12,196 results match your criteria viral clearance

Long-term benefits of viral clearance on extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis c virus infection: light at the end of the tunnel?

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Gastro-hepatoloy Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

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A SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody with extensive Spike binding coverage and modified for optimal therapeutic outcomes.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2623. Epub 2021 May 11.

Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Read More

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Application of an evidence-based, out-patient treatment strategy for COVID-19: Multidisciplinary medical practice principles to prevent severe disease.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 20;426:117463. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Professor Lawrence Steinman, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States of America. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated individuals, families, and institutions throughout the world. Despite the breakneck speed of vaccine development, the human population remains at risk of further devastation. The decision to not become vaccinated, the protracted rollout of available vaccine, vaccine failure, mutational forms of the SARS virus, which may exhibit mounting resistance to our molecular strike at only one form of the viral family, and the rapid ability of the virus(es) to hitch a ride on our global transportation systems, means that we are will likely continue to confront an invisible, yet devastating foe. Read More

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The Use of the Anticoagulant Heparin and Corticosteroid Dexamethasone as Prominent Treatments for COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:615333. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

COVID-19 is spreading worldwide at disturbing rates, overwhelming global healthcare. Mounting death cases due to disease complications highlight the necessity of describing efficient drug therapy strategies for severe patients. COVID-19 severity associates with hypercoagulation and exacerbated inflammation, both influenced by ACE2 downregulation and cytokine storm occurrence. Read More

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Regulation and Function of ILC3s in Pulmonary Infections.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:672523. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Center for Translational Research in Infection & Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These potentially deadly infections are further exacerbated due to the growing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To combat these infections there is a need to better understand immune mechanisms that promote microbial clearance. Read More

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Case Report: Stepwise Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Effects Following Convalescent Plasma Therapy With Full Clinical Recovery.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:613502. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Interregional Blood Transfusion SRC, Epalinges, Switzerland.

In these times of COVID-19 pandemic, concern has been raised about the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on immunocompromised patients, particularly on those receiving B-cell depleting agents and having therefore a severely depressed humoral response. Convalescent plasma can be a therapeutic option for these patients. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of convalescent plasma is crucial to optimize such therapeutic approach. Read More

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Perspectives for improvement of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in pigs.

Vet Res 2021 May 8;52(1):67. Epub 2021 May 8.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is one of the primary agents involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex, economically one of the most important diseases in pigs worldwide. The pathogen adheres to the ciliated epithelium of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, causes damage to the mucosal clearance system, modulates the immune system and renders the animal more susceptible to other respiratory infections. Read More

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SNPs of the IFNL favour spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in children.

Pediatr Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Paediatric and Liver Unit, Meyer Children's University Hospital of Florence, Firenze, Italy.

Background: Both spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in adults have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the interferon-λ genes. The aim of the present study was to confirm the association between the rs12979860 and evaluate the association between the rs368234815 and the rs4803217 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interferon-λ genes and the outcome of the infection in children.

Methods: Alleles and genotypes frequencies of 32 children, who presented spontaneous clearance of the virus and 135 children, with viral persistence were compared with ethnically matched controls obtained from the 1000 Genomes Project and the International HapMap Project databases. Read More

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Prolonged high-intensity exercise induces fluctuating immune responses to herpes simplex virus infection via glucocorticoids.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) and Skin Research Institute of Singapore (SRIS), Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore; Lead contact. Electronic address:

Background: Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the influence of a single bout of prolonged high-intensity exercise on viral infection.

Objective: Here, we show that prolonged high-intensity exercise induces either exacerbation or amelioration of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection depending on the interval between viral exposure and exercise.

Methods: Mice were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and exposed to run on the treadmill. Read More

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Repurposing existing medications for coronavirus disease 2019: protocol for a rapid and living systematic review.

Syst Rev 2021 05 7;10(1):143. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has no confirmed specific treatments. However, there might be in vitro and early clinical data as well as evidence from severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome that could inform clinicians and researchers. This systematic review aims to create priorities for future research of drugs repurposed for COVID-19. Read More

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A systematic study of Tupaia as a model for human acute hepatitis B infection.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Immunology, Third Military Medical University.

