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Toward sustainable stormwater management: Understanding public appreciation and recognition of urban Low Impact Development (LID) in the San Francisco Bay Area.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 13;300:113716. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University of California, Berkeley, 202 Wurster Hall #2000, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2000, USA; Center for Resource Efficient Communities, University of California, Berkeley, 202 Wurster Hall #2000, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2000, USA. Electronic address:

In the United States, regulators, planners, and designers have promoted Low Impact Development (LID) as a landscape-based approach to better manage urban stormwater for ecological benefits. However, the projects have often failed to achieve positive public responses due to their unattractive and unkempt appearances. This study provides empirical insights into public perception of urban LID practices by studying user reactions to 16 sites located in the San Francisco Bay Area-eight with LID design and eight with conventional landscape design. Read More

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September 2021

Telehealth Clinical Practice Guide for Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Speech and Language Pathology: A Saudi and Middle Eastern Guide.

Telemed J E Health 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Communication and Swallowing Disorders, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Telehealth refers to the application of telecommunications technology to deliver clinical services at a distance by linking clinician to patient, caregiver, or any person(s) involved in client care for assessment, intervention, consultation, and supervision. Telehealth for occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and speech and language pathology (SLP) have produced service delivery venues that are of great benefit during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The concept of telehealth for rehabilitation services is relatively new in the Middle East, and no specialty-specific clinical practice standards or guidelines are published to guide the rehabilitation practitioners. Read More

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September 2021

Where Should Orphaned and Separated Children and Adolescents Live: Comparing Institutionalized- and Family-Based Venues in Kenya.

Authors:
Sten H Vermund

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125572. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Office of the Dean, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

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September 2021

Biomedicalization, Stigma, and "Re-Gaying" HIV/AIDS in the Israeli Media.

Authors:
Michal Soffer

Arch Sex Behav 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Social Work, Faculty of Sociassl Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, 199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Mount Carmel, 349883, Haifa, Israel.

HIV and AIDS are not merely biomedical conditions-they are socially constructed phenomena. Media coverage plays a prominent role in the public's understanding of HIV/AIDS. "Biomediatization" denotes the coproduction of HIV/AIDS by biomedicine and mass media. Read More

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September 2021

Airborne SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in hospital environment using high-flowrate air samplers and its comparison to surface sampling.

Indoor Air 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Reliable methods to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at venues where people gather are essential for epidemiological surveillance to guide public policy. Communal screening of air in a highly crowded space has the potential to provide early warning on the presence and potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as suggested by studies early in the epidemic. As hospitals and public facilities apply varying degrees of restrictions and regulations, it is important to provide multiple methodological options to enable environmental SARS-CoV-2 surveillance under different conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Injuries and Illnesses Observed in Athletes from Beginner to Elite Levels at the 18th National Sports Festival for Persons with Disabilities in Japan.

Prog Rehabil Med 2021 26;6:20210032. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan.

Objectives: : This study aimed to describe the injuries and illnesses that occurred at the 18th National Sports Festival for Persons with Disabilities in Japan, which was attended by more than 3000 athletes from beginner to elite levels.

Methods: : Records from medical stations set up at the venues for each sport were reviewed. The incidence rates (IRs) were calculated as the number of medical station visits per 1000 athlete-days. Read More

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Comparing the space-time patterns of high-risk areas in different waves of COVID-19 in Hong Kong.

Trans GIS 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana IL USA.

This study compares the space-time patterns and characteristics of high-risk areas of COVID-19 transmission in Hong Kong between January 23 and April 14 (the first and second waves) and between July 6 and August 29 (the third wave). Using space-time scan statistics and the contact tracing data of individual confirmed cases, we detect the clusters of residences of, and places visited by, both imported and local cases. We also identify the built-environment and demographic characteristics of the high-risk areas during different waves of COVID-19. Read More

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An empirical evaluation of active inference in multi-armed bandits.

