1,132,495 results match your criteria viral infections


Seroepidemiological study of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in animals and humans in Okinawa, Japan.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Sep 4;12(6):101821. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Child Medical Health and Development, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Mie National Hospital, 357 Osato-kubota, Tsu, Mie, Japan. Electronic address:

In Okinawa prefecture, Japan, the first case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was confirmed in August 2016, and this case remains to be the only reported case of SFTS in Okinawa. The epidemiological investigation indicated that the patient had been infected on the main island of Okinawa, but source and route of infection were unknown. Therefore, to understand the possible source and route of SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection in Okinawa, we performed a seroepidemiological study of SFTSV among animals and dwellers in Okinawa and conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate risk factors for tick bites in Okinawa. Read More

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September 2021

Real-Time SARS-CoV-2 Genotyping by High-Throughput Multiplex PCR Reveals the Epidemiology of the Variants of Concern in Qatar.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Pathology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Complementing whole genome sequencing strategies with high-throughput multiplex RT-qPCR genotyping allows for more comprehensive and real-time tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. During the second and third waves of COVID-19 in Qatar, PCR genotyping, combined with Sanger sequencing of un-typeable samples, was employed to describe the epidemiology of the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. A total of 9792 nasopharyngeal PCR-positive samples collected between April-June 2021 were successfully genotyped, revealing the importation and transmission dynamics of these three variants in Qatar. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of an Anti-Zika Virus DNA Vaccine.

N Engl J Med 2021 09;385(12):e35

From the Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania (P.T.), and Wistar Institute (K.M., E.L.R., S.B.K., F.I.Z., H.C., D.B.W.), Philadelphia, and Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting (S.W., A.S.K., J.B., M.B.) - all in Pennsylvania; GeneOne Life Science, Seoul, South Korea (C.C.R., Y.K.P., C.R., S.E.S., J.N.M.); Infectious Diseases Research Centre-Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada (T.R., S.T., G.P.K.); QPS-Miami Research Associates, Miami, (D.K.); and the Department of Medicine, Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ (J.N.M.).

Background: Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is typically self-limiting, other associated complications such as congenital birth defects and the Guillain-Barré syndrome are well described. There are no approved vaccines against ZIKV infection.

Methods: In this phase 1, open-label clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic, consensus DNA vaccine (GLS-5700) encoding the ZIKV premembrane and envelope proteins in two groups of 20 participants each. Read More

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September 2021

Resilient SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics workflows including viral heat inactivation.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0256813. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

King's College London Diagnostics Team at Guy's Campus, London, United Kingdom.

There is a worldwide need for reagents to perform SARS-CoV-2 detection. Some laboratories have implemented kit-free protocols, but many others do not have the capacity to develop these and/or perform manual processing. We provide multiple workflows for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in clinical samples by comparing several commercially available RNA extraction methods: QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAgen), RNAdvance Blood/Viral (Beckman) and Mag-Bind Viral DNA/RNA 96 Kit (Omega Bio-tek). Read More

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September 2021

Should the world collaborate imminently to develop neglected live attenuated vaccines for COVID-19?

Authors:
Ji-Ming Chen

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Life Sciences and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, 528225, China.

The rapid spread of the Delta variant suggests that SARS-CoV-2 will likely keep rampant for months or years and could claim millions of more lives. All known vaccines cannot well defeat SARS-CoV-2 except neglected live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), which could have much higher efficacy and much higher production efficiency than other vaccines. LAVs have well defeated more pathogenic viruses than other vaccines in the history, and most of the current human vaccines for viral diseases are safe LAVs. Read More

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September 2021

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: The Role of the Main Components of the Innate Immune System.

Inflammation 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Immunology, Afzalipour Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

At the end of December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic began in Wuhan of China. COVID-19 affects different people with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic with recovery without hospitalization up to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The innate and adaptive immunity appears responsible for the defense against the virus and recovery from the disease. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Patients with Hospital Admission for COVID-19.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Metabolism and Lipids Unit, Cardiovascular Institute, Marie-Josee and Henry R Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1030, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Purpose: COVID-19 is characterized by dysfunctional immune responses and metabolic derangements, which in some, lead to multi-organ failure and death. Statins are foundational lipid-lowering therapeutics for cardiovascular disease and also possess beneficial immune-modulating properties. Because of these immune-modulating properties, some have suggested their use in COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Porcine deltacoronavirus and its prevalence in China: a review of epidemiology, evolution, and vaccine development.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is one of the most important enteropathogenic pathogens, and it causes enormous economic losses to the global commercial pork industry. PDCoV was initially reported in Hong Kong (China) in 2012 and subsequently emerged in swine herds with diarrhea in Ohio (USA) in 2014. Since then, it has spread to Canada, South Korea, mainland China, and several Southeast Asian countries. Read More

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September 2021

Ongoing Outbreak of Extensively Drug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated With US Pet Store Puppies, 2016-2020.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125203. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Extensively drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections cannot be treated with any commonly recommended antibiotics and pose an increasing public health threat.

