88 results match your criteria violations emerging


A scoping review of the literature featuring research ethics and research integrity cases.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Apr 30;22(1):50. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The areas of Research Ethics (RE) and Research Integrity (RI) are rapidly evolving. Cases of research misconduct, other transgressions related to RE and RI, and forms of ethically questionable behaviors have been frequently published. The objective of this scoping review was to collect RE and RI cases, analyze their main characteristics, and discuss how these cases are represented in the scientific literature. Read More

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Steering clear: Traffic violations among emerging adults who engage in habitual or casual cannabis use.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 1;153:106059. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:

While some research has shown that cannabis use can impair driving ability, evidence to the degree and impact of impairment are lacking. This study examined the association between habitual or casual cannabis use and past-year traffic violations among emerging adults (EAs). Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Read More

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Multinational corporations and human right violations in emerging economies: Do commitment to social and environmental responsibility matter?

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 18;280:111689. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Accounting and Finance Subject Group, Hull University Business School, University of Hull, UK.

With the surge in economic growth in the global-north vis-a-vis social and economic inequalities in the global-south (north-south dichotomy), there is an increasing requirement for critical research and an examination of the policy implications with respect to human rights in emerging economies. This paper draws on the concept of convergence and institutional theories to enhance our understanding of how multinational corporations (MNCs) fulfil their profit maximisation agendas using capitalist principles; and the extent to which these ideologies produce human rights violations in emerging economies. Using multiple data sources from the Human Rights Watch, our study provides a comprehensive list of various human rights violations perpetrated by MNCs from 2002 to 2017. Read More

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February 2021

Cross-border COVID-19 spread amidst malaria re-emergence in Venezuela: a human rights analysis.

Global Health 2020 12 17;16(1):118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Community Health and Prevention, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Since 2016 Venezuela has seen a collapse in its economy and public health infrastructure resulting in a humanitarian crisis and massive outward migration. With the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019, the public health emergency within its borders and in neighboring countries has become more severe and as increasing numbers of Venezuelans migrants return home or get stuck along migratory routes, new risks are emerging in the region.

Results: Despite clear state obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the rights to health and related economic, social, civil and political rights of its population, in Venezuela, co-occurring malaria and COVID-19 epidemics are propelled by a lack of public investment in health, weak governance, and violations of human rights, especially for certain underserved populations like indigenous groups. Read More

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December 2020

Are Latin American cycling commuters "at risk"? A comparative study on cycling patterns, behaviors, and crashes with non-commuter cyclists.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Feb 1;150:105915. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

FACTHUM.Lab (Human Factor and Road Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: As part of the transformation of urban transportation dynamics, commuter cycling has acquired a high relevance as an alternative mode of transport in different countries, and Latin America seems to be one of the main focus of this worldwide "revolution". However, the high rates of crashes and injuries suffered by commuters have become a relevant issue in the field of road safety, especially in emerging regions with low cycling tradition, where social and infrastructural gaps may endanger the cyclists' safety.

Objectives: This study had two objectives. Read More

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February 2021

Preliminary data on the potential for unintentional antidoping rule violations by permitted cannabidiol (CBD) use.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Mar 14;13(3):539-549. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) regulations, cannabinoids use is prohibited in competition except for cannabidiol (CBD) use. For an adverse analytical finding (AAF) in doping control, cannabinoid misuse is based on identification of the pharmacologically inactive metabolite 11-nor-delta-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) in urine at a concentration greater than 180 ng/ml. All other (minor) cannabinoids are reported as AAF when identified, except for CBD that has been explicitly excluded from the class of cannabinoids on WADA's Prohibited List since 2018. Read More

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Marketing of breast milk substitutes on the internet and television in Mexico.

J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Sep 13;56(9):1438-1447. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Evaluation and Surveys Research Center, National Public Health Institute, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Aim: We aimed to examine the advertising and marketing of breast milk substitutes (BMS) through the internet, social media and television in Mexico.

Methods: We recorded the programming of four main TV channels at peak times to identify BMS advertisements. In addition, we identified the main BMS products and companies present on the internet, as well as related home pages and social networks (Facebook, Twitter and YouTube). Read More

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September 2020

Dietary Supplement and Food Contaminations and Their Implications for Doping Controls.

Foods 2020 Jul 27;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Center for Preventive Doping Research/Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany.

A narrative review with an overall aim of indicating the current state of knowledge and the relevance concerning food and supplement contamination and/or adulteration with doping agents and the respective implications for sports drug testing is presented. The identification of a doping agent (or its metabolite) in sports drug testing samples constitutes a violation of the anti-doping rules defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Reasons for such Adverse Analytical Findings (AAFs) include the intentional misuse of performance-enhancing/banned drugs; however, also the scenario of inadvertent administrations of doping agents was proven in the past, caused by, amongst others, the ingestion of contaminated dietary supplements, drugs, or food. Read More

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Fifty Years of Accident Analysis & Prevention: A Bibliometric and Scientometric Overview.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Sep 18;144:105568. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China.

Accident Analysis & Prevention (AA&P) is a leading academic journal established in 1969 that serves as an important scientific communication platform for road safety studies. To celebrate its 50 anniversary of publishing outstanding and insightful studies, a multi-dimensional statistical and visualized analysis of the AA&P publications between 1969 and 2018 was performed using the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database, bibliometrics and mapping-knowledge-domain (MKD) analytical methods, and scientometric tools. It was shown that the annual number of AA&P's publications has grown exponentially and that over the course of its development, AA&P has been a leader in the field of road safety, both in terms of innovation and dissemination. Read More

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September 2020

The Impact of Alcohol Hangover on Simulated Driving Performance During a 'Commute to Work'-Zero and Residual Alcohol Effects Compared.

J Clin Med 2020 May 12;9(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, 3584CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Driving is increasing across the world and road traffic accidents are a major cause of serious injuries and fatalities. The link between alcohol consumption and impaired driving has long been established and has led to legislation in many countries, with enforcement of legal limits based on blood alcohol concentration levels. Alcohol hangover research is an emerging field with a range of laboratory and naturalistic studies now clearly demonstrating the significant impairments that can result from hangover, even when alcohol levels are measured at or close to zero the day following a social drinking occasion. Read More

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The Acceptability and Effectiveness of an Online Intervention for Youth With Parents With a Mental Illness and/or Substance Use Issue.

J Adolesc Health 2020 05 27;66(5):551-558. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: There is a paucity of interventions for young adults who have parents with a mental health or substance use issue. The 6-week mi.spot (supportive, preventive, online, and targeted) professionally moderated, online intervention fills this gap. Read More

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Legal aspects of information sharing and communication by poison centers in the United States.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 07 14;58(7):669-675. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

College of Nursing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

To keep pace with changing technology and to provide better treatment to the public, U.S. poison control centers have increasingly implemented new ways of communicating with healthcare providers and with patients, including electronic transfer of patient information. Read More

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Contribution of low-cost sensor measurements to the prediction of PM levels: A case study in Imperial County, California, USA.

Environ Res 2020 01 10;180:108810. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Environmental Health, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, 30322, United States. Electronic address:

Regulatory monitoring networks are often too sparse to support community-scale PM exposure assessment while emerging low-cost sensors have the potential to fill in the gaps. To date, limited studies, if any, have been conducted to utilize low-cost sensor measurements to improve PM prediction with high spatiotemporal resolutions based on statistical models. Imperial County in California is an exemplary region with sparse Air Quality System (AQS) monitors and a community-operated low-cost network entitled Identifying Violations Affecting Neighborhoods (IVAN). Read More

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January 2020

Synthesis and mode of action studies of novel {2-(3-R-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)phenyl}amines to combat pathogenic fungi.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 Oct 29;352(10):e1900092. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Food and Bioproduct Technology, Neubrandenburg University, Neubrandenburg, Germany.

Due to their high specificity and efficacy, triazoles have become versatile antifungals to treat fungal infections in human healthcare and to control phytopathogenic fungi in agriculture. However, azole resistance is an emerging problem affecting human health as well as food security. Here we describe the synthesis of 10 novel {2-(3-R-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)phenyl}amines. Read More

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October 2019

Prescaling in a Far-from-Equilibrium Bose Gas.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 May;122(17):170404

Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Nonequilibrium conditions give rise to classes of universally evolving configurations of quantum many-body systems at nonthermal fixed points. While the fixed point and thus full scaling in space and time is generically reached at very long evolution times, we propose that systems can show prescaling much earlier in time, in particular, on experimentally accessible timescales. During the prescaling evolution, some well-measurable properties of spatial correlations already scale with the universal exponents of the fixed point while others still show scaling violations. Read More

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Challenges and strengths of implementing urban family physician program in Fars Province, Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 15;8:36. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Family physician (FP) is one of the best strategies to reform health system and promote population health. Due to the different context, culture, and population, implementing this reform within cities would be more challenging than in rural areas. This study aimed to assess the challenges and strengths of Urban FP Program in Fars Province of Iran. Read More

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February 2019

Annual banned-substance review: Analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

Drug Test Anal 2019 Jan 6;11(1):8-26. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Center for Preventive Doping Research - Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

A number of high profile revelations concerning anti-doping rule violations over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of tackling prevailing challenges and reducing the limitations of the current anti-doping system. At this time, the necessity to enhance, expand, and improve analytical test methods in response to the substances outlined in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List represents an increasingly crucial task for modern sports drug testing programs. The ability to improve analytical testing methods often relies on the expedient application of novel information regarding superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, and alternative sample matrices, together with recent advances in instrumental developments. Read More

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January 2019

Neural discrimination of speech sound changes in a variable context occurs irrespective of attention and explicit awareness.

