12,952 results match your criteria variety organisms

DNA-loop-extruding SMC complexes can traverse one another in vivo.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Chromosome organization mediated by structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes is vital in many organisms. SMC complexes act as motors that extrude DNA loops, but it remains unclear what happens when multiple complexes encounter one another on the same DNA in living cells and how these interactions may help to organize an active genome. We therefore created a crash-course track system to study SMC complex encounters in vivo by engineering defined SMC loading sites in the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Read More

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Iron Oxidation by a Fused Cytochrome-Porin Common to Diverse Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria.

mBio 2021 Jul 27:e0107421. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Delawaregrid.33489.35, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Iron (Fe) oxidation is one of Earth's major biogeochemical processes, key to weathering, soil formation, water quality, and corrosion. However, our understanding of microbial contribution is limited by incomplete knowledge of microbial iron oxidation mechanisms, particularly in neutrophilic iron oxidizers. The genomes of many diverse iron oxidizers encode a homolog to an outer membrane cytochrome (Cyc2) shown to oxidize iron in two acidophiles. Read More

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Microscopic metavehicles powered and steered by embedded optical metasurfaces.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Nanostructured dielectric metasurfaces offer unprecedented opportunities to manipulate light by imprinting an arbitrary phase gradient on an impinging wavefront. This has resulted in the realization of a range of flat analogues to classical optical components, such as lenses, waveplates and axicons. However, the change in linear and angular optical momentum associated with phase manipulation also results in previously unexploited forces and torques that act on the metasurface itself. Read More

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Microbial cell factories: a biotechnology journey across species.

Essays Biochem 2021 Jul;65(2):143-145

Institute of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.

An increasingly large number of microbial species with potential for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering has been introduced over the last few years, adding huge variety to the opportunities of biotechnology. Historically, however, only a handful of microbes have attained the acceptance and widespread use that are needed to fulfil the needs of industrial bioproduction. Synthetic biology is setting out to standardise the methods, parts and platform organisms for bioproduction. Read More

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Scaling the effects of ocean acidification on coral growth and coral-coral competition on coral community recovery.

PeerJ 2021 13;9:e11608. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Biology, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA, United States.

Ocean acidification (OA) is negatively affecting calcification in a wide variety of marine organisms. These effects are acute for many tropical scleractinian corals under short-term experimental conditions, but it is unclear how these effects interact with ecological processes, such as competition for space, to impact coral communities over multiple years. This study sought to test the use of individual-based models (IBMs) as a tool to scale up the effects of OA recorded in short-term studies to community-scale impacts, combining data from field surveys and mesocosm experiments to parameterize an IBM of coral community recovery on the fore reef of Moorea, French Polynesia. Read More

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Bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial effluents by endophytes and their metabolic activity: Recent advances.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 14;339:125589. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

CSIR-National Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nagpur 440 020, India. Electronic address:

Worldwide, heavy metals pollution is mostly caused by rapid population growth and industrial development which is accumulated in food webs causing a serious public health risk. Endophytic microorganisms have a variety of mechanisms for metal sequestration having metal biosorption capacities.Endophytic organisms like bacteria and fungi provide beneficial qualities that help plants to improve their health, reduce stress, and detoxify metals. Read More

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Deciphering the mechanism by which the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma responds adaptively to environmental, nutritional and genetic cues.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México 07360 DF México.

Phaffia rhodozyma is a basidiomycetous yeast that synthesizes astaxanthin (ASX), which is a powerful and highly valuable antioxidant carotenoid pigment. P. rhodozyma cells accrue ASX and gain an intense red-pink coloration when faced with stressful conditions such as nutrient limitations (e. Read More

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MYC Ran Up the Clock: The Complex Interplay between MYC and the Molecular Circadian Clock in Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

The MYC oncoprotein and its family members N-MYC and L-MYC are known to drive a wide variety of human cancers. Emerging evidence suggests that MYC has a bi-directional relationship with the molecular clock in cancer. The molecular clock is responsible for circadian (~24 h) rhythms in most eukaryotic cells and organisms, as a mechanism to adapt to light/dark cycles. Read More

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A Complex Network of Sigma Factors and sRNA StsR Regulates Stress Responses in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, IFZ, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Adaptation of bacteria to a changing environment is often accompanied by remodeling of the transcriptome. In the facultative phototroph the alternative sigma factors RpoE, RpoHI and RpoHII play an important role in a variety of stress responses, including heat, oxidative stress and nutrient limitation. Photooxidative stress caused by the simultaneous presence of chlorophylls, light and oxygen is a special challenge for phototrophic organisms. Read More

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RNA Polymerase III, Ageing and Longevity.

