15,047 results match your criteria vectors provide

Trypanosoma cruzi co-infections with other vector borne diseases are frequent in dogs from the pacific coast of Ecuador.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 14:104884. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados en Salud Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km 15.5 Carretera Panamericana Toluca-Atlacomulco, Toluca, Estado de México, C.P. 50200, Mexico.

Dogs are a reservoir for Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and other companion vector-borne diseases, including ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys), dirofilariasis (Dirofilaria immitis) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi). This study has two key objectives: 1) to determine seroreactivity against T. Read More

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Phylogenomic and morphological relationships among the botryllid ascidians (Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea, Family Styelidae).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8351. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biology Department and Estuarine and Ocean Science Center, San Francisco State University, 3150 Paradise Drive, Tiburon, CA, 94920, USA.

Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Class Ascidiacea) are a large group of invertebrates which occupy a central role in the ecology of marine benthic communities. Many ascidian species have become successfully introduced around the world via anthropogenic vectors. The botryllid ascidians (Order Stolidobranchia, Family Styelidae) are a group of 53 colonial species, several of which are widespread throughout temperate or tropical and subtropical waters. Read More

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Microbial Diversity of Adult Aedes aegypti and Water Collected from Different Mosquito Aquatic Habitats in Puerto Rico.

Microb Ecol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Mosquitoes, the major vectors of viruses like dengue, are naturally host to diverse microorganisms, which play an important role in their development, fecundity, immunity, and vector competence. The composition of their microbiota is strongly influenced by the environment, particularly their aquatic larval habitat. In this study, we used 2×300 bp 16s Illumina sequencing to compare the microbial profiles of emerging adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the water collected from common types of aquatic habitat containers in Puerto Rico, which has endemic dengue transmission. Read More

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Intracerebroventricular Administration of AAV9-PHP.B SYN1-EmGFP Induces Widespread Transgene Expression in the Mouse and Monkey CNS.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Emory University, 1371, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Viral vectors made from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have emerged as preferred tools in basic and translational neuroscience research to introduce or modify genetic material in cells of interest. The use of viral vectors is particularly attractive in non-transgenic species, such as non-human primates. Injections of AAV solutions into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an effective method to achieve a broad distribution of a transgene in the central nervous system. Read More

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Materials for Improving Immune Cell Transfection.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 15:e2007421. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117583, Singapore.

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy holds great promise for preventing and treating deadly diseases such as cancer. However, it remains challenging to transfect and engineer primary immune cells for clinical cell manufacturing. Conventional tools using viral vectors and bulk electroporation suffer from low efficiency while posing risks like viral transgene integration and excessive biological perturbations. Read More

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Highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout in primary human B cells for functional genetic studies of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 15;17(4):e1009117. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Unit Gene Vectors, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich, Germany.

Gene editing is now routine in all prokaryotic and metazoan cells but has not received much attention in immune cells when the CRISPR-Cas9 technology was introduced in the field of mammalian cell biology less than ten years ago. This versatile technology has been successfully adapted for gene modifications in human myeloid cells and T cells, among others, but applications to human primary B cells have been scarce and limited to activated B cells. This limitation has precluded conclusive studies into cell activation, differentiation or cell cycle control in this cell type. Read More

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Isotopic Analyses Fingerprint Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Compound-Bearing Dust in Athabasca Oil Sands Region Snowpack.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9, Canada.

Fugitive dust associated with surface mining activities is one of the principal vectors for transport of airborne contaminants in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Effective environmental management requires quantitative identification of the sources of this dust. Using natural abundance radiocarbon (ΔC) and dual (δC, δH) compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), this study investigated the sources of dust and particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) deposited in AOSR lake snowpack. Read More

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A nonviral, nonintegrating DNA nanovector platform for the safe, rapid, and persistent manufacture of recombinant T cells.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

DNA Vector Laboratory, DKFZ Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, Heidelberg, Germany.

