157,547 results match your criteria viral rna


An updated RT-qPCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 8:104967. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Grupo de Morfología Celular, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá D.C. 111321, Colombia.

The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-qPCR) has become a leading technique for the detection and quantification of arboviruses, including chikungunya, dengue, and zika viruses. In this study, an updated real-time RT-qPCR assay was designed and evaluated together with a synthetic positive-control chimeric RNA for the simultaneous detection and quantification of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. Amplification assays were performed to verify the construct integrity and optimal reaction/thermal cycling conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ayurveda botanicals in COVID-19 management: An in silico multi-target approach.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0248479. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

AYUSH-Center of Excellence, Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India.

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus in saliva using a guanidium based transport medium suitable for RT-PCR diagnostic assays.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252687. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Center for Emerging Pathogens, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

Background: Upper respiratory samples used to test for SARS-CoV-2 virus may be infectious and present a hazard during transport and testing. A buffer with the ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 at the time of sample collection could simplify and expand testing for COVID-19 to non-conventional settings.

Methods: We evaluated a guanidium thiocyanate-based buffer, eNAT™ (Copan) as a possible transport and inactivation medium for downstream Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Impact of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 on the placenta].

Pathologe 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pathologie, Institut für Medizinische Genetik und Pathologie, Universitätsspital Basel, Universität Basel, Schönbeinstrasse 40, 4031, Basel, Schweiz.

From the very beginning, special attention regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus‑2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been paid to pregnant women.In this review, after a short introduction into the immunodefensive role of the placenta and viral infections in general, we describe the morphological changes of the placenta in SARS-CoV-2-infected pregnant women based on our own and other published studies, draw comparisons to the SARS epidemic, and discuss the question of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV‑2 from the mother to the neonate.The most common pathological findings of the placenta in SARS-CoV‑2 infection are signs of maternal and fetal malperfusion as well as potentially immunologically and/or thromboinflammation-mediated findings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association Between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Immune-Mediated Myopathy in Patients Who Have Died.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19.

Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of Symptoms and RNA Levels in Children and Adults With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Community Setting.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: The association between COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in children living in the community is not well understood.

Objective: To characterize symptoms of pediatric COVID-19 in the community and analyze the association between symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels, as approximated by cycle threshold (Ct) values, in children and adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used a respiratory virus surveillance platform in persons of all ages to detect community COVID-19 cases from March 23 to November 9, 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sample-to-answer COVID-19 nucleic acid testing using a low-cost centrifugal microfluidic platform with bead-based signal enhancement and smartphone read-out.

Lab Chip 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nanobiotechnology, Department of Protein Science, Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, Sweden. and AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

With its origin estimated around December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major global health challenge. The demand for scalable, rapid and sensitive viral diagnostics is thus particularly pressing at present to help contain the rapid spread of infection and prevent overwhelming the capacity of health systems. While high-income countries have managed to rapidly expand diagnostic capacities, such is not the case in resource-limited settings of low- to medium-income countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessing the involvement of the placental microbiome and virome in preeclampsia using non coding RNA sequencing.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: Preeclampsia is a dangerous pregnancy complication. The source of preeclampsia is unknown, though the placenta is believed to have a central role in its pathogenesis. An association between maternal infection and preeclampsia has been demonstrated, yet the involvement of the placental microbiome in the etiology of preeclampsia has not been determined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rabies Virus-Induced Autophagy Is Dependent on Viral Load in BV2 Cells.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:595678. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

An increasing number of studies are showing that autophagy plays a vital role in viral replication and escape. Rabies virus (RABV), a typical neurotropic virus, has been proven to induce autophagy in neurons. However, there are no reports indicating that RABV can cause autophagy in other cells of the central nervous system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alternative activation of macrophages by prostacyclin synthase ameliorates alcohol induced liver injury.

Lab Invest 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Macrophages exhibit different functional states and are classified as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. However, the mechanisms that govern M1/M2 polarization in chronic ALD remain to be elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Facile method for delivering chikungunya viral replicons into mosquitoes and mammalian cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12321. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 11490, Taiwan.

