901,235 results match your criteria viral


A viral genome packaging motor transitions between cyclic and helical symmetry to translocate dsDNA.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Molecular segregation and biopolymer manipulation require the action of molecular motors to do work by applying directional forces to macromolecules. The additional strand conserved E (ASCE) ring motors are an ancient family of molecular motors responsible for diverse biological polymer manipulation tasks. Viruses use ASCE segregation motors to package their genomes into their protein capsids and provide accessible experimental systems due to their relative simplicity. Read More

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Alternative glycosylation controls endoplasmic reticulum dynamics and tubular extension in mammalian cells.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomolecular Medicine and Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central eukaryotic organelle with a tubular network made of hairpin proteins linked by hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate nucleotides. Among posttranslational modifications initiated at the ER level, glycosylation is the most common reaction. However, our understanding of the impact of glycosylation on the ER structure remains unclear. Read More

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Asymptomatic COVID-19 re-infection in a Japanese male by elevated half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) of neutralizing antibodies.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: "Re-infection" with COVID-19 is a growing concern; re-infection cases have reported worldwide. However, the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 re-infection, including the levels and role of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein IgG antibodies and the half-maximal concentration (IC) of neutralizing antibodies remain unknown.

Methods: Both the epidemiological and clinical information has been collected during two episodes of COVID-19 in a patient. Read More

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Prevention of hepatitis B mother-to-child transmission in Namibia: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

Vaccine 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Health Economics Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Despite access to a safe and effective vaccine, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persists in Africa. This is of concern since perinatally-infected infants are at highest risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, a life-threatening consequence of chronic HBV infection. While tools to prevent HBV MTCT are available, the cost implications of these interventions need consideration prior to implementation. Read More

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Incarceration and compulsory rehabilitation impede use of medication for opioid use disorder and HIV care engagement in Vietnam.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 1:108451. Epub 2021 May 1.

Addiction Medicine Program, Dept. of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Oregon Health & Science University-Portland State University School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Non-prescribed opioid use is illegal in Vietnam. People who are apprehended for use of non-prescribed opioids may be arrested and incarcerated or sent to compulsory rehabilitation centers. For those on medication to treat opioid use disorder (MOUD), incarceration in either setting may disrupt treatment. Read More

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An application of slow feature analysis to the genetic sequences of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

Hum Genomics 2021 May 7;15(1):26. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology and Center for Visual Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.

Background: Mathematical approaches have been for decades used to probe the structure of DNA sequences. This has led to the development of Bioinformatics. In this exploratory work, a novel mathematical method is applied to probe the DNA structure of two related viral families: those of coronaviruses and those of influenza viruses. Read More

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Wolbachia: endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and their vectors.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):245. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Background: Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular maternally transmitted, gram-negative bacterium which forms a spectrum of endosymbiotic relationships from parasitism to obligatory mutualism in a wide range of arthropods and onchocercid nematodes, respectively. In arthropods Wolbachia produces reproductive manipulations such as male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility for its propagation and provides an additional fitness benefit for the host to protect against pathogens, whilst in onchocercid nematodes, apart from the mutual metabolic dependence, this bacterium is involved in moulting, embryogenesis, growth and survival of the host.

Methods: This review details the molecular data of Wolbachia and its effect on host biology, immunity, ecology and evolution, reproduction, endosymbiont-based treatment and control strategies exploited for filariasis. Read More

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Imported Hyalomma ticks in the Netherlands 2018-2020.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):244. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Background: Ticks of the genus Hyalomma, which are vectors for several tick-borne diseases, are occasionally found in areas outside their endemic range including northern parts of Europe. The objective of this study was to analyse adult Hyalomma ticks that were recently found in the Netherlands.

Methods: Hyalomma ticks were morphologically identified. Read More

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Repurposing existing medications for coronavirus disease 2019: protocol for a rapid and living systematic review.

Syst Rev 2021 May 7;10(1):143. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has no confirmed specific treatments. However, there might be in vitro and early clinical data as well as evidence from severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome that could inform clinicians and researchers. This systematic review aims to create priorities for future research of drugs repurposed for COVID-19. Read More

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Glycated ACE2 receptor in diabetes: open door for SARS-COV-2 entry in cardiomyocyte.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 May 7;20(1):99. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Piazza Miraglia, 2, 80138, Naples, Italy.