Biol Psychol 2018 02 3;132:217-227. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland; Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Institute for Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

To process complex stimuli like language, our auditory system must tolerate large acoustic variance, like speaker variability, and still be sensitive enough to discriminate between phonemes and to detect complex sound relationships in, e.g., prosodic cues. Read More

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February 2018

Frequency and Cost of Vaccinations Administered Outside Minimum and Maximum Recommended Ages-2014 Data From 6 Sentinel Sites of Immunization Information Systems.

J Pediatr 2018 02 14;193:164-171. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Objective: To quantify vaccinations administered outside minimum and maximum recommended ages and to determine attendant costs of revaccination by analyzing immunization information system (IIS) records.

Study Design: We analyzed deidentified records of doses administered during 2014 to persons aged <18 years within 6 IIS sentinel sites (10% of the US population). We quantified doses administered outside of recommended ages according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices childhood immunization schedule and prescribing information in package inserts, and calculated revaccination costs. Read More

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February 2018

Annual banned-substance review: Analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

Drug Test Anal 2018 Jan 18;10(1):9-27. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Center for Preventive Doping Research - Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Germany.

Several high-profile revelations concerning anti-doping rule violations over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of tackling prevailing challenges and reducing the limitations of the current anti-doping system. At this time, the necessity to enhance, expand, and improve analytical test methods in response to the substances outlined in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List represents an increasingly crucial task for modern sports drug-testing programs. The ability to improve analytical testing methods often relies on the expedient application of novel information regarding superior target analytes for sports drug-testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, together with recent advances in instrumental developments. Read More

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January 2018

A paired training curriculum and internal monitoring program for clinical research regulatory compliance in the emerging era of the single Institutional Review Board.

J Clin Transl Sci 2017 Aug 9;1(4):211-217. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Clinical and Translational Research Organization, Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, FL, USA.

Background: Academic health systems and their investigators are challenged to systematically assure clinical research regulatory compliance. This challenge is heightened in the emerging era of centralized single Institutional Review Boards for multicenter studies, which rely on monitoring programs at each participating site.

Objective: To describe the development, implementation, and outcome measurement of an institution-wide paired training curriculum and internal monitoring program for clinical research regulatory compliance. Read More

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How to think about emotion and morality: circles, not arrows.

Curr Opin Psychol 2017 10 21;17:41-46. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Pennsylvania State University, United States.

Emotion and morality are powerful conscious experiences. There are two ways to think about their psychological basis: arrows and circles. Arrows ground each experience in its own specialized mechanism (mechanism x causes phenomenon x; mechanism y causes phenomenon y). Read More

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October 2017

Urban eddy covariance measurements reveal significant missing NO emissions in Central Europe.

Sci Rep 2017 05 30;7(1):2536. Epub 2017 May 30.

National Centre for Atmospheric Science and Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, UK.

Nitrogen oxide (NO) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO concentration violations. Read More

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Fairness overrides group bias in children's second-party punishment.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2017 Apr;146(4):485-494

Department of Psychology, Yale University.

Adults and children show ingroup favoritism in their 3rd-party punishment of cooperative norm violations, suggesting that group loyalty importantly shapes enforcement of cooperation. Ingroup favoritism additionally influences punishment of unfairness in the 2-party ultimatum game, in which people are directly affected by unfair behavior. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear: In some cases, people are more forgiving of ingroup unfairness, whereas in others they are less forgiving. Read More

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Toward Nucleating the Concept of the Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF): Perspective from the Principal Actors.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 04 31;51(8):4158-4164. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Natural Resources and Society, University of Idaho , Moscow, Idaho 83844-1139, United States.

Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach-seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Read More

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A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

Authors:
Brett Koonse

Foods 2016 Apr 29;5(2). Epub 2016 Apr 29.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD 20740, USA.

It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Read More

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BTG-AC: Break-the-Glass Access Control Model for Medical Data in Wireless Sensor Networks.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2016 05 22;20(3):763-774. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently attracted much interest in the research community because of their wide range of applications. An emerging application for WSNs involves their use in healthcare where they are generally termed wireless medical sensor networks. In a hospital, outfitting every patient with tiny, wearable, wireless vital sign sensors would allow doctors, nurses, and other caregivers to continuously monitor the state of their patients. Read More

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Next steps for meeting the needs of people with severe mental illness in low- and middle-income countries.

Authors:
C Hanlon

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2017 08 20;26(4):348-354. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine,College of Health Sciences,Addis Ababa University,PO 9086, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia.

The explicit inclusion of mental health within the Sustainable Development Goals is a welcome development, borne out of powerful advocacy using public health, economic and human rights arguments. As funding comes on line for scale-up of evidence-based mental health care by task-sharing with primary care, it is time to take stock about care for people affected by severe mental illness (SMI). The existing evidence base for task shared care for SMI provides an imperative to get started, but is skewed towards relatively more affluent and urban populations in middle-income countries where specialist mental health professionals provide most of the care. Read More

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Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

Psychol Res 2017 Sep 27;81(5):939-946. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. Read More

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September 2017

Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys.

PLoS Comput Biol 2016 08 10;12(8):e1005065. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data-specifically, 2-wave panel data-was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. Read More

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