19,346 results match your criteria viral release

Challenges and strategies for the delivery of biologics to the cornea.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Biologics, like peptides, proteins and nucleic acids, have proven to be promising drugs for the treatment of numerous diseases. However, besides the off label use of the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for the treatment of corneal neovascularization, to date no other biologics for corneal diseases have reached the market. Indeed, delivering biologics in the eye remains a challenge, especially at the level of the cornea. Read More

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Il4ra-independent vaginal eosinophil accumulation following helminth infection exacerbates epithelial ulcerative pathology of HSV-2 infection.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Apr;29(4):579-593.e5

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa (CIDRI-Africa), Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Department of Pathology, Division of Immunology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa; Laboratory of Experimental and Molecular Immunology and Neurogenetics (INEM), UMR 7355 CNRS-University of Orléans, 45000 Orléans, France; Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

How helminths influence the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted viral infections is not comprehensively understood. Here, we show that an acute helminth infection (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis [Nb]) induced a type 2 immune profile in the female genital tract (FGT). This leads to heightened epithelial ulceration and pathology in subsequent herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection. Read More

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Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Pictorial Overview of the Pathoetiology.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 29;8:649922. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology Department, Neuroscience Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, United States.

Since the early days of the pandemic, there have been several reports of cerebrovascular complications during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Numerous studies proposed a role for SARS-CoV-2 in igniting stroke. In this review, we focused on the pathoetiology of stroke among the infected patients. Read More

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Prazoles Targeting Tsg101 Inhibit Release of Epstein-Barr Virus following Reactivation from Latency.

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus responsible for several diseases including cancers of lymphoid and epithelial cells. EBV-cancers typically exhibit viral latency; however, the production and release of EBV through its lytic phase is essential for cancer development. Antiviral agents that specifically target EBV production do not currently exist. Read More

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Atomistic dynamics of a viral infection process: Release of membrane lytic peptides from a non-enveloped virus.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Molecular simulations have played an instrumental role in uncovering the structural dynamics and physical properties of virus capsids. In this work, we move beyond equilibrium physicochemical characterization of a virus system to study a stage of the infection process that is required for viral proliferation. Despite many biochemical and functional studies, the molecular mechanism of host cell entry by non-enveloped viruses remains largely unresolved. Read More

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Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Organoids Model SARS-CoV-2 Infection Revealing a Common Epithelial Inflammatory Response.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Apr;16(4):940-953

Center for Regenerative Medicine of Boston University and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA; Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA; Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02218, USA. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually results in respiratory disease, but extrapulmonary manifestations are of major clinical interest. Intestinal symptoms of COVID-19 are present in a significant number of patients, and include nausea, diarrhea, and viral RNA shedding in feces. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids (HIOs) represent an inexhaustible cellular resource that could serve as a valuable tool to study SARS-CoV-2 as well as other enteric viruses that infect the intestinal epithelium. Read More

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Distinct uptake, amplification, and release of SARS-CoV-2 by M1 and M2 alveolar macrophages.

Cell Discov 2021 Apr 13;7(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology and National Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invades the alveoli, where abundant alveolar macrophages (AMs) reside. How AMs respond to SARS-CoV-2 invasion remains elusive. Here, we show that classically activated M1 AMs facilitate viral spread; however, alternatively activated M2 AMs limit the spread. Read More

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Fusion and fission events regulate endosome maturation and viral escape.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7845. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Endosomes are intracellular vesicles that mediate the communication of the cell with its extracellular environment. They are an essential part of the cell's machinery regulating intracellular trafficking via the endocytic pathway. Many viruses, which in order to replicate require a host cell, attach themselves to the cellular membrane; an event which usually initiates uptake of a viral particle through the endocytic pathway. Read More

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Assembly and infection efficacy of hepatitis B virus surface protein exchanges in eight hepatitis D virus genotype isolates.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Chronic hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections cause the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins for hepatocyte entry, particle assembly and release. Eight HDV and eight HBV genotypes are presently distinguished. Read More

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[Anti-inflammatory therapies for SARS-COV2 infection from a hematological perspective].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1640-1646

Departamento de Hematología y Oncología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The pathophysiology of the inflammatory profile induced by SARS-COV2 infection has similarities with conditions of immune system activation with cytokine release such as hemophagocytic syndrome and some cases of acute graft-versus-host disease. There are encouraging results of clinical studies, performed with increasingly better methodological quality, supporting the use of targeted and specific anti-inflammatory therapy in selected groups of patients with COVID-19 with severe inflammation. In this review we describe the inflammatory pathophysiology of the disease and the recent findings about its treatment. Read More

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November 2020

Repurposing Saquinavir for Host-Directed Therapy to Control Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:647728. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Host-Pathogen Interactions Unit, Research Institute for Medicines, iMed-ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Despite the available antibiotics, tuberculosis (TB) has made its return since the 90's of the last century as a global threat mostly due to co-infection with HIV, to the emergence of drug resistant strains and the lack of an effective vaccine. Host-directed strategies could be exploited to improve treatment efficacy, contain drug-resistant strains, improve immune responses and reduce disease severity. Macrophages in the lungs are often found infected with (Mtb) and/or with HIV. Read More

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Conditions Favoring Increased COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality: Their Common Denominator and its Early Treatment.