Rationale: About 50% of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) developed myocardial damage. The mechanisms of direct SARS-CoV-2 cardiomyocyte infection include viral invasion via ACE2-Spike glycoprotein-binding. In DM patients, the impact of glycation of ACE2 on cardiomyocyte invasion by SARS-CoV-2 can be of high importance. Read More

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Epidemiology of pediatric sepsis in the pediatric intensive care unit of king Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

BMC Pediatr 2021 May 7;21(1):222. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, P.O. Box 65362, Jeddah, 21556, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Pediatric sepsis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to identify the incidence of sepsis and septic shock among patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia.  Patients' demographics and risk factors associated with sepsis-related mortality were also investigated. Read More

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The role of endoscopy and findings in COVID-19 patients, an early North American Cohort.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 7;21(1):205. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Background And Aims: Gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are common but the role of endoscopy in this patient population remains unclear. We investigated the need for endoscopic procedures, their findings, and impact on patient care in a systematic and geographically diverse sample of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: As part of the North American Alliance for the Study of Digestive Manifestations of COVID-19, we identified consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 36 medical centers in the USA and Canada. Read More

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Cytomegalovirus in urinary sediment in patients with acute kidney injury.

BMC Nephrol 2021 May 8;22(1):169. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation is associated with frequent infections. Renal allograft recipients are susceptible to opportunistic infections and can acquire human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections even within the allograft. There, HCMV can be found in both the glomerulus and tubular cells, but is mostly restricted to specific and circumscribed sites. Read More

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Self-management interventions for adolescents living with HIV: a systematic review.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 7;21(1):431. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Self-management interventions aim to enable people living with chronic conditions to increase control over their condition in order to achieve optimal health and may be pertinent for young people with chronic illnesses such as HIV. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management interventions for improving health-related outcomes of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) and identify the components that are most effective, particularly in low-resource settings with a high HIV burden.

Methods: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies. Read More

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1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines: Efficient one-step synthesis and functionalization as influenza polymerase PA-PB1 interaction disruptors.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 26;221:113494. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via Del Liceo 1, 06123, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

In the search for new anti-influenza virus (IV) compounds, we have identified the 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (TZP) as a very suitable scaffold to obtain compounds able to disrupt IV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) PA-PB1 subunits heterodimerization. In this work, in order to acquire further SAR insights for this class of compounds and identify more potent derivatives, we designed and synthesized additional series of analogues to investigate the role of the substituents around the TZP core. To this aim, we developed four facile and efficient one-step procedures for the synthesis of 5-phenyl-, 6-phenyl- and 7-phenyl-2-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and 2-amino-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ol. Read More

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Several forms of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in wastewaters: Implication for wastewater-based epidemiology and risk assessment.

Water Res 2021 Apr 22;198:117183. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Eau de Paris, R&D and Water quality department, 33 avenue Jean Jaurès, F-94200 Ivry sur Seine, France.

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a public health emergency of international concern. Although SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be mainly transmitted by inhalation of contaminated droplets and aerosols, SARS-CoV-2 is also detected in human feces and to a less extent in urine, and in raw wastewaters (to date viral RNA only) suggesting that other routes of infection may exist. Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 genomes in wastewaters has been proposed as a complementary approach for tracing the dynamics of virus transmission within human population connected to wastewater network. Read More

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Prediction of Photolysis Kinetics of Viral Genomes under UV Irradiation to Estimate Virus Infectivity Loss.

Water Res 2021 Apr 21;198:117165. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

UV irradiation disinfection is a commonly used method to inactivate pathogenic viruses in water and wastewater treatment. Model prediction method can serve as a pre-screening tool to quickly estimate the effectiveness of UV irradiation on emerging or unculturable viruses. In this study, an improved prediction model was applied to estimate UV photolysis kinetics of viral genomes (k) based on the genome sequences and their photoreactivity and to correlate with the experimental virus infectivity loss kinetics (k). Read More

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Molecular characterisation and epidemiology of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa 2018-2019.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104845. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa and the National Health Laboratory Service, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Enteroviruses are amongst the most common causes of aseptic meningitis. Between November 2018 and May 2019, an outbreak of enterovirus-associated aseptic meningitis cases was noted in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and phylogeography of enterovirus infections during an aseptic meningitis outbreak in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa. Read More

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Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of a measles outbreak in northern Vietnam, 2013-2014.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104840. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Background: A nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Vietnam between 2013 and 2014.

Objectives: To provide an overview on the 2013-2014 measles outbreak in northern Vietnam using epidemiological and molecular analysis of the measles virus (MeV).