The compelling need to provide adoptive cell therapy (ACT) to an increasing number of oncology patients within a meaningful therapeutic window makes the development of an efficient, fast, versatile, and safe genetic tool for creating recombinant T cells indispensable. In this study, we used nonintegrating minimally sized DNA vectors with an enhanced capability of generating genetically modified cells, and we demonstrate that they can be efficiently used to engineer human T lymphocytes. This vector platform contains no viral components and is capable of replicating extrachromosomally in the nucleus of dividing cells, providing persistent transgene expression in human T cells without affecting their behavior and molecular integrity. Read More

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Genetic in vivo engineering of human T lymphocytes in mouse models.

Nat Protoc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Molecular Biotechnology and Gene Therapy, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany.

Receptor targeting of vector particles is a key technology to enable cell type-specific in vivo gene delivery. For example, T cells in humanized mouse models can be modified by lentiviral vectors (LVs) targeted to human T-cell markers to enable them to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we provide detailed protocols for the generation of CD4- and CD8-targeted LVs (which takes ~9 d in total). Read More

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Reovirus directly engages integrin to recruit clathrin for entry into host cells.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2149. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Louvain Institute of Biomolecular Science and Technology, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Reovirus infection requires the concerted action of viral and host factors to promote cell entry. After interaction of reovirus attachment protein σ1 with cell-surface carbohydrates and proteinaceous receptors, additional host factors mediate virus internalization. In particular, β1 integrin is required for endocytosis of reovirus virions following junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) binding. Read More

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J Parasitol 2021 Mar;107(2):289-294

Centre for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Members of the flea family Pulicidae have been the focus of many studies due to their significance as diseases vectors of medical and veterinary importance and their cosmopolitan distribution. They often exhibit variation in morphological features that can make correct species identification and management challenging. This may also apply to Xenopsylla brasiliensis (Baker, 1904), an important plague vector. Read More

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Evaluating Simulations as Preparation for Health Crises like CoVID-19: Insights on Incorporating Simulation Exercises for Effective Response.

Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 2021 Apr 5:102245. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Bournemouth University Disaster Management Centre, Bournemouth University Business School, DG14, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK.

Today's health emergencies are increasingly complex due to factors such as globalization, urbanization and increased connectivity where people, goods and potential vectors of disease are constantly on the move. These factors amplify the threats to our health from infectious hazards, natural disasters, armed conflicts and other emergencies wherever they may occur. The current CoVID-19 pandemic has provided a clear demonstration of the fact that our ability to detect and predict the initial emergence of a novel human pathogen (for example, the spill-over of a virus from its animal reservoir to a human host), and our capacity to forecast the spread and transmission the pathogen in human society remains limited. Read More

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MicroRNA-315-5p promotes rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection by targeting a melatonin receptor in the small brown planthopper.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs, play key roles in various biological processes. Most plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors. However, little is known about the function of miRNAs on plant virus-insect host interaction. Read More

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Humoral immune responses to AAV gene therapy in the ocular compartment.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

Viral vectors can be utilised to deliver therapeutic genes to diseased cells. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a commonly used viral vector that is favoured for its ability to infect a wide range of tissues whilst displaying limited toxicity and immunogenicity. Most humans harbour anti-AAV neutralising antibodies (NAbs) due to subclinical infections by wild-type virus during infancy and these pre-existing NAbs can limit the efficiency of gene transfer depending on the target cell type, route of administration and choice of serotype. Read More

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Transcriptomic, proteomic and ultrastructural studies on salinity-tolerant Aedes aegypti in the context of rising sea levels and arboviral disease epidemiology.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 9;22(1):253. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Zoology, University of Jaffna, Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

Background: Aedes aegypti mosquito, the principal global vector of arboviral diseases, lays eggs and undergoes larval and pupal development to become adult mosquitoes in fresh water (FW). It has recently been observed to develop in coastal brackish water (BW) habitats of up to 50% sea water, and such salinity tolerance shown to be an inheritable trait. Genomics of salinity tolerance in Ae. Read More

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Canine ocular onchocerciasis in New Mexico: Risk factors for disease.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Objective: To determine whether dogs are at variable risk of developing canine ocular onchocerciasis based on coat color or size, factors that may influence feeding behavior of the putative vectors of Onchocerca lupi¸ the filarial nematode parasite causing this disease.

