8,817 results match your criteria violations


Relationships among driving styles, desire for control, illusion of control, and self-reported driving behaviors.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology, Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania.

Objective: A correlational study examined relationships among driving styles, 4 subfactors of desire for control, illusion of control, accident concern, self-rated likelihood of being involved in an accident, self-rated driving skill, and self-reported accidents, violations, and close calls.

Methods: An online sample of participants ( = 601) completed (1) the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (MDSI); (2) the Desirability of Control Scale (DCS); (3) an Illusion of Control Scale; (4) an accident concern self-rating, (5) a 3-item speed questionnaire; (6) a 4-item accidents, violations, and close calls questionnaire; (7) a driving skill self-rating; and (8) a demographic questionnaire. Scales were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis where appropriate. Read More

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From the talking cure to a disease of silence: Effects of ethical violations in a psychoanalytic institute.

Int J Psychoanal 2019 Apr;100(2):247-271

Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

This article presents an in-depth study of one institute's efforts to recover from effects of ethical violations by two senior members. Qualitative data analysis from voluntary member interviews details the damage that spread throughout the institute, demonstrating that a violation of one is a violation of many. Members at all levels reported feeling disturbed in ways that affected their emotional equilibrium, their thinking processes, and their social and professional relationships. Read More

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Aortic neck IFU violations during EVAR for ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysms are associated with increased in-hospital mortality.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: Vascular surgeons treating patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) must make rapid treatment decisions and sometimes lack immediate access to endovascular devices meeting the anatomic specifications of the patient at hand. We hypothesized that endovascular treatment of rAAA (rEVAR) outside manufacturer instructions-for-use (IFU) guidelines would have similar in-hospital mortality compared to patients treated on-IFU or with an infrarenal clamp during open repair (rOAR).

Methods: Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) datasets for endovascular and open aortic repair were queried for patients presenting with ruptured infrarenal AAA between 2013-2018. Read More

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Nitrate in Drinking Water during Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Retrospective Within-Mother Analysis in California.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 5;129(5):57001. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Nitrate is a widespread groundwater contaminant and a leading cause of drinking water quality violations in California. Associations between nitrate exposure and select adverse birth outcomes have been suggested, but few studies have examined gestational exposures to nitrate and risk of preterm birth (before 37 wk gestation).

Objective: We investigated the association between elevated nitrate in drinking water and spontaneous preterm birth through a within-mother retrospective cohort study of births in California. Read More

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Making moral principles suit yourself.

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Philosophy, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Normative ethical theories and religious traditions offer general moral principles for people to follow. These moral principles are typically meant to be fixed and rigid, offering reliable guides for moral judgment and decision-making. In two preregistered studies, we found consistent evidence that agreement with general moral principles shifted depending upon events recently accessed in memory. Read More

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Expect the Worst! Expectations and Social Interactive Decision Making.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Psychological studies have demonstrated that expectations can have substantial effects on choice behavior, although the role of expectations on social decision making in particular has been relatively unexplored. To broaden our knowledge, we examined the role of expectations on decision making when interacting with new game partners and then also in a subsequent interaction with the same partners. To perform this, 38 participants played an Ultimatum Game (UG) in the role of responders and were primed to expect to play with two different groups of proposers, either those that were relatively fair (a tendency to propose an equal split-the high expectation condition) or unfair (with a history of offering unequal splits-the low expectation condition). Read More

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Effect of Half-Dose vs Stable-Dose Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs on Disease Flares in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Remission: The ARCTIC REWIND Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 May;325(17):1755-1764

Division of Rheumatology and Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Sustained remission has become an achievable goal for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), but how to best treat patients in clinical remission remains unclear.

Objective: To assess the effect of tapering of csDMARDs, compared with continuing csDMARDs without tapering, on the risk of flares in patients with RA in sustained remission.

Design, Setting, And Participants: ARCTIC REWIND was a multicenter, randomized, parallel, open-label noninferiority study conducted in 10 Norwegian hospital-based rheumatology practices. Read More

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Mechanisms for handling nested dependencies in neural-network language models and humans.

Cognition 2021 Apr 30:104699. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin center, 91191 Gif/Yvette, France; Collège de France, Université Paris-Sciences-Lettres (PSL), 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France.

Recursive processing in sentence comprehension is considered a hallmark of human linguistic abilities. However, its underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied whether a modern artificial neural network trained with "deep learning" methods mimics a central aspect of human sentence processing, namely the storing of grammatical number and gender information in working memory and its use in long-distance agreement (e. Read More

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Mapping Unobserved Item-Respondent Interactions: A Latent Space Item Response Model with Interaction Map.