The molecular features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, eradication, and pathogenesis are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of an adequate animal model that faithfully reproduces the course of infection. Although Tupaia belangeri were previously recognized as HBV-susceptible animals, the course of infection in adult tupaias remains obscure. Herein, we performed a longitudinal study and demonstrated that adult tupaias were efficiently infected (90% infection rate) with 10 copies of the HBV genome. Read More

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Uncoupling of macrophage inflammation from self-renewal modulates host recovery from respiratory viral infection.

Immunity 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Tissue macrophages self-renew during homeostasis and produce inflammatory mediators upon microbial infection. We examined the relationship between proliferative and inflammatory properties of tissue macrophages by defining the impact of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, a central regulator of self-renewal, in alveolar macrophages (AMs) . Activation of β-catenin by Wnt ligand inhibited AM proliferation and stemness, but promoted inflammatory activity. Read More

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The SARS-CoV-2 protein ORF3a inhibits fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes.

Cell Discov 2021 May 4;7(1):31. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and The Research Units of West China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. How SARS-CoV-2 regulates cellular responses to escape clearance by host cells is unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway for the clearance of various cargoes, including viruses. Read More

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Cell culture-based production and in vivo characterization of purely clonal defective interfering influenza virus particles.

BMC Biol 2021 May 3;19(1):91. Epub 2021 May 3.

Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Chair of Bioprocess Engineering, Magdeburg, Germany.

Background: Infections with influenza A virus (IAV) cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Additional to vaccination, antiviral drugs are a treatment option. Besides FDA-approved drugs such as oseltamivir or zanamivir, virus-derived defective interfering (DI) particles (DIPs) are considered promising new agents. Read More

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Clearing the Fog: Is Hydroxychloroquine Effective in Reducing Coronavirus Disease-2019 Progression? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cureus 2021 Mar 30;13(3):e14186. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Internal Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, PAK.

Background Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been considered for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data on its efficacy are conflicting. We analyzed the efficacy of HCQ along with standard of care (SOC) treatment, compared with SOC alone, in reducing disease progression in mild COVID-19. Methods A single-center open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted from April 10 to May 31, 2020 at Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Read More

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Response to pegylated interferon in a COVID-19-positive elderly woman with primary myelofibrosis treated with ruxolitinib.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;9(4):2228-2235. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Hematology Zealand University Hospital Roskilde Denmark.

An 83-year-old female had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection while taking ruxolitinib. She remained RT-PCR positive for viral RNA for >120 days, and Pegylated interferon for 4 weeks led to viral RNA clearance. The observations support combination therapy of ruxolitinib + interferon for COVID-19. Read More

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Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Clearance Time in COVID-19 Patients.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey.

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pandemic emerging in East Asia and spreading rapidly to the rest of the world and continuing in our country. The number of studies examining the symptoms of the otolaryngology system and organs in COVID-19 patients is limited. The purpose of this study is to show whether COVID-19 infections cause any changes in nasal physiology in adult patients by measuring the mucociliary clearance (MCC) time with the saccharin test. Read More

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Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles in COVID-19-induced ARDS: Mechanisms of action, research progress, challenges, and opportunities.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 28;97:107694. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Rapidly escalated into a worldwide pandemic, it has caused an unprecedented and devastating situation on the global public health and society economy. The severity of recent coronavirus disease, abbreviated to COVID-19, seems to be mostly associated with the patients' immune response. Read More

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Persistent Airway Hyperresponsiveness Following Recovery from Infection with Pneumonia Virus of Mice.

Viruses 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Respiratory virus infections can have long-term effects on lung function that persist even after the acute responses have resolved. Numerous studies have linked severe early childhood infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) to the development of wheezing and asthma, although the underlying mechanisms connecting these observations remain unclear. Here, we examine airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) that develops in wild-type mice after recovery from symptomatic but sublethal infection with the natural rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). Read More

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Obesity as a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19 and Complications: A Review.

Cells 2021 04 17;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Natura Foundation, 3281 NC Numansdorp, The Netherlands.

Emerging data suggest that obesity is a major risk factor for the progression of major complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm and coagulopathy in COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and disease severity as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for the development of new therapeutic interventions and preventive measures in this high-risk group. We propose that multiple features of obesity contribute to the prevalence of severe COVID-19 and complications. Read More

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Additional Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling by Metformin in DAA Treatments as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for HCV-Infected Patients.