Reverse genetics is an important tool in the elucidation of viral replication and the development of countermeasures; however, these methods are impeded by laborious and inefficient replicon delivery methods. This paper demonstrates the use of a baculovirus to facilitate the efficient delivery of autonomous CHIKV replicons into mosquito and mammalian cells in vitro as well as adult mosquitoes in vivo. The efficacy of this approach was verified via co-localization among an eGFP reporter, nsP1, and dsRNA as well as through the inhibition of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) null mutation (DDAA) in nsP4, or the treatment of a known antiviral compound (6-azauridine). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

I(nsp1)ecting SARS-CoV-2-ribosome interactions.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 10;4(1):715. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

While SARS-CoV-2 is causing modern human history's most serious health crisis and upending our way of life, clinical and basic research on the virus is advancing rapidly, leading to fascinating discoveries. Two studies have revealed how the viral virulence factor, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), binds human ribosomes to inhibit host cell translation. Here, we examine the main conclusions on the molecular activity of Nsp1 and its role in suppressing innate immune responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral infiltration of pancreatic islets in patients with COVID-19.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3534. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Metabolic diseases are associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 and conversely, new-onset hyperglycemia and complications of preexisting diabetes have been observed in COVID-19 patients. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of pancreatic autopsy tissue from COVID-19 patients using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, RNA scope and electron microscopy and detected SARS-CoV-2 viral infiltration of beta-cells in all patients. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses, we confirmed that isolated human islet cells are permissive to infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[COVID-19 - The vaccine miracle must include strictness and caution].

Authors:
Henri Agut

Virologie (Montrouge) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Professeur honoraire, Paris, France.

Outside of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, there is little positive outlook for the control of Covid-19 epidemic. Schematically, two antagonistic and extreme strategies have been proposed, zero-covid and herd immunity. Between the two, often oscillating measures, based on medical but also societal and political considerations, have been taken without any major effect on the course of the epidemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Applied shotgun metagenomics approach for the genetic characterization of dengue viruses.

J Biotechnol 2019 15;306S:100009. Epub 2019 May 15.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV), an arthropod-borne virus, has rapidly spread in recent years. DENV diagnosis is performed through virus serology, isolation or molecular detection, while genotyping is usually done through Sanger sequencing of the envelope gene. This study aimed to optimize the use of shotgun metagenomics and subsequent bioinformatics analysis to detect and type DENV directly from clinical samples without targeted amplification. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative analysis of viral infection outcomes in human seminal fluid from prior viral epidemics and Sars-CoV-2 may offer trends for viral sexual transmissibility and long-term reproductive health implications.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 10;18(1):123. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, 607 Grove Rd., Greenville, SC, 29605, USA.

Background: Viral detection in seminal fluid indicates their potential for both sexual transmission and impairment of reproductive health. Review of the mechanistic entry, sexual transmission and viral impacts for patients during major recent viral outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV), Ebola virus (EBOV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV), and SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) (the virus which causes COVID-19) provides a framework to discuss this potential.

Aim: Comparative analysis of prior viral presence on seminal fluid against current (preliminary) findings for SARS-CoV-2 to predict biological implications of the novel coronavirus upon current sexual transmissibility, viral presence, and reproductive health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CircRNA NALCN acts as an miR-493-3p sponge to regulate PTEN expression and inhibit glioma progression.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jun 10;21(1):307. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: An increasing number of studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of tumor progression. Therefore, we explored the expression characteristics, function, and related mechanism of the newly identified circNALCN in glioma.

Methods: RNA sequencing was used to analyze the expression profiles of circRNAs in brain tissue from five glioma cases and four normal controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Distinct transcriptional responses to fatal Ebola virus infection in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques suggest species-specific immune responses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 11:1-48. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus within the family and the causative agent of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Nonhuman primates (NHPs), including cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, are considered the gold standard animal model to interrogate mechanisms of EBOV pathogenesis. However, despite significant genetic similarity (>90%), NHP species display different clinical presentation following EBOV infection, notably a ∼1-2 days delay in disease progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of Plant Viruses Infecting Pear Using RNA Sequencing.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Jun 1;37(3):258-267. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Applied Biology, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61185, Korea.

Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is a widely cultivated and commercially important fruit crop, which is occasionally subject to severe economic losses due to latent viral infections. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine and provide a comprehensive overview of virus populations infecting a major pear cultivar ('Singo') in Korea. From June 2017 to October 2019, leaf samples (n = 110) of pear trees from 35 orchards in five major pear-producing regions were collected and subjected to RNA sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decay of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and surrogates in aquatic environments.

