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Topological Analysis of the Brainstem of the Australian Lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri.

Brain Behav Evol 2021 May 31:1-21. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Medical Imaging, Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

This paper presents a survey of the cell masses in the brainstem of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri, based ontransversely cut Bodian-stained serial sections, supplemented by immunohistochemical data from the recent literature. This study is intended to serve a double purpose. First it concludes and completes a series of publications on the structure of the brainstem in representative species of all groups of anamniote vertebrates. Read More

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Remodeling of t-system and proteins underlying excitation-contraction coupling in aging versus failing human heart.

NPJ Aging Mech Dis 2021 May 28;7(1):16. Epub 2021 May 28.

Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

It is well established that the aging heart progressively remodels towards a senescent phenotype, but alterations of cellular microstructure and their differences to chronic heart failure (HF) associated remodeling remain ill-defined. Here, we show that the transverse tubular system (t-system) and proteins underlying excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes are characteristically remodeled with age. We shed light on mechanisms of this remodeling and identified similarities and differences to chronic HF. Read More

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Icarrin prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore whether icarrin (ICA) can protect cardiomyocytes from hypertension-induced damage by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS).

Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were orally administered water or ICA at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg once daily for 12 weeks, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as control. Changes in the growth and blood pressure of rats were assessed. Read More

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Strain generation and right ventricular systolic function: The sum of all its parts.

Echocardiography 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Cardiology Department, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has provided a reliable means to enhance characterization and quantification of global right ventricular (RV) systolic function. The use of Automated Functional Imaging (AFI) software has been previously used to quantify RV longitudinal peak global strain (PGS) values during two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiographic examinations. However, there is a paucity of data regarding relative strain contribution of each individual regional segments when compared with global strain assessment. Read More

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Contraction-relaxation coupling is unaltered by exercise training and infarction in isolated canine myocardium.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Jul;153(7)

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

The two main phases of the mammalian cardiac cycle are contraction and relaxation; however, whether there is a connection between them in humans is not well understood. Routine exercise has been shown to improve cardiac function, morphology, and molecular signatures. Likewise, the acute and chronic changes that occur in the heart in response to injury, disease, and stress are well characterized, albeit not fully understood. Read More

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The choice of palliative arterial switch operation as an alternative for selected cases in a single center: Experience and mid term results.

J Card Surg 2021 Jun 10;36(6):1979-1984. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Dr Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction And Objective: There are various management options for newborns with single ventricle physiology, ventriculoarterial discordance and subaortic stenosis, classically involving the early pulmonary banding and aortic arch repair, the restricted bulboventriculer foramen enlargement or the Norwood and the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate our preferred technique and comment on the midterm results of our clinical experience with palliative arterial switch operation (pASO) for a certain subset of patients.

Method: We hereby retrospectively evaluate the charts of patients who went through pASO, as initial palliation through Fontan pathway, starting from 2014 till today. Read More

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DiGeorge syndrome and anomalous right aortic arch with arch-on-arch and figure-of-eight configurations: Aortic sac maldevelopment and left brachiocephalic artery abnormal remodeling.

Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):125-127. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We report a 6-month-old female infant with deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (DiGeorge/VFS TUPLE 1), normal atrial arrangement with concordant atrioventricular connection, pulmonary atresia, large subaortic ventricular septal defect, diminutive native pulmonary arteries, a characteristic weird-shape right aortic arch with arch-on-arch appearance and figure of 8 configuration. We presented the cardiac computed tomographic angiographic and cardiac angiographic features. Read More

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December 2020

Safety of mapping in the sinus of valsalva region under intracardiac echocardiography guidance without angiography.

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2021 May-Jun;21(3):141-144. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Radiofrequency ablation at the region of the sinus of Valsalva carries a risk to the ostia of the coronary arteries. Coronary angiography is usually utilized to document a safe distance for mapping and ablation.

Objective: To show that catheter ablation in the aortic root could be guided by phased-array intra cardiac echocardiography (ICE) and electro anatomic mapping without the need for coronary angiography. Read More

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February 2021

Three-dimensional visualization of the bovine cardiac conduction system and surrounding structures compared to the arrangements in the human heart.

