190,823 results match your criteria viral gene


Development of ciclesonide analogues that block SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 19:128052. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Organic Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26, Tonomachi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan; Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid used to treat asthma and is currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An active metabolite of ciclesonide, Cic2, was recently reported to repress severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic RNA replication. Herein, we designed and synthesized a few types of ciclesonide analogues. Read More

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Title: Gene Transfer by Pyro-Drive Jet Injector is a Novel Therapeutic Approach for Muscle Diseases.

Gene 2021 Apr 19:145664. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Clinical Science and Biomedicine, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University; Integrated Frontier Research for Medical Science Division, Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives (OTRI), Osaka University; Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University. Electronic address:

The angiogenic gene therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic muscle diseases, including peripheral arterial disease and ischemic heart diseases. Although a variety of gene transfer methods have been developed, the efficiency of gene transfer is still limited. We have been developing the needleless high-energy bioinjector device, Pyro-drive Jet Injector (PJI), based on pyrotechnics using a combination of ignition powder and gunpowder, however, the utility of PJI in gene transfer into muscle tissues remains unclear. Read More

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Genomic analysis and functional characterization of immune genes from the RIG-I- and MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling pathway in lamprey.

Genomics 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Life Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116081, China; Lamprey Research Center, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116081, China. Electronic address:

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are well-known viral RNA sensors in the cytoplasm. RIG-I-mediated antiviral signals are activated by interacting with the adapter protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), which triggers interferon (IFN) responses via a signaling cascade. Although the complete RIG-I receptor signaling pathway has been traced back to teleosts, definitive evidence of its presence in lampreys is lacking. Read More

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Downregulation of miR-218 by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus facilitates viral replication via inhibition of type I interferon responses.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 19:100683. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National Poultry Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are reported to be involved in virus-host interaction. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and microRNAs inhibitors to screen possible microRNAs that can inhibit PRRSV infection on its target cell, porcine alveolar macrophages. Read More

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Coronavirus activates an altruistic stem cell mediated defense mechanism that reactivates dormant tuberculosis: implications in COVID-19 pandemic.

Am J Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Stem Cell and Infectious Diseases, KaviKrishna Laboratory, Guwahati Biotech Park, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India; Department of Stem Cell and Infection, Thoreau Lab for Global Health, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, US. Electronic address:

We postulate that similar to bacteria, adult stem cells may also exhibit an altruistic defense mechanism to protect their niche against external threat. Here, we report mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based altruistic defense against a mouse model of coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) infection of lung. MHV-1 infection led to reprogramming of CD271+MSCs in the lung to an "enhanced stemness" phenotype that exhibits altruistic behavior as per our previous work in human embryonic stem cells. Read More

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Intercellular viral spread and intracellular transposition of Drosophila gypsy.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 22;17(4):e1009535. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Program in Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, New York City, New York, United States of America.

It has become increasingly clear that retrotransposons (RTEs) are more widely expressed in somatic tissues than previously appreciated. RTE expression has been implicated in a myriad of biological processes ranging from normal development and aging, to age related diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-RTEs are evolutionary ancestors to, and share many features with, exogenous retroviruses. Read More

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Combined viral quasispecies diversity and hepatitis B core-related antigen predict off-nucleos(t)ide analog durability in HBeAg-negative patients.

Hepatol Int 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 1 Chang-Te St., Taipei, 10002, Taiwan.

Background: Viral quasispecies dynamics between pre- and post-nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy remains unclear.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the HBV quasispecies evolution and its relationship with durability of off-therapy responses in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who stopped NA therapy.

Methods: Fifty-four HBeAg-negative CHB patients who stopped NAs, including 19 virological controllers (VC) who maintained serum HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL beyond 1-year off-therapy, and 35 virological relapsers (VR) experiencing virological relapse within 1-year off-therapy were recruited. Read More

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Antiviral peptides from aquatic organisms: Functionality and potential inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2.

Aquaculture 2021 Aug 15;541:736783. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Aquaculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh.

Several antiviral peptides (AVPs) from aquatic organisms have been effective in interfering with the actions of infectious viruses, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2. AVPs are able to block viral attachment or entry into host cells, inhibit internal fusion or replication events by suppressing viral gene transcription, and prevent viral infections by modulating host immunity. Therefore, as promising therapeutics, the potential of aquatic AVPs for use against the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is considered. Read More

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AAV2/9-mediated silencing of PMP22 prevents the development of pathological features in a rat model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1 A.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 21;12(1):2356. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

INM, Univ. Montpellier, INSERM, Montpellier, France.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1 A (CMT1A) results from a duplication of the PMP22 gene in Schwann cells and a deficit of myelination in peripheral nerves. Patients with CMT1A have reduced nerve conduction velocity, muscle wasting, hand and foot deformations and foot drop walking. Here, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 9 (AAV2/9) expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting Pmp22 mRNA in animal models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1 A. Read More

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Establishment of in Belgium and a Glance into the Virome of Belgian Mosquito Species.

mSphere 2021 Apr 21;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

KU Leuven Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium

mosquitoes are considered potential transmission vectors of West Nile virus and Usutu virus. Their presence has been reported across several European countries, including one larva detected in Belgium in 2018. In this study, mosquitoes were collected in the city of Leuven and surrounding areas in the summers of 2019 and 2020. Read More

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SAMHD1 inhibits multiple Enteroviruses by interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2 proteins.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Key Laboratory of Organ Regeneration and Transplantation of The Ministry of Education, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P. R. China.

Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) possess multiple biological activities such as virus restriction, innate immunity regulation, and autoimmunity. Our previous study demonstrated that SAMHD1 potently inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we observed that SAMHD1 also restricts multiple enteroviruses (EVs) including Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus D68 (EVD68), but not Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Read More

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Defective Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes and Atypical Viral Gene Expression in B-Cell Lines Derived from Multiple Myeloma Patients.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that is causally associated with various lymphomas and carcinomas. Although EBV is not typically associated with multiple myeloma (MM), it can be found in some B-cell lines derived from multiple myeloma patients. Here, we analyzed two EBV+ MM-patient derived cell lines IM9 and ARH77 and found defective viral genomes and atypical viral gene expression patterns. Read More

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Switching Sides: How Endogenous RetrovirusesProtect us from Viral Infections.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

Long disregarded as junk DNA or genomic dark matter, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) turned out to represent important components of the antiviral immune response. These remnants of once-infectious retroviruses not only regulate cellular immune activation, but may even directly target invading viral pathogens. In this review, we summarize mechanisms, by which retroviral fossils protect us from viral infections. Read More

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The RNA binding proteins YTHDC1 and FMRP regulate the nuclear export of N6-methyladenosine modified Hepatitis B Virus transcripts and affect the viral life cycle.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA

YTHDC1 and fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) bind N6-methyladenosine (mA) modified RNAs and facilitate their transport to the cytoplasm. Here, we investigated the role of these proteins in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression and life cycle. We have previously reported that HBV transcripts are mA-methylated and this modification regulates the viral life cycle. Read More

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Tax induces the recruitment of NF-kB to unintegrated HIV-1 DNA to rescue viral gene expression and replication.

J Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710

We have previously reported that the normally essential step of integration of the HIV-1 proviral DNA intermediate into the host cell genome becomes dispensable in T cells that express the Human T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein, a known activator of cellular NF-kB. The rescue of integrase (IN) deficient HIV-1 replication by Tax results from the strong activation of transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter on episomal HIV-1 DNA, an effect that is closely correlated with the recruitment of activating epigenetic marks, such as H3Ac, and depletion of repressive epigenetic marks, such as H3K9me3, from chromatinized unintegrated proviruses. In addition, activation of transcription from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA coincides with the recruitment of NF-kB to the two NF-kB binding sites found in the HIV-1 LTR enhancer. Read More

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Assessment of exposure to influenza A viruses in pigs between weaning and market age.

Vet Res 2021 Apr 21;52(1):60. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are common causes of respiratory infection in pigs. The objective of this study was to characterize the circulation of IAVs between weaning and market age on the basis of development of antibody response and molecular epidemiology of detected viruses. Two batches of weaned pigs were followed in the nursery and finisher barns with a sample of 81 and 75 pigs. Read More

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Contribution of the classical polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of a HIV-1 infected patient in Benin: a case report.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 Apr 21;18(1):18. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Physiology, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FAST), Institute of Applied Biomedical Sciences (ISBA), University of Abomey-Calavi, Calavi, 01 BP 918, Cotonou, Benin.

Background: First ambitious target by 2020 of UNAIDS is that 90% of people living with HIV know their HIV status. In people older than 18 months of age, serological confirmation test is recommended to confirm HIV infection.

Case Presentation: Here we report the case of a patient tested positive with HIV-1, ELISA, Murex Ag⁄Ab Combination assay (OD450 = 0. Read More

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IFN-λ4 genetic variants influence clinical malaria episodes in a cohort of Kenyan children.

Malar J 2021 Apr 21;20(1):196. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Interferon (IFN)- λ4, a type III IFN, production is controlled by a dinucleotide frameshift variant (rs368234815-dG/TT) within the first exon of the IFNL4 gene. Carriers of the IFNL4-dG allele but not the IFNL4-TT allele are able to produce the IFN-λ4 protein. Patients with hepatitis C virus that do not produce the IFN-λ4 protein have higher rates of viral clearance suggesting a potential inhibitory role of IFN-λ4 in liver-tropic infections. Read More

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HPV infection and bacterial microbiota in the semen from healthy men.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 21;21(1):373. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Turku & Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Aberrant microbiota composition has been linked to disease development at numerous anatomical sites. Microbiota changes in reaction to viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have been investigated almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract. However, HPV infection may also affect male health by reducing semen quality and fertility. Read More

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Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) and Viral Infections.