Objectives: To investigate cases of extensively drug-resistant C jejuni associated with pet store puppies and describe the epidemiologic and laboratory characteristics of these infections.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In August 2017, health officials identified, via survey, patients with C jejuni infections who reported contact with puppies sold by pet stores. Read More

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September 2021

Legacy effect on neuropsychological function in HIV-infected men on combination antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Departments of Statistics, University of Pittsburgh Departments of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Departments of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Departments of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Department of Psychiatry, Rush University School of Medicine Departments of Psychiatry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University Departments of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Departments of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh.

Objective: To determine whether cART initiation alters the trajectory of cognitive performance in HIV+ men, and whether cognition prior to cART predicts post-cART function.

Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Read More

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September 2021

Immunophenotyping and transcriptional profiling of human plasmablasts in dengue.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0061021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

ICGEB-Emory Vaccine Center, International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, India.

Plasmablasts represent a specialized class of antibody secreting effector B cell population that transiently appear in blood circulation following infection or vaccination. The expansion of these cells generally tends to be massive in patients with systemic infections leading to viral hemorrhagic fevers such as dengue or ebola. To gain a detailed understanding of the human plasmablast responses beyond antibody expression, here we performed immunophenotyping and RNA seq analysis of the plasmablasts from dengue febrile children in India. Read More

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September 2021

Natural Occurring Polymorphisms in HIV-1 Integrase and RNase H Regulate Viral Release and Autoprocessing.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0132321. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Recently, a genome-wide association study using plasma HIV RNA from antiretroviral therapy naïve patients reported that 14 naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HIV derived from anti-retrovirus drugs naïve patients were associated with virus load (VL). Those SNPs were detected in reverse transcriptase, RNase H, integrase, envelope, and Nef. However, the impact of each mutation on viral fitness was not investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Olfactory entry promotes herpesvirus recombination.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0155521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Herpesvirus genomes show abundant evidence of past recombination. Its functional importance is unknown. A key question is whether recombinant viruses can outpace the immunity induced by their parents to reach higher loads. Read More

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September 2021

The viral ORF3 protein is required for hepatitis E virus apical release and efficient growth in polarized hepatocytes and humanized mice.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0058521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically transmitted RNA virus, is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Additionally, HEV genotype (gt) 3 can frequently persist in immunocompromised individuals with an increased risk for developing severe liver disease. Currently, no HEV-specific treatment is available. Read More

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September 2021

A competitive hemagglutination inhibition assay for dissecting functional antibody activity to influenza virus.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0237920. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Influenza remains one of the most contagious infectious diseases. Approximately, 25-50 million people suffer from influenza-like illness in the United States annually, leading to almost 1 million hospitalizations. Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 250,000-500,000 mortalities associated with secondary respiratory complications due to influenza virus infection every year. Read More

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September 2021

APOBEC3B potently restricts HIV-2 but not HIV-1 in a Vif-dependent manner.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0117021. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centro de investigação interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz, Quinta da Granja, 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal.

Vif is a lentiviral accessory protein that counteracts the antiviral activity of cellular APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in infected cells. The exact contribution of each member of the A3 family for the restriction of HIV-2 is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify the A3s with anti-HIV-2 activity and compare their restriction potential for HIV-2 and HIV-1. Read More

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September 2021

Epidemiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations in Thai children: A 5-year national data analysis.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the most common cause for hospitalization in pediatric patients. Pediatric patients with LRTIs are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The national data analysis of epidemiologic variations facilitates awareness and develops solutions to prevent these conditions in the future. Read More

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September 2021

Association between ezetimibe usage and hepatitis C RNA levels in uninfected kidney transplant recipients who received hepatitis C infected kidneys.

Clin Transplant 2021 Sep 15:e14485. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Kidney transplantation (KT) from hepatitis C virus infected(HCV+) donors to HCV negative recipients achieve excellent graft function but have relatively higher rates of post-KT co-infections presumably due to prolonged HCV viremia in transmission-and-treat approach. Ezetimibe acts as an antagonist of Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 receptor required for HCV entry and theoretically can reduce HCV viremia. However, no data is available to examine the role of ezetimibe as a bridge therapy between KT surgery and direct acting antiviral(DAA) initiation. Read More

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September 2021

Inclusion criteria: how NK cells gain access to T cells.