Neural Netw 2021 Aug 26;144:229-246. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Centre for Tactile Internet with Human-in-the-Loop (CeTI), Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

A key feature of sequential decision making under uncertainty is a need to balance between exploiting-choosing the best action according to the current knowledge, and exploring-obtaining information about values of other actions. The multi-armed bandit problem, a classical task that captures this trade-off, served as a vehicle in machine learning for developing bandit algorithms that proved to be useful in numerous industrial applications. The active inference framework, an approach to sequential decision making recently developed in neuroscience for understanding human and animal behaviour, is distinguished by its sophisticated strategy for resolving the exploration-exploitation trade-off. Read More

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The Future Public Health Workforce in a Changing World: A Conceptual Framework for a European-Israeli Knowledge Transfer Project.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 2;18(17). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 8410501, Israel.

Health services quality and sustainability rely mainly on a qualified workforce. Adequately trained public health personnel protect and promote health, avert health disparities, and allow rapid response to health emergencies. Evaluations of the healthcare workforce typically focus on physicians and nurses in curative medical venues. Read More

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September 2021

HIV testing preferences, barriers and facilitators to receiving HIV services among young Black sexual minority men.

AIDS Care 2021 Sep 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Young Black sexual minority men (YBSMM) represent a high-priority population for HIV prevention research. HIV testing is a critical public health tool to prevent HIV transmission and is an integral component of health care for high-priority populations. The present study uses Andersen's model of health care utilization as a framework to explore the HIV testing preferences of YBSMM and the barriers and facilitators to receiving HIV services as a means to increase regular HIV testing. Read More

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September 2021

Bondi and beyond. Lessons from three waves of COVID-19 from 2020.

Public Health Res Pract 2021 Sep 8;31(3). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Public Health Unit, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia; School of Population Health, UNSW Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: To describe local operational aspects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response during the first three waves of outbreaks in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, which began in January, July and December 2020. Type of program or service: Public health outbreak response.

Methods: Narrative with epidemiological linking and genomic testing. Read More

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September 2021

Osmotic Transport at the Aqueous Graphene and hBN Interfaces: Scaling Laws from a Unified, First-Principles Description.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, Universität Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Osmotic transport in nanoconfined aqueous electrolytes provides alternative venues for water desalination and "blue energy" harvesting. The osmotic response of nanofluidic systems is controlled by the interfacial structure of water and electrolyte solutions in the so-called electrical double layer (EDL), but a molecular-level picture of the EDL is to a large extent still lacking. Particularly, the role of the electronic structure has not been considered in the description of electrolyte/surface interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Harnessing the Fifth Element of Distributional Statistics for Psychological Science: A Practical Primer and Shiny App for Measures of Statistical Inequality and Concentration.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:716164. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Cognition, Emotion, and Methods in Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Although distributional inequality and concentration are important statistical concepts in many research fields (including economics, political and social science, information theory, and biology and ecology), they rarely are considered in psychological science. This practical primer familiarizes with the concepts of statistical inequality and concentration and presents an overview of more than a dozen useful, popular measures of inequality (including the Gini, Hoover, Rosenbluth, Herfindahl-Hirschman, Simpson, Shannon, generalized entropy, and Atkinson indices, and tail ratios). Additionally, an interactive web application (R Shiny) for calculating and visualizing these measures, with downloadable output, is described. Read More

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Using flow disruptions to understand healthcare system safety: A systematic review of observational studies.

Appl Ergon 2021 Sep 3;98:103559. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Storm Eye Building, Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

This systematic review provides information on the methodologies, measurements and classification systems used in observational studies of flow disruptions in clinical environments. The PRISMA methodology was applied and authors searched two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) for studies meeting the following inclusion criteria: (a) were conducted in a healthcare setting, (b) explored systems-factors leading to deviations in care processes, (c) were prospective and observational, (d) classified observations, and (e) were original research studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Thirty studies were analyzed and a variety of methods were identified for observer training, data collection and observation classification. Read More

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September 2021

Sex education and STI fatalism, testing and infection among young African American men who have sex with women.