Study Design: Epidemiological information was collected from all suspected cases of measles/rubella. Read More

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Cargo encapsulated hepatitis E virus-like particles for anti-HEV antibody detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 22;185:113261. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

Viral capsid-nanoparticle hybrid structures incorporating quantum dots (QDs) into virus-like particles (VLPs) constitute an emerging bioinspired type of nanoarchitecture paradigm used for various applications. In the present study, we packed inorganic QDs in vitro into the hepatitis E virus-like particle (HEV-LP) and developed a fluorometric biosensor for HEV antibody detection. Firstly, for the preparation of QDs-encapsulated HEV-LPs (QDs@HEV-LP), the HEV-LPs produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system were disassembled and reassembled in the presence of QDs using the self-assembly approach. Read More

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Natural history of EBV replication and viral load dynamics after alemtuzumab based allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK; Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and is often used as a trigger for pre-emptive therapies aiming to reduce EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene solely based on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess if our strategy reduces over-treatment without compromising outcomes. Read More

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A comparative study of real-time RT-PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 detection methods and its application to human-derived and surface swabbed material.

J Mol Diagn 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich and Medical Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains a gold standard in detection of various viral diseases. In the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple RT-PCR based tests were developed to screen for viral infection. As an emergency response to growing testing demand, we established a SARS-CoV-2 PCR diagnostics platform for which we compared different commercial and in-house RT-PCR protocols. Read More

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Therapeutic Approaches for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Methods 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Advanced Research (CFAR), Faculty of Medicine, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment leverage on crucial target proteins of SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. It's been approximately 12 months of pandemic and yet there is no known specific drugs are available. However, research is progressing with time in terms of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) and rational design of repurposed, novel synthetic and natural products drug discovery by understanding the viral life cycle, immuno-pathological and clinical outcomes in patients based on host's nutritional, metabolic and lifestyle status. Read More

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Replication competence of canine distemper virus in cell lines expressing signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) of goat, sheep and dog origin.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 4:104940. Epub 2021 May 4.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, 243122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Cellular receptors play an important role in entry and cell to cell spread of morbillivirus infections. The cells expressing SLAM and Nectin-4 have been used for successful and efficient isolation of canine distemper virus (CDV) in high titre. There are several methods for generation of cells expressing receptor molecules. Read More

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Global burden of acute viral hepatitis and its association with socioeconomic development status, 1990-2019.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; Hepatology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) represents an important global health problem; however, the progress in understanding AVH is limited because of the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections. Therefore, an improved understanding of the burden of AVH is required to help design strategies for global intervention.

Methods: Data of four major AVH types, including acute hepatitis A (AHA), AHB, AHC, and AHE, excluding AHD, were collected by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database. Read More

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Wnt antagonists suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 productive infection.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105082. Epub 2021 May 4.

Oklahoma State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Stillwater, OK 74078. Electronic address:

Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infections within neurons, including sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus transmission and recurrent disease. In the absence of lytic cycle viral transcriptional proteins, host factors are predicted to mediate early stages of reactivation from latency. Read More

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AlphaB-crystallin promotes porcine circovirus type 2 replication in a cell proliferation-dependent manner.

Virus Res 2021 May 4:198435. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Avian Bioproduct Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Institutes of Agricultural Science and Technology Development, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China; Postgraduate Training Station of Jiangsu Province, Taizhou, Jiangsu, 225511, China. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and causes heavy economic losses to the porcine industry worldwide. In this study, PK-15 cells were infected with PCV2 for 48 h, then harvested and subjected to label-free quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. In total, 1212 proteins were differentially expressed in PCV2-infected cells compared with mock-infected cells, including 796 upregulated and 416 downregulated proteins. Read More

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Light and electron microscopy imaging unveils new aspects of the antiviral capacity of silver nanoparticles in bunyavirus-infected cells.

Virus Res 2021 May 4:198444. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cell Structure Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology, CNB-CSIC, campus UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Drug repurposing is an important source of new antivirals because many compounds used to treat a variety of pathologies also hamper viral infections. Habitually, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used to treat bacterial and fungal infections and their antiviral properties have been also reported. In this work, we have studied the antiviral capacity of AgNPs in cells infected with Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), the prototype of the Bunyavirales order. Read More

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Characterization of Litopenaeus vannamei secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine -like in WSSV infection.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 May 4:107593. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Maricultural Organism Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao Key Laboratory of Mariculture Epidemiology and Biosecurity, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology; Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306.

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is an extracellular and non-structural glycoprotein. In shrimp, a significant function of SPARC in WSSV infection remains unclear. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine -like was cloned from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (named as LvSPARC-L). Read More

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Tissue-Based SARS-Cov-2 Detection in Fatal COVID-19 Infections: Sustained Direct Viral-Induced Damage is Not Necessary to Drive Disease Progression.

Hum Pathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departments of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although viral infection is known to trigger inflammatory processes contributing to tissue injury and organ failure, it is unclear whether direct viral damage is needed to sustain cellular injury. An understanding of pathogenic mechanisms has been handicapped by the absence of optimized methods to visualize the presence and distribution of SARS-CoV-2 in damaged tissues. Read More

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