Authors:
Tonya J Webb

J Clin Invest 2021 Sep;131(18)

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in host defense against viral infections and malignancy, and their role for regulating other components of the antiviral response is being investigated. In this issue of the JCI, Ali et al. examine the mechanisms by which NK cells migrate into the white pulp and mediate suppression of virus-specific T cells. Read More

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September 2021

ADAM10 Partially Protects Mice against Influenza Pneumonia by Suppressing Specific Myeloid Cell Population.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, grid.26091.3cKeio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The influenza virus infection poses a serious health threat worldwide. Myeloid cells play pivotal roles in regulating innate and adaptive immune defense. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of proteins contribute to various immune responses; however, the role of ADAM10 in influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

A Multicenter Study of Viral Aetiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children in Chinese Mainland.

Virol Sin 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

Inverse Correlation Between Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer: Short Overview.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Virology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, R. Weigla 12, 53-114, Wroclaw, Poland.

The negative association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer suggests that susceptibility to one disease may protect against the other. When biological mechanisms of AD and cancer and relationship between them are understood, the unsolved problem of both diseases which still touches the growing human population could be overcome. Actual information about biological mechanisms and common risk factors such as chronic inflammation, age-related metabolic deregulation, and family history is presented here. Read More

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September 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Animal Studies Investigating the Relationship Between Serum Antibody, T Lymphocytes, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections occur in human populations around the globe, causing disease of variable severity, disproportionately affecting infants and older adults (>65 years of age). Immune responses can be protective but also contribute to disease. Experimental studies in animals enable detailed investigation of immune responses, provide insights into clinical questions, and accelerate the development of passive and active vaccination. Read More

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September 2021

Exploratory Analysis of the Economically Justifiable Price of a Hypothetical RSV Vaccine for Older Adults in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: In older adults, the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) resembles that of influenza and may even be considered worse due to the lack of preventive interventions. This study was performed to identify the available literature on RSV infection in older adults, and to provide updated exploratory results of the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical RSV vaccine in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

Methods: A literature search was performed in Medline and EMBASE on 11 November 2019, which served as input for a static decision-tree model that was used to estimate the EJP, for an RSV vaccine applying different willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. Read More

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September 2021

Vaccination reduces need for emergency care in breakthrough COVID-19 infections: A multicenter cohort study.

Lancet Reg Health Am 2021 Sep 9:100065. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Research Institute, Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Background: While recent literature has shown the efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in preventing infection, it's impact on need for emergency care/hospitalization in breakthrough infections remain unclear, particularly in regions with a high rate of variant viral strains. We aimed to determine if vaccination reduces hospital visits in breakthrough COVID-19.

Methods: This observational cohort analysis compared unvaccinated (UV), partially vaccinated (PV), and fully vaccinated (FV) adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring emergency care(EC)/hospitalization within an eight-hospital system in Michigan. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle from Sotaquirá, Colombia.

Vet Anim Sci 2021 Dec 31;14:100202. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Grupo de Investigación en Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia (GIDIMEVETZ), Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Tunja, Colombia.

Worldwide distributed Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) represents a high risk of infection in most bovine farms, in which it is associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive diseases. The purpose of this research was to establish the seroprevalence and the main risk factors associated with the presentation of BVDV in the municipality of Sotaquirá, Colombia. Samples were taken from 1000 cattle of Holstein, Ayrshire, Jersey, Normande Gyr and Holstein x Gyr. Read More

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December 2021

Whole genome sequencing of two human rhinovirus A types (A101 and A15) detected in Kenya, 2016-2018.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 8;6:178. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Epidemiology and Demography Department, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kilifi, Kenya.

Virus genome sequencing is increasingly utilized in epidemiological surveillance. Genomic data allows comprehensive evaluation of underlying viral diversity and epidemiology to inform control. For human rhinovirus (HRV), genomic amplification and sequencing is challenging due to numerous types, high genetic diversity and inadequate reference sequences. Read More

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Indications and diagnostic value of bone marrow examination in HIV-positive individuals: A 3-year review at Tygerberg Hospital.

S Afr J Infect Dis 2021 23;36(1):273. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Haematological Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Bone marrow examination is a useful diagnostic tool in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients presenting with cytopenias and fever. However, its role in the afebrile and asymptomatic patient presenting with an isolated cytopenia is not well established. This study was conducted to determine the indications for bone marrow examination and its diagnostic yield, in HIV-positive patients at Tygerberg Hospital. Read More

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Dengue Myocarditis Complicated by COVID-19: A Case Report on Dual Viral Infection.

Cureus 2021 Aug 10;13(8):e17076. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

General Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, IND.

During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is crucial for clinicians to have an insight into the emerging co-infections. As the dengue virus (DENV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have related symptomatology, a high index of suspicion is required for prompt diagnosis of concurrent infections involving these two pathogens, especially in the areas endemic for tropical diseases, i.e. Read More

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