Water Res 2021 Mar 29;201:117090. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

UCD School of Veterinary Medicine and UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The introduction of SARS-CoV-2 containing human stool and sewage into water bodies may raise public health concerns. However, assessment of public health risks by faecally contaminated water is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding the persistence of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in water. In the present study the decay rates of viable infectious SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 RNA were determined in river and seawater at 4 and 20°C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus infection using the cobas® HCV test for use on the cobas® 4800 system.

J Clin Virol 2021 May 29;141:104873. Epub 2021 May 29.

National Reference Center for Viral Hepatitis B, C and Delta, Department of Virology, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Université Paris-Est, Créteil, France; INSERM U955, Créteil, France. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long non-coding RNA KIKAT/LINC01061 as a novel epigenetic regulator that relocates KDM4A on chromatin and modulates viral reactivation.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 10;17(6):e1009670. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

KDM4A is a histone lysine demethylase that has been described as an oncogene in various types of cancer. The importance of KDM4A-mediated epigenetic regulation in tumorigenesis is just emerging. Here, by using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a screening model, we identified 6 oncogenic virus-induced long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with the potential to open chromatin. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low level SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in plasma samples from a cohort of Nigerians: Implications for blood transfusion.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252611. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Human Virology and Genomics, Microbiology Department, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

The present global pandemic triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has lingered for over a year in its devastating effects. Diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently established with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test by means of oropharyngeal-, nasopharyngeal-, anal-swabs, sputum and blood plasma. However, oral and nasal swabs are more commonly used. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Selective transport of fluorescent proteins into the phage nucleus.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0251429. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States of America.

Upon infection of Pseudomonas cells, jumbo phages 201Φ2-1, ΦPA3, and ΦKZ assemble a phage nucleus. Viral DNA is enclosed within the phage-encoded proteinaceous shell along with proteins associated with DNA replication, recombination and transcription. Ribosomes and proteins involved in metabolic processes are excluded from the nucleus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

REVEALR: A Multicomponent XNAzyme-Based Nucleic Acid Detection System for SARS-CoV-2.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Isothermal amplification strategies capable of rapid, inexpensive, and accurate nucleic acid detection provide new options for large-scale pathogen detection, disease diagnosis, and genotyping. Here we report a highly sensitive multicomponent XNA-based nucleic acid detection platform that combines analyte preamplification with X10-23-mediated catalysis to detect the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19. The platform, termed RNA-Encoded Viral Nucleic Acid Analyte Reporter (REVEALR), functions with a detection limit of ≤20 aM (∼10 copies/μL) using conventional fluorescence and paper-based lateral flow readout modalities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcriptional Changes in CD16+ Monocytes May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:665773. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than three million deaths globally. The severity of the disease is characterized, in part, by a dysregulated immune response. CD16+ monocytes are innate immune cells involved in inflammatory responses to viral infections, and tissue repair, among other functions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laboratory tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection: basic principles and examples.

Ger Med Sci 2021 27;19:Doc06. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has circulated throughout the world causing the worst pandemic since 1918. All efforts have been marshalled towards testing different treatment approaches, obtaining clinical and epidemiological information, developing suitable diagnostic tests, and developing new vaccines. New ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based and viral vector-based vaccines have been developed and licensed under emergency use in many countries; however, there is a huge demand for vaccines, and it will take some time before a sufficient number of people are vaccinated to stop the circulation of the virus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical and molecular characteristics of COVID-19 patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Nat Commun 2021 06 9;12(1):3501. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The characteristics of COVID-19 patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection are not yet well described. Here, we compare the clinical and molecular features of patients with long duration of viral shedding (LDs) with those from patients with short duration patients (SDs), and healthy donors (HDs). We find that several cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LT-α) are present at lower levels in LDs than SDs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effects of DENV serotype competition and co-infection on viral kinetics in Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jun 9;14(1):314. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Background: The Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of several medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Competition within the mosquito between DENV serotypes can affect viral infection dynamics, modulating the transmission potential of the pathogen. Vector control remains the main method for limiting dengue fever. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The derepression of transposable elements in lung cells is associated with the inflammatory response and gene activation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Mob DNA 2021 Jun 9;12(1):14. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, Box 164, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Background: Transposable elements (TEs) are repetitive sequences of viral origin that compose almost half of the human genome. These elements are tightly controlled within cells, and if activated, they can cause changes in both gene regulation and immune viral responses that have been associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases in humans. As oxidants are potent activators of TEs, and because oxidative injury is a major risk factor in relation to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), we hypothesized that TEs might be involved in the regulation of gene expression and so contribute to inflammation in cases of IPF. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF