54,691 results match your criteria viral load


Transcriptome analysis of host response to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus nsp15 in IPEC-J2 cells.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 24:105195. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Pathogenic Microorganism and College of Bioscience and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus which is highly lethal to piglets, causing enormous economic losses to swine industry worldwide. Nsp15 protein is an endoribonuclease of PEDV and plays an indispensable role in the viral proliferation. We reported the transcription files of nsp15 transfected IPEC-J2 cells for the first time to broaden our understanding of PEDV pathogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Associations of Natural Variation in the CD163 and Other Candidate Genes on Host Response of Nursery Pigs to PRRSV Infection.

J Anim Sci 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.

Pigs with complete resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) have been produced by genetically knocking out the CD163 gene, which encodes a receptor of the PRRSV for entry into macrophages. The objectives of this study were to evaluate associations of naturally occurring SNPs in the CD163 gene and in three other candidate genes (CD169, RGS16, and TRAF1) with host response to PRRSV-only infection and to PRRS vaccination and PRRSV/porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2b) co-infection. SNPs in the CD163 gene were not included on SNP genotyping panels that were used for previous genome-wide association analyses of these data. Read More

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September 2021

Quantifying the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectiousness.

Elife 2021 Sep 27;10. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, Paris, France.

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and infectiousness is poorly known. Using data from a cohort of cases and high-risk contacts, we reconstructed viral load at the time of contact and inferred the probability of infection. The effect of viral load was larger in household contacts than in non-household contacts, with a transmission probability as large as 48% when the viral load was greater than 10 copies per mL. Read More

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September 2021

Application of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of chronic hepatitis B in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mother.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Sep 27:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Obstetrics, Zhejiang University School of Medicine Women's Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) combined with HBV vaccine (HBVac) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mother. We enrolled 331 mother-infant pairs with HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive maternal state from the Women's Hospital School of Medicine of Zhejiang University. Newborns were randomly distributed into two groups according to the dosages of HBIG injection: 100 IU and 200 IU. Read More

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September 2021

Social, epidemiological, and virological characteristics from Peruvian subjects living with HIV-1 / AIDS with different sexual risk behavior.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Ponce School of Medicine, Microbiology, P.O. Box 7004, Ponce, PR, Puerto Rico, 00732;

HIV-1 genetic diversity and resistance profile might change according to the risky sexual behavior of the host. To show this, we recruited 134 individuals between the years 2015 to 2017 identified as Transgender Women Sex Workers (TWSW, n = 73) and Heterosexual Military Officers (HET-MO, n = 61). After obtaining informed consent, we collected a blood sample to perform the HIV genotyping, CD4 cell count, and viral load. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of an outbreak of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in young Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

J Fish Dis 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is the most common viral cardiac disease in Norwegian Atlantic salmon farming and typically affects large, market size fish. Only six months after seawater transfer, Atlantic salmon were diagnosed with CMS at a fish farm in the south-western part of Norway. Due to the unexpected young age and the remarkable large amounts of virus-specific RNA (Ct <10), the fish group was monitored with five additional samplings until slaughtered almost 10 months later. Read More

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September 2021

Interferon gamma immunotherapy in five critically ill COVID-19 patients with impaired cellular immunity: a case series.

Med (N Y) 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding has been described in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients, resulting in protracted disease and poor outcome. Specific therapy to improve viral clearance and outcome for this group of patients is currently unavailable.

Methods: Five critically ill COVID-19 patients with severe defects in cellular immune responses, high SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA loads, and no respiratory improvement were treated with interferon gamma, 100 μg subcutaneously, thrice weekly. Read More

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September 2021

Disease Severity and Prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Hospitalized Patients Is Not Associated With Viral Load in Nasopharyngeal Swab.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 10;8:714221. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova and Padova City Hospital, Padova, Italy.

The impact of viral burden on severity and prognosis of patients hospitalized for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a matter of debate due to controversial results. Herein, we sought to assess viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab and its association with severity score indexes and prognostic parameters. We included 127 symptomatic patients and 21 asymptomatic subjects with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and presence of cycle threshold. Read More

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September 2021

Risk Factors and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:686962. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Gastroenterology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer in the world, and its incidence is increasing yearly. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important causes of HCC. Liver cirrhosis, age, sex, smoking and drinking, and metabolic risk factors will increase the risk of cancer in HBV/HCV patients. Read More

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September 2021

Expression Pattern of Genes in Condyloma Acuminata Treated with Lindau Cream versus Podophyllin.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 17;2021:5579520. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Lindua (), a strong antiviral traditional medicine, can be used to treat condyloma acuminata (CA) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). However, its molecular mechanism for CA elimination is unknown. Herein, we conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of and its molecular mechanism compared with podophyllin, the gold standard treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Conserved broad HIV-1 Gag-specific responses associated with low viral load and high CD4+ T cell nadir and preserved HAART regimen.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(3):324-329

Broad human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-specific cellular responses can control viremia and provide slow progression to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, we evaluate multiple HIV-1 Gag-specific lymphoproliferative responses and find their connection with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T cell count and viral load from chronically HIV-1-infected patients. We further search for the correlation between multiple Gag-specific lymphoproliferative responses and changes in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. Read More

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January 2021

The newborns Torque teno virus dynamics depending on the term, feeding type and maternal viral load.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(3):307-312

The first weeks of life are extremely important for the development of the immunity-virome interaction that affects human health in adulthood. In this study we analyzed Torque teno virus (TTV) dynamics during the first weeks of life in the full-term/premature infants in relation with the maternal TTV load and the type of feeding. 152 infants aged 1-14 weeks (63 full-term and 89 premature) and 33 mother-child pairs were analyzed for the whole blood TTV load by qPCR with test sensitivity of 1000 viral copies/ml. Read More

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January 2021

maxRatio improves the detection of samples with abnormal amplification profiles on QIAgen's artus HIV-1 qPCR assay.

F1000Res 2020 24;9:1030. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Experimental Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Medical Faculty in Mannheim, Mannheim, Baden-Wuttenberg, 68167, Germany.

Accurate viral load (VL) determination is paramount to determine the efficacy of anti-HIV-1 therapy. The conventional method used, fit-point (FP), assumes an equal efficiency in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among samples that might not hold for low-input templates. An alternative approach, maxRatio, was introduced to compensate for inhibition in PCR. Read More

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Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with Viral Suppression Among Adults with HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

AIDS Behav 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Understanding the impact of neighborhood context on viral suppression outcomes may help explain health disparities and identify future interventions. We assessed the relationship between individual characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic context, and viral suppression using multilevel logistic regression models. Adults with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2000 and 2017, who resided in Rio de Janeiro and had an HIV-1 RNA level (viral load) measured 90-270 days after ART initiation were included. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of favipiravir in treating patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

EBioMedicine 2021 Sep 23;72:103591. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, PR China; Department of Laboratorial Science and Technology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China; Graduate School of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Vector Borne and Natural Focus Infectious Diseases, Beijing 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality, however with no effective therapy available.

Methods: The effect of favipiravir (FPV) in treating SFTS was evaluated by an integrated analysis on data collected from a single-arm study (n=428), a surveillance study (n=2350) and published data from a randomized controlled trial study (n=145). A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed to include 780 patients: 390 received FPV and 390 received supportive therapy only. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of extraction-free RT-PCR methods for faster and cheaper detection of SARS-CoV-2 using two commercial systems.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Microbiology and Virology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: When using high-throughput batched diagnostic platforms based on RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection, avoidance of the conventional nucleic acid extraction step can help to reduce the turnaround time and increase processivity. This approach can also spare reagents and plasticware, which have experienced a shortage during the initial waves of the pandemic, reducing the overall testing costs.

Methods: This study evaluated the performance of extraction-free protocols based on simple dilution of the specimen in sterile RNAse free water (with or without a heating step) in comparison to standard RNA extraction protocols, using two commercial kits for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 (Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2 assay and Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2/FluA/FluB/RSV assay) in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). Read More

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September 2021

Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: A therapeutic strategy in COVID-19 patients.

Immunol Lett 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, AB25 2ZD, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Some COVID-19 patients suffer complications from anti-viral immune responses which can lead to both a dangerous cytokine storm and development of blood-borne factors that render severe thrombotic events more likely. The precise immune response profile is likely, therefore, to determine and predict patient outcomes and also represents a target for intervention. Anti-viral T cell exhaustion in the early stages is associated with disease progression. Read More

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September 2021

ENGLISH: Evolution of HCV associated Porphyria Cutanea Tarda after HCV Sustained Virologic Response by Direct Acting Antivirals.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Service of Infectious Diseases and Internal Medicine. Hospital Universitario de la Princesa. Madrid. IIP. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

OBJECTIVES Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is common and usually associated with HCV chronic infection and HFE polymorphisms. Since DAA IFN-free regimens availability, SVR for HCV is nearly a constant and we wonder whether HCV SVR determine PCT evolution. METHODS Retrospective observational study including patients with HCV associated PCT from the Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Departments at our Hospital, treated with DAA (Apr/2015 - Apr/2017). Read More

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September 2021

Performance evaluation of automated chemiluminescence immunoassay based antigen detection - Moving towards more reliable ways to predict SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Virol Methods 2021 Sep 22;298:114299. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Clinical Virology, Institute of Liver & Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Real-time reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been the most reliable armoury for the diagnosis of COVID-19, considered to be the reference standard but fails to reproduce the correct predictability about the infectivity of the disease every time. Antigen detection however puts foothold in this aspect even though lacks in sensitivity, especially conventional Rapid Antigen Tests (RATs). Recently developed Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) based antigen detection tests are promising and displayed better sensitivity. Read More

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September 2021

New World Leishmania spp. infection in people living with HIV: concerns about relapses and secondary prophylaxis.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 22:106146. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Laboratório de Imunidade Natural (LIN), Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.. Electronic address:

Coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Leishmania impairs immune responses, increases treatment failure and relapse rates in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), as well as visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There is insufficient data on the treatment, relapse, and secondary prophylaxis in patients coinfected with HIV/Leishmania in Brazil. This study investigated patients with HIV/ATL and HIV/VL to describe the outcome of leishmaniasis in patients assisted at a referral hospital of Brazilian midwestern region. Read More

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September 2021

The influence of HLA/HIV genetics on the occurrence of elite controllers and a need for therapeutics geotargeting view.

Braz J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 22:101619. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Universidade Lasalle, Programa de Educação e Desenvolvimento Humano, Canoas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

The interaction of HIV-1, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and elite controllers (EC) compose a still intricate triad. Elite controllers maintain a very low viral load and a normal CD4 count, even without antiretrovirals. There is a lot of diversity in HIV subtypes and HLA alleles. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical trial of raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor, in HAM/TSP.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA.

Objective: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive myelopathy. A high proviral load (PVL) is one of the main risk factors for HAM/TSP. Recently, it was shown that raltegravir could inhibit cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Estimating salivary carriage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in nonsymptomatic people and efficacy of mouthrinse in reducing viral load: A randomized controlled trial.

J Am Dent Assoc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Background: Many people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) never develop substantial symptoms. With more than 34 million people in the United States already infected and highly transmissible variants rapidly emerging, it is highly probable that post- and presymptomatic people will form an important fraction of those seeking dental care. Salivary carriage rates in these populations are not known. Read More

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High intelligence may exacerbate paediatric inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Sep 9;155:110677. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The body's innate and acquiredimmunesystems are critical in responses to a wide spectrum of assaults, including SARS-CoV-2 infection. We identify studies of autoimmunity to support our hypothesis that a high intelligence quotient (IQ) may put children at increased risk for severe COVID-19 sequelae; especially those whose viral load is high and/or who develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). MIS-C is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 morbidity and death, even in otherwise healthy children. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen detection tests to real time polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Virol 2021 Sep 16;144:104985. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Timely and accurate diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is crucial to reduce the risk of viral transmission. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. Read More

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September 2021

Less Exposure for Health Care Workers, More Comfort for Patients During COVID-19 Swab Testing.

Workplace Health Saf 2021 Sep 24:21650799211045309. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

University of Health Science Antalya Training and Research Hospital.

Background: Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab sampling for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis may lead to droplet and/or airborne particle transmission and increase the exposure risk for health care workers (HCWs). However, there is limited evidence for effective methods to reduce occupational exposure from NP and OP swab sampling. This study aimed to reduce droplet-forming responses (DFRs) and the related exposure risk of NP and OP swab sampling by administering 10% lidocaine spray (LS) to the NP and OP areas prior to conducting swab tests. Read More

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September 2021

Quality of life among people living with HIV in England and the Netherlands: a population-based study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Sep 19;8:100177. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Background: HIV is now considered a chronic condition, and people living with HIV, when treated, have a similar life expectancy as compared to the general population. Consequently, improving and ensuring a good health-related quality of life (HrQoL) among people living with HIV (people living with HIV) is increasingly important and has risen on the global agenda in recent years. A 'fourth 90' as 90% of people with viral load suppression have a good HrQoL should therefore be adopted alongside the other 90-90-90 targets. Read More

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September 2021

A Case of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis With Immune Complexes: Is HIV, Hepatitis B, or Crack the Culprit?

Cureus 2021 Aug 20;13(8):e17335. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Internal Medicine, St. Vincent Charity Medical Center, Cleveland, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals are at an increased risk for kidney diseases, including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV immune complex disease of the kidney (HIVICK), and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Non-modifiable factors such as age and genetics, as well as modifiable factors such as illicit drug use and compliance, define the progression to renal failure. The patient is a 64-year-old African American male with HIV, treated latent syphilis, chronic kidney disease stage 3a, and cocaine use disorder who presented with shortness of breath, bilateral lower extremities swelling, and fatigue with normal vitals and a physical exam remarkable for bibasilar inspiratory crackles with peripheral edema. Read More

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Risk versus Benefit of Using Hydroxychloroquine to Treat Patients with COVID-19.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2021 15;2021:5942366. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology/Infectious Diseases, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), also known by its trade name Plaquenil®, has been used for over 50 years as a treatment for malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in the United States and globally in early 2020, HCQ began to garner attention as a potential treatment and as prophylaxis against COVID-19. Preliminary data indicated that HCQ as well as chloroquine (CQ) possessed in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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September 2021

From Infection to Immunity: Understanding the Response to SARS-CoV2 Through Modeling.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:646972. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Background: Immune system conditions of the patient is a key factor in COVID-19 infection survival. A growing number of studies have focused on immunological determinants to develop better biomarkers for therapies.

Aim: Studies of the insurgence of immunity is at the core of both SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development and therapies. Read More

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September 2021