Animals Studied: One hundred twenty-five client-owned dogs diagnosed with confirmed or suspected onchocerciasis. 1255 dogs without signs of this disease were utilized for comparison. Read More

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Maximal kinetic energy and angular distribution analysis of spatial map imaging: Application to photoelectrons from a single quantum state of HO.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134201

Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel.

Dynamical or spatial properties of charged species can be obtained using electrostatic lenses by velocity map imaging (VMI) or spatial map imaging (SMI), respectively. Here, we report an approach for extracting dynamical and spatial information from patterns in SMI images that map the initial coordinates, velocity vectors, and angular distributions of charged particles onto the detector, using the same apparatus as in VMI. Deciphering these patterns required analysis and modeling, involving both their predictions from convolved spatial and velocity distributions and fitting observed images to kinetic energies (KEs) and anisotropy parameters (βs). Read More

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Best of most possible worlds: Hybrid gene therapy vectors based on parvoviruses and heterologous viruses.

Mol Ther 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases/Virology, Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; BioQuant, University of Heidelberg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) and German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Parvoviruses and especially the Adeno-associated virus (AAV) species provide an exciting and versatile platform for the rational design or molecular evolution of human gene therapy vectors, documented by literature from over half a century, hundreds of clinical trials and the recent commercialization of multiple AAV gene therapeutics. For the last three decades, the power of these vectors has been further potentiated through various types of hybrid vectors created by intra- or inter-genus juxtaposition of viral DNA and protein cis elements, or by synergistic complementation of parvoviral features with those of heterologous, prokaryotic or eukaryotic viruses. Here, we provide an overview of the history and promise of this rapidly expanding field of hybrid parvoviral gene therapy vectors, starting with early generations of chimeric particles composed of a recombinant AAV genome encapsidated in shells of synthetic AAVs, or of adeno-, herpes-, baculo- or protoparvoviruses. Read More

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Plant health and its effects on food safety and security in a One Health framework: four case studies.

One Health Outlook 2021 31;3. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691 USA.

Although healthy plants are vital to human and animal health, plant health is often overlooked in the One Health literature. Plants provide over 80% of the food consumed by humans and are the primary source of nutrition for livestock. However, plant diseases and pests often threaten the availability and safety of plants for human and animal consumption. Read More

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Size dependency of gold nanoparticles interacting with model membranes.

Commun Chem 2020 Sep;3(1):130

Department of Chemistry, Molecular Sciences Research Hub, Imperial College London, White City Campus, Wood Lane, W12 0BZ London, UK.

The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to an increase in the number and variety of engineered nanomaterials in the environment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are an example of a commonly studied nanomaterial whose highly tailorable properties have generated significant interest through a wide range of research fields. In the present work, we characterise the AuNP-lipid membrane interaction by coupling qualitative data with quantitative measurements of the enthalpy change of interaction. Read More

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September 2020

First report of the molecular detection of human pathogen Rickettsia raoultii in ticks from the Republic of Korea.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 7;14(1):191. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Rickettsial diseases associated with the spotted fever group constitute a growing number of newly identified Rickettsia pathogens and their tick vectors in various parts of the world. At least 15 distinct tick species belonging to six genera have shown the presence of Rickettsia raoultii. Herein, we report the detection of R. Read More

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis-Awareness, knowledge and practices among general population in rural and urban areas in Malakand region, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 2;82:e238665. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

University of Haripur, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Haripur, Pakistan.

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. Read More

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Induced pluripotent stem cell technology: trends in molecular biology, from genetics to epigenetics.