Psychometrika 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Classic item response models assume that all items with the same difficulty have the same response probability among all respondents with the same ability. These assumptions, however, may very well be violated in practice, and it is not straightforward to assess whether these assumptions are violated, because neither the abilities of respondents nor the difficulties of items are observed. An example is an educational assessment where unobserved heterogeneity is present, arising from unobserved variables such as cultural background and upbringing of students, the quality of mentorship and other forms of emotional and professional support received by students, and other unobserved variables that may affect response probabilities. Read More

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Burnout Phenotypes Among U.S. General Surgery Residents.

J Surg Educ 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center (SOQIC), Department of Surgery and Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Objective: Although well-established metrics exist to measure workplace burnout, researchers disagree about how to categorize individuals based on assessed symptoms. Using a person-centered approach, this study identifies classes of burnout symptomatology in a large sample of general surgery residents in the United States.

Design, Setting, Participants: A survey was administered following the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) to study wellness among U. Read More

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A Head-to-Head Comparison of the Standard Quality-Adjusted Life Year Model With the Annual Profile Model.

Value Health 2021 May 12;24(5):707-713. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The standard quality-adjusted life year (QALY) model (SQM) assumes time-utility independence within constant health states and additive independence when health varies over time. The validity of SQM has been challenged through reported violations of these assumptions. An alternative approach that relaxes these assumptions is to assign a single valuation to an entire health profile: an integral assessment of disease severity over time. Read More

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A scoping review of the literature featuring research ethics and research integrity cases.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Apr 30;22(1):50. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The areas of Research Ethics (RE) and Research Integrity (RI) are rapidly evolving. Cases of research misconduct, other transgressions related to RE and RI, and forms of ethically questionable behaviors have been frequently published. The objective of this scoping review was to collect RE and RI cases, analyze their main characteristics, and discuss how these cases are represented in the scientific literature. Read More

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Positive and negative prediction error signals to violated expectations of face and place stimuli distinctively activate FFA and PPA.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 27:118028. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany; Otto Creutzfeldt Center for Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Surprising scenarios can have different behavioural and neuronal consequences depending on the violation of the expectation. On the one hand, previous research has shown that the omission of a visual stimulus results in a robust cortical response representing that missing stimulus, a so-called negative prediction error. On the other hand, a large amount of studies revealed positive prediction error signals, entailing an increased neural response that can be attributed to the experience of a surprising, unexpected stimulus. Read More

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[Problems of updating the procedures for the provision of medical care used in diseases of the ear and mastoid, throat and nose].

Authors:
D O Roshchin

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2021 ;86(2):99-103

National Research Institute of Public Health named after N.A. Semashko of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

The procedures for the provision of medical care in otorhinolaryngology and audiology-otorhinolaryngology contain a large number of requirements. The actualization of the orders has not been carried out for a long time, which is due to the lack of methodological formalized approaches for the formation of hypotheses regarding expedient changes. The article proposes an analysis of the results of state control, which will allow the formation of specific proposals for assessment by experts in the framework of the process of updating the procedures for the provision of medical care. Read More

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Area under the expiratory flow-volume curve: predicted values by regression and deep learning methods and recommendations for clinical practice.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Apr;8(1)

Cleveland Clinic, Education Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: In spirometry, the area under expiratory flow-volume curve (AEX-FV) was found to perform well in diagnosing and stratifying physiologic impairments, potentially lessening the need for complex lung volume testing. Expanding on prior work, this study assesses the accuracy and the utility of several models of estimating AEX-FV based on forced vital capacity (FVC) and several instantaneous flows. These models could be incorporated in regular spirometry reports, especially when actual AEX-FV measurements are not available. Read More

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A Drone Logistic Model for Transporting the Complete Analytic Volume of a Large-Scale University Laboratory.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 26;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The Intervention Center, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

We present a model for drone transport of the complete annual analytic volume of 6.5 million analyses-(routine and emergency) between two inner-city university laboratories at Oslo University Hospital located 1.8 km apart and with a time restriction for the analyses of no more than 60 min. Read More

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Impaired Audiovisual Representation of Phonemes in Children with Developmental Language Disorder.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Statistics, Purdue University, 250 N. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2066, USA.

We examined whether children with developmental language disorder (DLD) differed from their peers with typical development (TD) in the degree to which they encode information about a talker's mouth shape into long-term phonemic representations. Children watched a talker's face and listened to rare changes from [i] to [u] or the reverse. In the neutral condition, the talker's face had a closed mouth throughout. Read More

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How Self-Control Predicts Moral Decision Making: An Exploratory Study on Healthy Participants.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 6;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cognitive Science, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy.

Research on moral reasoning calls into question self-control, which encompasses impulsivity, compulsivity, and inhibitory control. However, a thorough investigation exploring how these three dimensions can affect moral reasoning in response to different scenarios is unavailable. We addressed this topic by testing the predictive role of these three dimensions of self-control on appraisals for ethical violations related with different types of scenarios. Read More

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Health Misinformation about Toxic-Site Harm: The Case for Independent-Party Testing to Confirm Safety.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 7;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, 3060 Jenkins Nanovic Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.