Eliot Shevel

Mo Med 2021 Mar-Apr;118(2):113-115

Head of the South African Headache Society, the South African affiliate of the International Headache Society. He is founder and practices at The Headache Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

The factors contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection are diverse, and include diabetes, obesity, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), advanced age, and male sex. Although there is no obvious connection between these, they do have one common denominator-they all have a tendency towards lower urine pH, which may indicate a lower-than-normal tissue pH. Furthermore, it has been shown that lower pH has two important negative influences: 1) it enhances viral fusion via the endosomal route, thereby facilitating viral multiplication; and 2) it facilitates increased production of inflammatory cytokines, thereby exacerbating the cytokine storm. Read More

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Association of SARS-CoV-2 clades with clinical, inflammatory and virologic outcomes: An observational study.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 8:103319. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Singapore Ministry of Health, Singapore; Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Host determinants of severe coronavirus disease 2019 include advanced age, comorbidities and male sex. Virologic factors may also be important in determining clinical outcome and transmission rates, but limited patient-level data is available.

Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study at seven public hospitals in Singapore. Read More

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Anti-adipogenic and lipid-lowering activity of piperine and epigallocatechin gallate in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Cell Culture and Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-adipogenic activity of piperine (PIP) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in 3T3-L1 cells. In cytotoxicity studies, PIP and EGCG showed IC values of 260 and 218 µM respectively and in combination (20 µM each) did not show cytotoxicity. Treatment with PIP and EGCG (20 µM each) significantly (<. Read More

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Polarization of avian macrophages upon avian flavivirus infection.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Mar 23;256:109044. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National Poultry Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Avian Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a newly emerging avian pathogenic flavivirus that spreads rapidly, has an expanding host range and undergoes cross-species transmission. Our previous study identified avian monocytes/macrophages as the key targets of TMUV infection, since the infection of host monocytes/macrophages was crucial for the replication, transmission, and pathogenesis of TMUV. The polarization of host macrophages determines the functional phenotypes of macrophages; however, the effect of TMUV infection on macrophage polarization remains unclear. Read More

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Inhibition of Autophagy Does Not Affect Innate Cytokine Production in Human Lung Epithelial Cells During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Autophagy is an intracellular pathway involved in nutrient recycling. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a role in regulating host cytokine response to several viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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COVID-19: Famotidine, Histamine, Mast Cells, and Mechanisms.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:633680. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, United States.

SARS-CoV-2 infection is required for COVID-19, but many signs and symptoms of COVID-19 differ from common acute viral diseases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of clinical COVID-19 disease. Currently, there are no approved pre- or post-exposure prophylactic COVID-19 medical countermeasures. Read More

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Anti-Inflammatory and Antiviral Osmotic Polymeric Film to Treat Covid-19 Early-Stage Infection.

J Inflamm Res 2021 30;14:1195-1206. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratoire SANABEL, Paris, 75011, France.

Background: Covid-19 infection starts in the nasal cavity when viral S1 and RBD proteins bind to the host cell ACE2 receptors, the virus multiplies, causes cell lysis, and enters the circulation. This triggers a strong cytokine release and inflammation of the nasal mucosa. A multitarget approach of cleaning the nasal mucosa and suppressing chances of nasal and systemic inflammation should minimize severe respiratory consequences. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 show no infectivity at later stages in a prolonged COVID-19 patient despite positivity in RNA testing.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Inpatient COVID-19 cases present enormous costs to patients and health systems in the United States. Many hospitalized patients may continue testing COVID-19 positive even after resolution of symptoms. Thus, a pressing concern for clinicians is the safety of discharging these asymptomatic patients if they have any remaining infectivity. Read More

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Evaluation of natural killer cell assay performance on shipped blood specimens.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Apr 2:113049. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Chronic Viral Diseases Branch, DHCPP/NCEZID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Documenting the importance of NK cell function as a biomarker for diseases and physiologic conditions including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), will require assays amenable to clinical implementation and standardization. Research studies typically perform NK functional assays on the day of sample collection. This pilot study was conducted to compare assay formats and specimen processing to identify those that are most tolerant of conditions required for shipping and amenable to standardization as shown by inter-assay and inter-laboratory correlation of results. Read More

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Changing trends of sexually transmitted infections and estimation of partner notification at a tertiary care center in North India.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2020 Jul-Dec;41(2):176-180. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Dermatology Venereology and Leprology, Government Medical College, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are dynamic and show a variable prevalence in different parts of the country. Moreover, the prevalence changes with time in the same geographical area. It is important to have the knowledge of current trend of STIs and partner notification (PN) rate in a particular area for the effective implementation of preventive and control measures. Read More