Epigenomics 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, based on autologous cells' reprogramming to the embryonic state, is a new approach in regenerative medicine. Current advances in iPSC technology have opened up new avenues for multiple applications, from basic research to clinical therapy. Thus, conducting iPSC trials have attracted increasing attention and requires an extensive understanding of the molecular basis of iPSCs. Read More

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Genetic toolkits for engineering Rhodococcus species with versatile applications.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Apr 3;49:107748. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Key Laboratory of Industrial Biocatalysis (Tsinghua University), the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084, China; Center for Synthetic and Systems Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Rhodococcus spp. are a group of non-model gram-positive bacteria with diverse catabolic activities and strong adaptive capabilities, which enable their wide application in whole-cell biocatalysis, environmental bioremediation, and lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Compared with model microorganisms, the engineering of Rhodococcus is challenging because of the lack of universal molecular tools, high genome GC content (61% ~ 71%), and low transformation and recombination efficiencies. Read More

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Susceptibility of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) to Permethrin Under a Long-Term 4-Poster Deer Treatment Area on Shelter Island, NY.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Pesticide resistance in medically significant disease vectors can negatively impact the efficacy of control efforts. Resistance research on ticks has focused primarily on species of veterinary significance that experience relatively high degrees of control pressure. Resistance in tick vectors of medical significance has received little attention, in part because area-wide pesticide applications are not used to control these generalist tick species. Read More

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Biosurveillance and Research Needs Involving Area-Wide Systematic Active Sampling to Enhance Integrated Cattle Fever Tick (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Eradication.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

USDA-ARS, Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, 2700 Fredericksburg Road, Kerrville, TX 78028, USA.

The one-host cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say), and southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), are important ectoparasitic pests of cattle, Bos taurus L., mostly for transmitting the causal agents of bovine babesiosis. Bovine babesiosis inflicted substantial cattle production losses in the United States before the vectors were eliminated by 1943, with the exception of a Permanent Quarantine Zone in South Texas, a buffer along the Mexico border where the invasive ixodids remain. Read More

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MiR-203-3p inhibits the oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptosis of mice podocytes induced by high glucose through regulating Sema3A expression.

Open Life Sci 2020 22;15(1):939-950. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Dongguan Cardiovascular Institute, The Third People's Hospital of Dongguan City, No. 1, Xianglong Road, Shi Long Town, Dongguan, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious long-term microvascular complication of diabetes, which mainly causes podocyte injury. Many studies have shown that microRNAs play a vital role in the development of DN. Studies have shown that miR-203-3p is involved in mesangial cell proliferation and apoptosis of DN mice. Read More

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December 2020

Application and evaluation of knowledge graph embeddings in biomedical data.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 18;7:e341. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division (CEMSE), Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

Linked data and bio-ontologies enabling knowledge representation, standardization, and dissemination are an integral part of developing biological and biomedical databases. That is, linked data and bio-ontologies are employed in databases to maintain data integrity, data organization, and to empower search capabilities. However, linked data and bio-ontologies are more recently being used to represent information as multi-relational heterogeneous graphs, "knowledge graphs". Read More

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February 2021

Both TGF-β1 and Smad4 regulate type I collagen expression in the muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Key Laboratory of Tropical & Subtropical Fishery Resource Application & Cultivation, Ministry of Agriculture, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, 510380, China.

Type I collagen is proven to make an important contribution to fish muscle quality. Our previous study has shown the Smad4-dependent regulation of type I collagen expression in the muscle of crisp grass carp fed with faba bean. However, the regulatory roles of TGF-β1 or TGF-β1/Smad4 on type I collagen remain unclear in ordinary grass carp fed with normal diets or in other fish species. Read More

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[Construction and Identification of Leukemia Cell Line Stably Expressing CD123 and CLL-1].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):322-327

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, Jiangsu Province, China,E-mail:

Objective: To construct an acute myeloid leukemia cell line stably expressing CD123-CLL1 so as to provide an "in vitro" model for studying the role of CD123 and CLL-1 in leukemia and the treatment targeting CD123 and CLL-1.

Methods: The recombinant plasmid of lentivirus was constructed by synthesizing CD123 and CLL-1 sequences and PCR homologous recombination. The lentivirus vector was packaged by three-plasmid packaging system. Read More

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