is widely held to be the gold standard for documenting a response. However, many of the published criteria for defining an adequate response are based on assays that are no longer widely available. Read More

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[Pneumococcal lobar (croupose) pneumonias: clinical and morphological characteristics].

Arkh Patol 2013 May-Jun;75(3):22-30

The paper presents data on morbidity and mortality rates from pneumococcal pneumonias and current views on the properties of pneumococcus. Analysis of the autopsy specimens obtained from Irkutsk and Saint-Petersburg shows that pneumococcal lobar pneumonia remains a common disease. A lethal outcome more frequently occurs during the first 24 hours of hospitalization, there is a high rate of discrepancy between the clinical and autopsy diagnoses. Read More

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September 2013

Acute otitis media otopathogens during 2008 to 2010 in Rochester, New York.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 Aug;32(8):805-809

Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY 14621.

Background: The otopathogen distribution colonizing the nasopharynx (NP) and causing acute otitis media (AOM) is in flux following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) and will continue to change.

Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven children were followed prospectively; tympanocentesis was performed during AOM and 208 NP samples were collected to compare with middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates. Eight hundred sixty-three NP samples were collected at 7 healthy visits between 6 and 30 months of age. Read More

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The pneumococcus: epidemiology, microbiology, and pathogenesis.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2013 Jul 1;3(7). Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor, and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

The pneumococcus is the classic Gram-positive extracellular pathogen. The medical burden of diseases it causes is amongst the greatest in the world. Intense study for more than 100 years has yielded an understanding of fundamental aspects of its physiology, pathogenesis, and immunity. Read More

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Physical characterization and formulation development of a recombinant pneumolysoid protein-based pneumococcal vaccine.

J Pharm Sci 2013 Feb 18;102(2):387-400. Epub 2012 Nov 18.

Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of death in children worldwide. There are more than 90 known pneumococcus serotypes that vary by geographical location. Pneumolysin is a protein toxin produced by virtually all invasive strains of S. Read More

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February 2013

Combat pneumococcal infections: adhesins as candidates for protein-based vaccine development.

Curr Drug Targets 2012 Mar;13(3):323-37

Department Genetics of Microorganisms, Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 15a, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an asymptomatic colonizer of the upper respiratory tract in humans. However, these apparently harmless bacteria have also a high virulence potential and are known as the etiologic agent of respiratory and life-threatening invasive diseases. Dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx into the lungs or bloodstream leads to community-acquired pneumonia, septicaemia and meningitis. Read More

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Acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children: epidemiology and management.

Paediatr Drugs 2011 Dec;13(6):385-400

St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) continues to be associated with high mortality and morbidity, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. The causative organism varies with age, immune function, immunization status, and geographic region, and empiric therapy for meningitis is based on these factors. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis cause the majority of cases of ABM. Read More

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December 2011

Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage with high heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in Central Greece.

Vaccine 2011 Nov 28;29(48):8882-7. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, General University Hospital of Larissa, Biopolis, 411 10 Larissa, Greece.

In order to study whether the use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) led to a shift in the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and whether it modified the resistance to antibiotics, 2649 nasopharyngeal samples were obtained between 2005 and 2009, from children attending day-care centers in Central Greece. The percentage of attendees vaccinated with ≥1 dose of PCV7 increased from 12.9% (2005) to 95. Read More

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November 2011

Synthesis of capsular polysaccharide at the division septum of Streptococcus pneumoniae is dependent on a bacterial tyrosine kinase.

Mol Microbiol 2011 Oct 19;82(2):515-34. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, Apartado 127, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal.

One of the main virulence factors of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is the capsule, present at the bacterial surface, surrounding the entire cell. Virtually all the 90 different capsular serotypes of S. pneumoniae, which vary in their chemical composition, express two conserved proteins, Wzd and Wze, which regulate the rate of the synthesis of capsule. Read More

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October 2011

Heterogeneity of Tn5253-like composite elements in clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Apr 24;55(4):1453-9. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Microbiology, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy.

Several drug resistances in Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with mobile genetic elements, which are loosely subdivided into a group of smaller (18- to 27-kb) and a group of larger (>50-kb) elements. While the elements of the former group, which typically carry the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(M) and whose prototype is Tn916 (18 kb), have been studied extensively, the larger elements, whose prototype is Tn5253 (∼65.5 kb), are not as well explored. Read More

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Pre- and post-conjugate vaccine epidemiology of pneumococcal serotype 6C invasive disease and carriage within Navajo and White Mountain Apache communities.

Clin Infect Dis 2010 Dec 29;51(11):1258-65. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Background: A second-generation 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13, was recently licensed. Although PCV13 includes serotype 6A, the usefulness of that antigen may be limited by the emergence of a new serotype, 6C, which was identified among isolates initially characterized (Quellung reaction) as serotype 6A. The epidemiology of serotype 6C prior to and after 7-valent PCV (PCV7) introduction is incompletely understood. Read More

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December 2010

Linezolid treatment of shunt-related cerebrospinal fluid infections in children.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2010 May;5(5):443-8

Department of Neurosurgery, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Object: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a cause of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection is a disconcerting phenomenon that often requires the use of alternative antimicrobial agents due to resistance against commonly used medications. Linezolid, a member of a new class of antimicrobial agents, has good activity against virtually all important gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. The object of this article is to report a single-center experience with linezolid treatment in 6 young patients with VP shunt infections caused by drug-resistant strains. Read More

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Invasive pneumococcal disease a decade after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in an American Indian population at high risk for disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2010 May;50(9):1238-46

Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Before 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates among Navajo were several-fold those of the general US population. Only 50% of IPD cases in children involved PCV7 serotypes.

Methods: We conducted active, population-based surveillance for IPD for the period 1995-2006. Read More

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New patterns in the otopathogens causing acute otitis media six to eight years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010 Apr;29(4):304-9

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Objective: To describe NP and AOM otopathogens during the time frame 2007 to 2009, 6 to 8 years after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) in the United States and to compare nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology in children 6 to 36 months of age having first and second AOM episodes with children who are otitis prone.

Methods: Prospectively, the microbiology of NP colonization and AOM episodes was determined in 120 children with absent or infrequent AOM episodes. NP samples were collected at 7 routine visits between 6 and 30 months of age and at the time of AOM. Read More

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