Sex Educ 2021 9;21(4):404-416. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between institution-delivered sex education given under real-world conditions and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, STI fatalism, and prior STI testing among African American men aged 15-24 who have sex with women. Participants were tested at community venues for Chlamydia and gonorrhoea and undertook a survey to elicit history of sex education and sexual health information. Among 1196 participants, 73. Read More

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September 2020

Young migrants' sexual rights in Sweden: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 09 6;21(1):1618. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Försörjningsvägen 7D, SE-907 37, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: In national public health surveys including those assessing sexual and reproductive health, migrants generally tend to be underrepresented due to cultural, linguistic, structural and legal barriers, minimising the possibility to measure sexual rights' fulfilment in this group. This study aims to describe to what extent sexual rights of young migrants in Sweden are being fulfilled.

Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1773 young (16-29 years) migrants by post, online, and at language schools and other venues. Read More

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September 2021

Psychodynamic Psychiatry and the Therapeutic Space in the Era of COVID-19.

Authors:
Douglas H Ingram

Psychodyn Psychiatry 2021 ;49(3):441-452

Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at New York Medical College.

Psychodynamic psychiatric practice during the COVID-19 pandemic has required most clinicians to conduct treatment online or by telephone. The result is a natural experiment that appears to endorse the efficacy of distance therapy. Consequently, the brick-and-mortar consulting room is no longer the presumptive therapeutic space for the conduct of psychodynamic psychiatric or other treatment approaches. Read More

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January 2021

Monitoring compliance with Kenya's shisha ban in select public hospitality venues in Nairobi.

Tob Control 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

International Research, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Washington, DC, USA

Introduction: Seven countries in the WHO African Region have banned the sale and/or use of shisha. In 2017, Kenya implemented a comprehensive ban on shisha, including the use, import, manufacture, sale, offer of sale, advertising, promotion, distribution and encouraging or facilitating its use. The objective of this study was to assess compliance with the ban of shisha use in select public hospitality venues in Nairobi, Kenya. Read More

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September 2021

Establishing a Global Standard for Wearable Devices in Sport and Exercise Medicine: Perspectives from Academic and Industry Stakeholders.

Sports Med 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Millions of consumer sport and fitness wearables (CSFWs) are used worldwide, and millions of datapoints are generated by each device. Moreover, these numbers are rapidly growing, and they contain a heterogeneity of devices, data types, and contexts for data collection. Companies and consumers would benefit from guiding standards on device quality and data formats. Read More

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September 2021

Factors associated with medical complications after body art among Israeli adults: a retrospective study.

Isr J Health Policy Res 2021 Sep 1;10(1):39. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Health Systems Management, School of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

Introduction: Body-art, including tattoos and piercings, is steadily increasing world-wide but with relatively limited reporting of adverse outcomes. The objective of the present study was to identify correlates that would facilitate a preventative strategy to minimize adverse effects of body-art.

Methods: We examined patterns of body-art, health risk and perceptions among 921 participants (54% female, mean age of 35; SD = 10. Read More

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September 2021

Hair salons and stylist-client social relationships as facilitators of community-based contraceptive uptake in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative analysis.

Reprod Health 2021 Aug 30;18(1):178. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Cambridge Street, 16th Floor, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: South Africa faces a high burden of unmet contraceptive need, particularly among adolescent girls and young women. Providing contraception in community-based venues may overcome barriers to contraceptive access. Our objective was to explore the potential impact of the social environment and stylist-client interactions on perceived accessibility of contraceptives within hair salons. Read More

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Differences in Abortion-related Knowledge among Women Involved in the Criminal Legal System in Three US Cities.

Contraception 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

University of Kansas School of Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Blvd MS 1008, Kansas City, KS, 66160. Electronic address:

Objective: We examined if abortion-related knowledge among women with criminal legal system involvement differed in three U.S. cities in states with varying abortion policies. Read More

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Implementation and evaluation of virtual multiple mini interviews as a selection tool for entry into paediatric postgraduate training: A Queensland experience.

Med Teach 2021 Aug 30:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Queensland Rural Medical Services (Darling Downs Health, Queensland Health), Brisbane, Australia.