J Anat 2021 Jun 24;238(6):1359-1370. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

In the human heart, the atrioventricular node is located toward the apex of the triangle of Koch, which is also at the apex of the inferior pyramidal space. It is adjacent to the atrioventricular portion of the membranous septum, through which it penetrates to become the atrioventricular bundle. Subsequent to its penetration, the conduction axis is located on the crest of the ventricular septum, sandwiched between the muscular septum and ventricular component of the membranous septum, where it gives rise to the ramifications of the left bundle branch. Read More

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Composition and organization of the sagittal stratum in the human brain: a fiber dissection study.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jan 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

7Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical Center, Montpellier, France; and.

Objective: The sagittal stratum is divided into two layers. In classic descriptions, the stratum sagittale internum corresponds to optic radiations (RADs), whereas the stratum sagittale externum corresponds to fibers of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Although advanced for the time it was proposed, this schematic organization seems simplistic considering the recent progress on the understanding of cerebral connectivity and needs to be updated. Read More

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January 2021

Heart development in two populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) following exposure to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 6;208:111580. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham 27708, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Historic industrial pollution of the Elizabeth River, Virginia resulted in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in sediments. Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Atlantic Wood (AW) industrial site adapted to complex PAH mixture at this Superfund site. Their embryos have proved highly resistant to cardiac abnormalities indicative of PAH toxicity. Read More

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January 2021

Diagnosis of Double-chambered Left Ventricle of Superior-inferior Type by Echocardiography: A Retrospective Study of 9 Subjects across Two Heart Centers.

Echocardiography 2021 Feb 24;38(2):169-174. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Double-chambered left ventricle (DCLV) is extremely rare. Challenges remain in accurate diagnosis of DCLV by echocardiography, because it is easily confused with left ventricular diverticulum, left ventricular aneurysm, ventricular septal defect, etc. Herein, we reviewed echocardiographic characteristics of DCLV and evaluated the accuracy of echocardiographic diagnosis. Read More

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February 2021

Unusual coronary artery arrangement in D-transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect.

Cardiol Young 2021 Jan 17;31(1):127-129. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Children's, Cleveland, OH44195, USA.

A term female with prenatally diagnosed D-Transposition of the great arteries, large membranous ventricular septal defect with inlet extension, moderate secundum atrial septal defect, and large patent ductus arteriosus (Fig 1) was born by scheduled caesarean section. Transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed the anatomy with both coronary arteries arising from a single sinus with separate ostia. The right coronary artery arose from right posterior facing sinus (Fig 2). Read More

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January 2021

Frameless radiosurgical third ventriculostomy: Technical report.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 18;11:398. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Radio Neurosurgery Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery "Dr. Manuel Velasco Suarez", Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: We describe the technical report and results of the first image-guided, linear accelerator, frameless radiosurgical third ventriculostomy.

Methods: We report a 20 years old man, with diplopia, balance disturbances, and limitation for gaze supraversion. Magnetic resonance imaging resonance imaging of the brain and cranial computed tomography showed showed a left thalamic-midbrain lesion that caused partial compression of the Silvio aqueduct and mild ventricular dilatation. Read More

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November 2020

Topsy-turvy heart: A first recorded case report with intracardiac anomaly.

Echocardiography 2021 Jan 4;38(1):114-117. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Basaksehir Cam and Sakura Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Topsy-turvy heart is a rare congenital anomaly; it has a specific characteristic of cardiac malrotation and superior-inferior arrangement of right/left ventricles. A five-day-old patient was diagnosed antenatally with hypoplastic left heart and right hydronephrosis and had been admitted to the hospital with symptoms of respiratory distress. The postnatal imaging studies revealed an abnormal ventricular arrangement with a large aortopulmonary window, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and the upside-down orientation resulting in the posterior-inferior displacement of the common arterial confluence and, in turn, the left main bronchial stenosis. Read More

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January 2021

AT1-receptor autoantibody exposure in utero contributes to cardiac dysfunction and increased glycolysis in fetal mice.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2020 Dec;52(12):1373-1381

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Exposure to adverse factors in utero may lead to adaptive changes in cardiac structure and metabolism, which increases the risk of chronic cardiovascular disease later in life. Studies showed that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) are able to cross the placenta into the circulation of pregnant rodents' embryo, which adversely affects embryogenesis. However, the effects of AT1-AA exposure on the fetal heart in utero are still unknown. Read More