Front Genet 2021 6;12:705122. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

Transcription in eukaryotic cells is performed by three RNA polymerases. RNA polymerase I synthesises most rRNAs, whilst RNA polymerase II transcribes all mRNAs and many non-coding RNAs. The largest of the three polymerases is RNA polymerase III (Pol III) which transcribes a variety of short non-coding RNAs including tRNAs and the 5S rRNA, in addition to other small RNAs such as snRNAs, snoRNAs, SINEs, 7SL RNA, Y RNA, and U6 spilceosomal RNA. Read More

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Kinetic, metabolic, and statistical analytics: addressing metabolic transport limitations among organelles and microbial communities.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jul 19;71:91-97. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

Microbial organisms engage in a variety of metabolic interactions. A crucial part of these interactions is the exchange of molecules between different organelles, cells, and the environment. The main forces mediating this metabolic exchange are transporters. Read More

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Forced Biomineralization: A Review.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;6(3). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland.

Biologically induced and controlled mineralization of metals promotes the development of protective structures to shield cells from thermal, chemical, and ultraviolet stresses. Metal biomineralization is widely considered to have been relevant for the survival of life in the environmental conditions of ancient terrestrial oceans. Similar behavior is seen among extremophilic biomineralizers today, which have evolved to inhabit a variety of industrial aqueous environments with elevated metal concentrations. Read More

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Comparative Genomics Reveals Thermal Adaptation and a High Metabolic Diversity in " Bathyarchaeia".

mSystems 2021 Jul 20:e0025221. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

" Bathyarchaeia" is a phylogenetically diverse and widely distributed lineage often in high abundance in anoxic submarine sediments; however, their evolution and ecological roles in terrestrial geothermal habitats are poorly understood. In the present study, 35 . Bathyarchaeia metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were recovered from hot spring sediments in Tibet and Yunnan, China. Read More

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A Novel Intronic Circular RNA Antagonizes Influenza Virus by Absorbing a microRNA That Degrades CREBBP and Accelerating IFN-β Production.

mBio 2021 Jul 20:e0101721. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Virus-host interactions are complicated processes, and multiple cellular proteins promote or inhibit viral replication through different mechanisms. Recent progress has implicated circular RNAs (circRNAs) in cancer biology and progression; however, the role of circRNAs in viral infection remains largely unclear. Here, we detected 11,620 circRNAs in A549 cells and found that 411 of them were differentially expressed in influenza virus-infected A549 cells. Read More

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Unconventional translation initiation factor EIF2A is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis.

Dev Dyn 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California.

Background: EIF2A is an unconventional translation factor required for initiation of protein synthesis from non-AUG codons from a variety of transcripts, including oncogenes and stress related transcripts in mammalian cells. Its function in multicellular organisms has not been reported.

Results: Here, we identify and characterize mutant alleles of the CG7414 gene, which encodes the Drosophila EIF2A ortholog. Read More

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Roles of tetraspanins during trophoblast development: bioinformatics and new perspectives.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Université Paris-Saclay, UFR Medicine, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Tetraspanins are a superfamily of membrane proteins found in all eukaryotic organisms. They act as scaffold molecules that regulate the traffic and function of other membrane/signaling proteins, resulting in important downstream cellular consequences. The aim of this work was to use transcriptomes and bioinformatics analysis to identify the tetraspanins (and their partners) involved in trophoblast differentiation. Read More

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Bio-conversion of CO into biofuels and other value-added chemicals via metabolic engineering.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jul 7;251:126813. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, 21300, Pakistan.

Carbon dioxide (CO) occurs naturally in the atmosphere as a trace gas, which is produced naturally as well as by anthropogenic activities. CO is a readily available source of carbon that in principle can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of valuable products. The autotrophic organisms are naturally equipped to convert CO into biomass by obtaining energy from sunlight or inorganic electron donors. Read More

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Circadian regulation of cancer cell and tumor microenvironment crosstalk.

Trends Cell Biol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Circadian rhythms regulate a remarkable variety of physiologic functions in living organisms. Circadian disruption is associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression through effects on cancer cell biological properties, including proliferation, DNA repair, apoptosis, metabolism, and stemness. Emerging evidence indicates that circadian clocks also play an influential role in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

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Calponin-homology domain mediated bending of membrane-associated actin filaments.