Introduction: The Queensland Basic Paediatric Training Network (QBPTN) is the centralised pathway for entry into paediatric training in Queensland, Australia. In response to COVID-19 travel and social distancing restrictions imposed in 2020, QBPTN successfully adopted a Virtual Multiple Mini Interviews (vMMIs) model for the selection of candidates for entry into paediatric training. The authors describe the planning, implementation, challenges, and evaluation of candidates' and interviewers' experiences of vMMIs, including the differences between candidates from two geographical areas. Read More

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Fragmentation in trader preferences among multiple markets: market coexistence versus single market dominance.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Aug 18;8(8):202233. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Mathematics, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK.

Technological advancement has led to an increase in the number and type of trading venues and a diversification of goods traded. These changes have re-emphasized the importance of understanding the effects of market competition: does proliferation of trading venues and increased competition lead to dominance of a single market or coexistence of multiple markets? In this paper, we address these questions in a stylized model of zero-intelligence traders who make repeated decisions at which of three available markets to trade. We analyse the model numerically and analytically and find that the traders' decision parameters-memory length and how strongly decisions are based on past success-make the key difference between consolidated and fragmented steady states of the population of traders. Read More

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The Functions of Hepatitis B Virus Encoding Proteins: Viral Persistence and Liver Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:691766. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

About 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV), contributing to a large burden on public health. Despite the existence of vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent infection and suppress viral replication respectively, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cure remains a remote treatment goal. The viral persistence caused by HBV is account for the chronic infection which increases the risk for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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An Early Examination: Psychological, Health, and Economic Correlates and Determinants of Social Distancing Amidst COVID-19.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:589579. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Federal and local government agencies were quick to issue orders for residents to shelter-in-place in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. This study utilized data collected from Unacast Inc., spanning observations of 3,142 counties across 50 states and the District of Columbia ( = 230,846) from March 8, 2020 to April 13, 2020 ( = 104,930) and from April 14, 2020 to May 24, 2020 ( = 131,912) in a 3-level multilevel model to examine the correlates of social distancing behavior, as measured by the relative reduction in (1) distance traveled and (2) non-essential visitations since baseline pre-COVID-19 times. Read More

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Adjuvant Pitolisant in a Case With Early-Onset Schizophrenia.

Clin Neuropharmacol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Al-Manara CAP Centre, Kuwait Centre for Mental Health (KCMH), Shuwaikh, State of Kuwait University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia Tufts University, Medford, MA.

Objectives: Early-onset schizophrenia is notorious for poor prognostication and treatment refractoriness. Child/adolescent psychiatric population, by virtue of age, is at a heightened risk for cardiometabolic risk of atypical antipsychotics. Available pharmacological options are, sorely, too limited to mitigate this risk. Read More

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Accessibility of automatic external defibrillators and survival rate of people with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review of real-world studies.

Resuscitation 2021 Aug 25;167:200-208. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Research Center for Palliative Care, West China-PUMC C.C. Chen Institute of Health, Sichuan University China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the accessibility of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) and the survival rate of patients who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Methods: The systematic review was conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews. We searched the Chinese and English literature databases from 2009 to 2019. Read More

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Associations between breast cancer screening participation and residential area sociodemographic features, geographic accessibility, and features of screening venue location in Greater Sydney, Australia.

Prev Med 2021 Aug 24;153:106774. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Australian Geospatial Health Laboratory, Health Research Institute, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.

Breast cancer screening (BCS) participation rates are often suboptimal and vary geographically. Environmental features may influence BCS participation, but few studies have assessed this relationship. This study assessed the associations between BCS participation, residential area sociodemographic characteristics, distance to BCS venue, and venue location attributes. Read More

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Mini-organs forum: how to advance organoid technology to organ transplant community.

Transpl Int 2021 Sep;34(9):1588-1593

Pluripotency for Organ Regeneration, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Barcelona, Spain.

The generation of human mini-organs, the so-called organoids, is one of the biggest scientific advances in regenerative medicine. This technology exploits traditional three-dimensional culture techniques that support cell-autonomous self-organization responses of stem cells to derive micrometer to millimeter size versions of human organs. The convergence of the organoid technology with organ transplantation is still in its infancy but this alliance is expected to open new venues to change the way we conduct both transplant and organoid research. Read More

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September 2021