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December 2020

Preparation of Nano Zinc Particles and Evaluation of Its Application in Mouse Myocardial Infarction Model.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 02;21(2):1196-1201

Eleven Area of Cardiac Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Nanometer zinc particles were synthesized by orthogonal test with manganese chloride, iron chloride and zinc sulfate as raw materials and NaOH as coprecipitating agent. The optimum synthesis conditions of coprecipitation method were obtained and the samples were characterized by various means. In this experiment, the SV, EF, FS, lvaws, lvawd, lvpws and lvpwd of left ventricle in mice with myocardial infarction were decreased, while the LVEDd, lveds and lvevs were increased in the environment exposed to ultrafine zinc nanoparticles, which proved that exposure to ultrafine zinc nanoparticles could lead to the enlargement of left ventricle, the thinning of ventricular wall, and the decrease of cardiac systolic and diastolic function. Read More

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February 2021

Imaging characteristics and associations in twisted atrioventricular connections on multidetector computed tomography angiography.

J Card Surg 2020 Nov 16;35(11):2979-2986. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aim: To evaluate the imaging characteristics and associations in patients with twisted atrioventricular connections on multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2605 CT angiography studies performed for suspected congenital heart diseases in our institution from January 2014 to December 2018. Twisted atrioventricular connections were diagnosed in 12 patients. Read More

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November 2020

Incorporating sensitive cardiac substructure sparing into radiation therapy planning.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2020 Nov 18;21(11):195-204. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose: Rising evidence suggests that cardiac substructures are highly radiosensitive. However, they are not routinely considered in treatment planning as they are not readily visualized on treatment planning CTs (TPCTs). This work integrated the soft tissue contrast provided by low-field MRIs acquired on an MR-linac via image registration to further enable cardiac substructure sparing on TPCTs. Read More

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November 2020

Polarized Light Imaging of the Myoarchitecture in Tetralogy of Fallot in the Perinatal Period.

Front Pediatr 2020 22;8:503054. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques, Applications, Grenoble (TIMC-IMAG), Grenoble, France.

The pathognomonic feature of tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the antero-cephalad deviation of the outlet septum in combination with an abnormal arrangement of the septoparietal trabeculations. The aim of this article was to study perinatal hearts using Polarized Light Imaging (PLI) in order to investigate the deep alignment of cardiomyocytes that bond the different components of the ventricular outflow tracts both together and to the rest of the ventricular mass, thus furthering the classic description of ToF. 10 perinatal hearts with ToF and 10 perinatal hearts with no detectable cardiac anomalies (control) were studied using PLI. Read More

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September 2020

An organosynthetic dynamic heart model with enhanced biomimicry guided by cardiac diffusion tensor imaging.

Sci Robot 2020 01;5(38)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The complex motion of the beating heart is accomplished by the spatial arrangement of contracting cardiomyocytes with varying orientation across the transmural layers, which is difficult to imitate in organic or synthetic models. High-fidelity testing of intracardiac devices requires anthropomorphic, dynamic cardiac models that represent this complex motion while maintaining the intricate anatomical structures inside the heart. In this work, we introduce a biorobotic hybrid heart that preserves organic intracardiac structures and mimics cardiac motion by replicating the cardiac myofiber architecture of the left ventricle. Read More

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January 2020

Development of Helical Myofiber Tracts in the Human Fetal Heart: Analysis of Myocardial Fiber Formation in the Left Ventricle From the Late Human Embryonic Period Using Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 10 30;9(19):e016422. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Human Health Science Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University Kyoto Japan.

Background Detection of the fiber orientation pattern of the myocardium using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging lags ≈12 weeks of gestational age (WGA) behind fetal myocardial remodeling with invasion by the developing coronary vasculature (8 WGA). We aimed to use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography to characterize the evolution of fiber architecture in the developing human heart from the later embryonic period. Methods and Results Twenty human specimens (8-24 WGA) from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos and Fetuses, including specimens from the embryonic period (Carnegie stages 20-23), were used. Read More

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October 2020

A memory optimization method combined with adaptive time-step method for cardiac cell simulation based on multi-GPU.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2020 Nov 21;58(11):2821-2833. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