Annu Rev Virol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA; email:

C6 deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) encoded by three genes in mammals. Alternative promoters and splicing produce two ADAR1 proteins, an interferon-inducible cytoplasmic p150 and a constitutively expressed p110 that like ADAR2 is a nuclear enzyme. ADAR3 lacks deaminase activity. Read More

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Trifaceted Mickey Mouse Amphiphiles for Programmable Self-Assembly, DNA Complexation and Organ-Selective Gene Delivery.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CSIC, IIQ, Americo Vespucio 49, 41092, Sevilla, SPAIN.

Instilling segregated cationic and lipophilic domains with an angular disposition in a trehalose-based trifaceted macrocyclic scaffold allows engineering patchy molecular nanoparticles leveraging directional interactions that emulate those controlling self-assembling processes in viral capsids. The resulting trilobular amphiphilic derivatives, featuring a Mickey Mouse architecture, can electrostatically interact with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and further engage in hydrophobic contacts to promote condensation into transfectious nanocomplexes. Notably, the topology and internal structure of the cyclooligosaccharide/pDNA co-assemblies can be molded by fine-tuning the valency and characteristics of the cationic and lipophilic patches, which strongly impacts the transfection efficacy in vitro and in vivo . Read More

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IFITM3 incorporation sensitizes influenza A virus to antibody-mediated neutralization.

J Exp Med 2021 Jun;218(6)

Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The disease severity of influenza is highly variable in humans, and one genetic determinant behind these differences is the IFITM3 gene. As an effector of the interferon response, IFITM3 potently blocks cytosolic entry of influenza A virus (IAV). Here, we reveal a novel level of inhibition by IFITM3 in vivo: We show that incorporation of IFITM3 into IAV particles competes with incorporation of viral hemagglutinin (HA). Read More

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Safe and effective two-in-one replicon-and-VLP minispike vaccine for COVID-19: Protection of mice after a single immunization.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 21;17(4):e1009064. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute Virology, and Gene Center, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Vaccines of outstanding efficiency, safety, and public acceptance are needed to halt the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concerns include potential side effects caused by the antigen itself and safety of viral DNA and RNA delivery vectors. The large SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of current COVID-19 vaccine candidates but can induce non-neutralizing antibodies, which might cause vaccination-induced complications or enhancement of COVID-19 disease. Read More

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Finding, treating and retaining persons with HIV in a high HIV prevalence and high treatment coverage country: Results from the Botswana Combination Prevention Project.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250211. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Global HIV/AIDS, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Introduction: The scale-up of Universal Test and Treat has resulted in reductions in HIV morbidity, mortality and incidence. However, healthcare system and personal challenges have impacted the levels of treatment coverage achieved. We implemented interventions to improve linkage to care, retention, viral load (VL) coverage and service delivery, and describe the HIV care cascade over the course of the Botswana Combination Prevention Project (BCPP) study. Read More

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Human cardiac fibroblasts produce pro-inflammatory cytokines upon TLRs and RLRs stimulation.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Gloriastrasse 23, CH-8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Heart inflammation is one of the major causes of heart damage that leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and often progresses to end-stage heart failure. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether human cardiac cells could release immune mediators upon stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs).Commercially available human cardiac fibroblasts and an immortalized human cardiomyocyte cell line were stimulated in vitro with TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists. Read More

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A delta-secretase-truncated APP fragment activates CEBPB, mediating Alzheimer's disease pathologies.

Brain 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is sequentially cleaved by secretases and generates amyloid-β, the major components in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. APP is upregulated in human Alzheimer's disease brains. However, the molecular mechanism of how APP contributes to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Read More

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An AI-guided invariant signature places MIS-C with Kawasaki disease in a continuum of host immune responses.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

A significant surge in cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C, also called Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome - PIMS) has been observed amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. MIS-C shares many clinical features with Kawasaki disease (KD), although clinical course and outcomes are divergent. We analyzed whole blood RNA sequences, serum cytokines, and formalin fixed heart tissues from these patients using a computational toolbox of two gene signatures, i. Read More

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Epigenetic reprogramming mechanisms of immunity during influenza A virus infection.

Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 17:104831. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This paper reviews epigenetic mechanisms by which influenza viruses affect cellular gene activity to control their life cycles, aiming to provide new insights into the complexity of functional interactions between viral and cellular factors, as well as to introduce novel targets for therapeutic intervention and vaccine development against influenza infections. Read More

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Impact of human rhinoviruses on gene expression in pediatric patients with severe acute respiratory infection.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 17:198408. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common viruses, causing mild to severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Moreover, it can lead to patients' hospitalization. Nowadays, evaluation of gene expression alterations in host cells due to viral respiratory infections considered essential to understand the viral effects on cells. Read More

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Toll-interacting protein polymorphisms in viral bronchiolitis outcomes.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Child Health Research, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Toll-interacting protein is a key factor in regulating innate immunity responses via gate-keeping Toll-like receptors. Genetic variance in innate immunity has been linked with susceptibility to infections. Children with viral bronchiolitis in infancy are at increased risk of later asthma. Read More

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