Cells 2021 Apr 2;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory Medicine and Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HCV clearance has been improved by the advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA), retrospective studies have shown that the risk of subsequent HCC, while considerably decreased compared with active HCV infection, persists after DAA regimens. However, either the mechanisms of how chronic HCV infection causes HCC or the factors responsible for HCC development after viral eradication in patients with DAA treatments remain elusive. Read More

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BNT162b2 Vaccine Encoding the SARS-CoV-2 P2 S Protects Transgenic hACE2 Mice against COVID-19.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Industrial Development, Co. Ltd., 1289 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.

BNT162b2 is a highly efficacious mRNA vaccine approved to prevent COVID-19. This brief report describes the immunogenicity and anti-viral protective effect of BNT162b2 in hACE2 transgenic mice. Prime-boost immunization with BNT162b2 elicited high titers in neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, which correlated with viral clearance and alleviated lung lesions in these mice after viral challenge. Read More

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Revisiting Mouse Minute Virus (MMV) Inactivation by High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Treatment.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Bioproduct Research and Development, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, DC3941 Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

In recent years, high temperature short time (HTST) treatment technology has been increasingly adopted for medium treatment to mitigate the potential risk of viral contamination in mammalian cell culture GMP manufacturing facilities. Mouse minute virus (MMV), also called minute virus of mice (MVM), implicated in multiple viral contamination events is commonly used as a relevant model virus to assess the effectiveness of HTST treatment of cell culture media. However, results from different studies vary broadly in inactivation kinetics as well as log reduction factors (LRF) achieved under given treatment conditions. Read More

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Role of Pneumococcal NanC in the Severe Disease of Superinfection with Influenza.

Immunohorizons 2021 Apr 28;5(4):210-218. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City, Taiwan;

Bacterial superinfection aggravates the disease of influenza. is the most common bacterial pathogen. Synergistic virulence has been demonstrated between influenza neuraminidase and pneumococcal NanA and NanB. Read More

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Lost small envelope protein expression from naturally occurring preS1 deletion mutants of hepatitis B virus is often accompanied by increased HBx and core protein expression as well as genome replication.

J Virol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pathobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes co-terminal mRNAs of 0.7-3.5kb from the 3. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of nelfinavir in asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients: a structured summary of a study protocol for a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 28;22(1):309. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.

Objectives: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, clinical efficacy, and safety of nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19.

Trial Design: The study is designed as a multicenter, open-label, blinded outcome assessment, parallel group, investigator-initiated, exploratory, randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled clinical trial.

Participants: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients will be enrolled in 10 university and teaching hospitals in Japan. Read More

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Polyoma BK Virus in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Screening, Monitoring and Management.

Transplantation 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Polyomavirus BK virus (BKPyV) infection is an important complication of kidney transplantation and allograft failure. The prevalence of viremia is 10-15%, compared with BK associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) at 3-5%. Given that there are no effective anti-viral prophylaxis or treatment strategies for BKPyVAN, active screening to detect BKPyV viraemia is recommended, particularly during the early post-transplant period. Read More

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Nanotraps for the containment and clearance of SARS-CoV-2.

Matter 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells through its viral spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the host cells. Here, we show that functionalized nanoparticles, termed "Nanotraps," completely inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection by blocking the interaction between the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the ACE2 of host cells. The liposomal-based Nanotrap surfaces were functionalized with either recombinant ACE2 proteins or anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and phagocytosis-specific phosphatidylserines. Read More

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COVID-19 Infection: Viral Clearance and Antibody Response in Dialysis Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients.

Nephron 2021 Apr 26:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, AUSL Romagna Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy.

Background/aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) pandemic is the major current health emergency worldwide, adding a significant burden also to the community of nephrologists for the management of their patients. Here, we analyzed the impact of COVID-19 infection in renal patients to assess the time to viral clearance, together with the production and persistence of IgG and IgM antibody response, in consideration of the altered immune capacity of this fragile population.

Methods: Viral clearance and antibody kinetics were investigated in 49 renal patients recovered from COVID-19 infection: 7 of them with chronic decompensated renal failure, 31 under dialysis treatment, and 11 kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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