School of Data and Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Cardiac electrophysiological simulation is a very complex computational process, which can be run on graphics processing unit (GPU) to save computational cost greatly. The use of adaptive time-step can further effectively speed up the simulation of heart cells. However, if the adaptive time-step method applies to GPU, it suffers synchronization problem on GPU, weakening the acceleration of adaptive time-step method. Read More

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November 2020

MiR-195 promotes myocardial fibrosis in MI rats via targeting TGF-β1/Smad.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2020 Jul-Aug;34(4):1325-1332

The First School of Clinical Medicine, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-195 on myocardial infarction (MI) in rats via regulating the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling pathway. A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group (n=12), a model group (n=12) and an miR-195 antagomir group (n=12). In the normal group, the heart was exposed only, and normal saline was intraperitoneally injected after operation. Read More

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November 2020

Atlas-based measures of left ventricular shape may improve characterization of adverse remodeling in anthracycline-exposed childhood cancer survivors: a cross-sectional imaging study.

Cardiooncology 2020 8;6:13. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive #0412, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412 USA.

Background: Adverse cardiac remodeling is an important precursor to anthracycline-related cardiac dysfunction, however conventional remodeling indices are limited. We sought to examine the utility of statistical atlas-derived measures of ventricular shape to improve the identification of adverse anthracycline-related remodeling in childhood cancer survivors.

Methods: We analyzed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging from a cross-sectional cohort of 20 childhood cancer survivors who were treated with low (< 250 mg/m [ = 10]) or high (≥250 mg/m [ = 10]) dose anthracyclines, matched 1:1 by sex and age between dose groups. Read More

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Urgent neonatal balloon atrial septostomy in simple transposition of the great arteries: predictive value of fetal cardiac parameters.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;57(5):756-768

Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of abnormal perinatal loading conditions on cardiac geometry and function in term fetuses and neonates with transposition of the great arteries with intact interventricular septum (simple TGA), and to explore the predictive value of fetal cardiac parameters for an urgent balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) after birth.

Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal follow-up study of women delivering at term, including both uncomplicated pregnancies with normal outcome and pregnancies affected by fetal simple TGA. Conventional, spectral-tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiographic parameters were obtained within 1 week before delivery and within the first few hours after delivery. Read More

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A case of double-outlet left ventricle, malposition of the great arteries, and superior-inferior ventricular arrangement.

Cardiol Young 2020 Aug 27;30(8):1173-1174. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Referral Centre for Congenital Cardiac Defects, CHUC, Coimbra, Portugal.

Superior-inferior ventricular arrangement with double-outlet left ventricle and malposition of the great arteries is an extremely rare congenital cardiac anomaly. The authors present the case of an infant who presented with cyanosis and respiratory distress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported. Read More

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Thoracoatrial discordance in a case of twisted atrioventricular connections: A unique configuration of visceroatrial arrangement.

J Card Surg 2020 Oct 11;35(10):2798-2799. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology and Endovascular Interventions, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

We present a case of a 12-year-old boy with discordance between the atrial arrangement and the thoracoabdominal arrangement in the setting of twisted atrioventricular connections. This case highlights the importance of a separate description of all visceral organs and venous drainage for an accurate description of visceroatrial arrangement in cases of congenital heart defects. Read More

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October 2020

Reassessment of the Location of the Conduction System in Atrioventricular Septal Defect Using Phase-Contrast Computed Tomography.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Winter;32(4):960-968. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

The location of the atrioventricular conduction axis in the setting of atrioventricular septal defect has previously been shown by histology and intraoperative recordings. We have now reassessed the arrangement using phase-contrast computed tomography, aiming to provide precise measurements so as to optimize future surgical repairs. We used the system based on an X-ray Talbot grating interferometer using the beamline BL20B2 in a SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility available in Japan. Read More

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Anatomical Studies of Transposition - An Argument for a Unifying Morphological Classification.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Winter;32(4):920-926. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

In the setting of transposition, recognition of the variability in the morphology of the outflow tracts and the arterial trunks is essential for surgical repair. Presence of a unifying system for classification would minimize the risk of misunderstanding. We examined an archive of 142 unrepaired hearts with transposition, defined as the combination of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculoarterial connections, combined with the clinical records of 727 patients undergoing the arterial switch procedures. Read More

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