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The Main DNA Viruses Significantly Affecting Pig Livestock.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 29;65(1):15-25. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Molecular Biology, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Palacký University, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Swine DNA viruses have developed unique mechanisms for evasion of the host immune system, infection and DNA replication, and finally, construction and release of new viral particles. This article reviews four classes of DNA viruses affecting swine: porcine circoviruses, African swine fever virus, porcine parvoviruses, and pseudorabies virus. Porcine circoviruses belonging to the family are small single-stranded DNA viruses causing different diseases in swine including poly-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, and porcine respiratory disease complex. Read More

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Detecting SARS-CoV-2 in the Breath of COVID-19 Patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:604392. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Commune of Scientific Engineers, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

In the COVID-19 outbreak year 2020, a consensus was reached on the fact that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through aerosols. However, finding an efficient method to detect viruses in aerosols to monitor the risk of similar infections and enact effective control remains a great challenge. Our study aimed to build a swirling aerosol collection (SAC) device to collect viral particles in exhaled breath and subsequently detect SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

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COVID-19 co-infection mathematical model as guided through signaling structural framework.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 26;19:1672-1683. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, SPPU Campus, Pune 411007, India.

SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza co-infection turned out to be a huge threat in recent times. The clinical presentation and disease severity is common in both the infection condition. The present paper deals with studying co-infection model system through systems biology approaches. Read More

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On the SARS-CoV-2 "Variolation Hypothesis": No Association Between Viral Load of Index Cases and COVID-19 Severity of Secondary Cases.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:646679. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino at the "Amedeo di Savoia" Hospital, Turin, Italy.

Emerging evidence supports the "variolation hypothesis" in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the derivative idea that the viral load of index cases may predict disease severity in secondary cases could be unsubstantiated. We assessed whether the prevalence of symptomatic infections, hospitalization, and deaths in household contacts of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases differed according to the SARS-CoV-2 PCR cycle threshold (Ct) from nasal-pharyngeal swab at diagnosis of linked index cases. Cross-sectional study on household contacts of COVID-19 cases randomly sampled from all the infections diagnosed in March at our Microbiology Laboratory (Amedeo di Savoia, Turin). Read More

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Untargeted LC-MS based metabolomic profiling of iPAMs to investigate lipid metabolic pathways alternations induced by different Pseudorabies virus strains.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Mar 19;256:109041. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430000, China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430000, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430000, China. Electronic address:

Owing to viral recombination, interspecies transmission, and evolution, variant pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains exhibit different biological characteristics and pathogenicity. To improve the understanding of common and specific metabolic changes that occur upon infection by different PRV strains, we herein describe the comprehensive analysis of metabolites of PRV vaccine strain (Bartha K61), classical strain (EA) and variant strain (HNX) infection in immortalized porcine alveolar macrophage cells. Compared with uninfected cells, cells infected with Bartha K61, EA and HNX had 246, 225, and 272 differing metabolites, respectively. Read More

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ON-bipolar cell gene expression during retinal degeneration: Implications for optogenetic visual restoration.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Mar 31:108553. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom; Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: Retinal bipolar cells survive even in the later stages of inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) and so are attractive targets for optogenetic approaches to vision restoration. However, it is not known to what extent the remodelling that these cells undergo during degeneration affects their function. Specifically, it is unclear if they are free from metabolic stress, receptive to adeno-associated viral vectors, suitable for opsin-based optogenetic tools and able to propagate signals by releasing neurotransmitter. Read More

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Prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during A+AVD therapy for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: A case report.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Mar 24:100739. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Higashiyama, Kyoto, Japan.

We describe a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) undergoing brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (A+AVD) therapy. A 43-year-old man presented to our hospital with a complaint of fever, for which he was diagnosed with COVID-19 after a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and antiviral therapy with favipiravir and ciclesonide was started subsequently. The fever persisted for the first few days of treatment, but his respiratory status was stable, and he became asymptomatic and afebrile on day 9. Read More

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Role of Phage Capsid in the Resistance to UV-C Radiations.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy.

The conformational variation of the viral capsid structure plays an essential role both for the environmental resistance and acid nuclear release during cellular infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate how capsid rearrangement in engineered phages of M13 protects viral DNA and peptide bonds from damage induced by UV-C radiation. From in silico 3D modelling analysis, two M13 engineered phage clones, namely P9b and 12III1, were chosen for (i) chemical features of amino acids sequences, (ii) rearrangements in the secondary structure of their pVIII proteins and (iii) in turn the interactions involved in phage capsid. Read More

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Hepatitis C Viral Replication Complex.

Viruses 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan.

The life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be divided into several stages, including viral entry, protein translation, RNA replication, viral assembly, and release. HCV genomic RNA replication occurs in the replication organelles (RO) and is tightly linked to ER membrane alterations containing replication complexes (proteins NS3 to NS5B). The amplification of HCV genomic RNA could be regulated by the RO biogenesis, the viral RNA structure (i. Read More

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