Health misinformation can cause harm if regulators or private remediators falsely claim that a hazardous facility is safe. This misinformation especially threatens the health of children, minorities, and poor people, disproportionate numbers of whom live near toxic facilities. Yet, perhaps because of financial incentives, private remediators may use safety misinformation to justify reduced cleanup. Read More

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Explaining risky choices with judgments: Framing, the zero effect, and the contextual relativity of gist.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Development.

Contemporary theories of decision-making are compared with respect to their predictions about the judgments that are hypothesized to underlie risky choice framing effects. Specifically, we compare predictions of psychophysical models, such as prospect theory, to the cognitive representational approach of fuzzy-trace theory in which the presence or absence of zero is key to framing effects. Three experiments implemented a high-power design in which many framing problems were administered to participants, who rated the attractiveness of either the certain or risky options. Read More

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Sanctioned licensing board violations for marriage and family therapists spanning a 10-year period.

J Marital Fam Ther 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Child and Family Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

Although disciplinary data on violations committed by licensed mental health professionals are important information for training programs, supervisors, and regulators, little disciplinary information is available on licensed marriage and family therapists (MFTs). This study collected data publicly available from state regulatory board websites and open records requests from 35 states for a total of 1241 separate cases, 889 of which were from CA. The findings indicated that the five most common violations for MFTs in 34 states (not including CA) were nonsexual dual relationships, failure to meet CE hour requirements, sexual dual relationships, unlicensed practice, and misrepresentation on licensing applications or renewals. Read More

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Boom-bust population dynamics increase diversity in evolving competitive communities.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 23;4(1):502. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Physics Department, University of Santiago of Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile.

The processes and mechanisms underlying the origin and maintenance of biological diversity have long been of central importance in ecology and evolution. The competitive exclusion principle states that the number of coexisting species is limited by the number of resources, or by the species' similarity in resource use. Natural systems such as the extreme diversity of unicellular life in the oceans provide counter examples. Read More

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Violations of locality and free choice are equivalent resources in Bell experiments.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Division of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.

Bell inequalities rest on three fundamental assumptions: realism, locality, and free choice, which lead to nontrivial constraints on correlations in very simple experiments. If we retain realism, then violation of the inequalities implies that at least one of the remaining two assumptions must fail, which can have profound consequences for the causal explanation of the experiment. We investigate the extent to which a given assumption needs to be relaxed for the other to hold at all costs, based on the observation that a violation need not occur on every experimental trial, even when describing correlations violating Bell inequalities. Read More

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[Impact assessment of an educational intervention in pharmacies that use commercial promotion of products competing with maternal breastfeeding].

Cad Saude Publica 2021 16;37(4):e00129919. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil.

The Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food, Nipples, Pacifiers, and Baby Bottles (Federal Law n. 11,265/2006) aims to control the abusive marketing of products that compete with breastfeeding. The objective was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on compliance with this law by pharmacies. Read More

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Testing for anabolic steroids in human nail clippings.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institut de médecine légale, Strasbourg, France.

Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, and their abuse can have numerous health consequences. Identification of this group of drugs has found applications in forensic toxicology, clinical situations, psychiatric disorders, and of course, anti-doping violations. Although anabolic steroids are generally tested in urine and very occasionally in head hair, collectors can face the lack of standard specimens, and therefore, nail clippings can be the unique alternative choice. Read More

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Psychiatric hospital reform in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of literature.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research, University of Warwick, Coventry, England.

Purpose: Psychiatric hospitals or mental asylums grew across the world in the colonial era. Despite concerns over quality of care and human rights violations, these hospitals continue to provide the majority of mental health care in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to review the evidence of reform of mental hospitals and associated patient outcomes. Read More

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A safety score for the assessment of driving style.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 Apr 21:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Japan Automobile Research Institute JARI - SAKURA project, Tsukuba.

Objective: Road traffic laws explicitly refer to a safe and cautious driving style as a means of ensuring safety. For automated vehicles to adhere to these laws, objective measurements of safe and cautious behavior in normal driving conditions are required. This paper describes the conception, implementation and initial testing of an objective scoring system that assigns safety indexes to observed driving style, and aggregates them to provide an overall safety score for a given driving session. Read More

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Toward the development of a perceived IRB violation scale.

Account Res 2021 May 5:1-15. Epub 2021 May 5.

Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

This study introduces survey items that can be used to assess the perceived prevalence of specific IRB violations by researchers or to gauge the perceived seriousness of such infractions. Using survey data from tenured and tenure-track faculty at research-intensive universities, the descriptive findings showed that the failure to properly store data and neglecting to maintain project records were perceived to be the most widespread violations by sample members. Although comparatively less definitive, the results also showed that problems with data storage and record keeping were perceived to be relatively serious violations. Read More

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