Elife 2021 Jul 16;10. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology and Warwick Medical School, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Actin filaments are central to numerous biological processes in all domains of life. Driven by the interplay with molecular motors, actin binding and actin modulating proteins, the actin cytoskeleton exhibits a variety of geometries. This includes structures with a curved geometry such as axon-stabilizing actin rings, actin cages around mitochondria and the cytokinetic actomyosin ring, which are generally assumed to be formed by short linear filaments held together by actin cross-linkers. Read More

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Microplastics accumulate fungal pathogens in terrestrial ecosystems.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 15;11(1):13214. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Mycology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstraße 30, 95447, Bayreuth, Germany.

Microplastic (MP) is a pervasive pollutant in nature that is colonised by diverse groups of microbes, including potentially pathogenic species. Fungi have been largely neglected in this context, despite their affinity for plastics and their impact as pathogens. To unravel the role of MP as a carrier of fungal pathogens in terrestrial ecosystems and the immediate human environment, epiplastic mycobiomes from municipal plastic waste from Kenya were deciphered using ITS metabarcoding as well as a comprehensive meta-analysis, and visualised via scanning electron as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy. Read More

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Plasmodium falciparum DDX3X is a nucleocytoplasmic protein and requires N-terminal for DNA helicase activity.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jul 12;85:102420. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Parasite Biology Group, ICGEB, P.O. Box 10504, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India. Electronic address:

Malaria is a haemato-protozoan disease which causes thousands of deaths every year. Due to the alarming increase of drug resistant strains of P. falciparum, malaria is now becoming more deadly. Read More

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Snowmelt timing acts independently and in conjunction with temperature accumulation to drive subalpine plant phenology.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Northwestern University, Plant Biology and Conservation, Evanston, IL, USA.

Organisms use environmental cues to align their phenology-the timing of life events-with sets of abiotic and biotic conditions that favor the successful completion of their life cycle. Climate change has altered the environmental cues organisms use to track climate, leading to shifts in phenology with the potential to affect a variety of ecological processes. Understanding the drivers of phenological shifts is critical to predicting future responses but disentangling the effects of temperature from precipitation on phenology is often challenging because they tend to covary. Read More

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Differential Analysis of N-glycopeptide Abundance and N-glycosylation Site Occupancy for Studying Protein N-glycosylation Dysregulation in Human Disease.

Bio Protoc 2021 Jun 20;11(12):e4059. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Protein N-glycosylation plays a vital role in diverse cellular processes, and dysregulated N-glycosylation is implicated in a variety of human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. With recent advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics technologies enabling large-scale N-glycoproteome profiling of disease and control samples, analysis of the large datasets has become a challenge. Here, we provide a protocol for the systems-level analysis of N-glycosylation sites on N-glycosylated proteins and their changes in human disease, such as Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Mutational Landscape of Pirin and Elucidation of the Impact of Most Detrimental Missense Variants That Accelerate the Breast Cancer Pathways: A Computational Modelling Study.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 28;8:692835. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.

Pirin () protein is highly conserved in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Recently, it has been identified that positively regulates breast cancer cell proliferation, xenograft tumor formation, and metastasis, through an enforced transition of G1/S phase of the cell cycle by upregulation of E2F1 expression at the transcriptional level. Keeping in view the importance of in many crucial cellular processes in humans, we used a variety of computational tools to identify non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene that are highly deleterious for the structure and function of protein. Read More

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Fungal-fungal and fungal-bacterial interactions in aquatic decomposer communities: bacteria promote fungal diversity.

Ecology 2021 Jul 14:e03471. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829, Landau, Germany.

Fungi produce a variety of extracellular enzymes making recalcitrant substrates bioavailable. Thus, fungi are central for decomposition of dead organic matter such as leaf litter. Despite their ecological importance, our understanding of relationships between fungal species diversity and ecosystem functioning is limited, especially with regard to aquatic habitats. Read More

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COVIDomic: A multi-modal cloud-based platform for identification of risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 14;17(7):e1009183. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Insilico Medicine Hong Kong Ltd, Pak Shek Kok, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute infection of the respiratory tract that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. It was quickly established that both the symptoms and the disease severity may vary from one case to another and several strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. To gain a better understanding of the wide variety of SARS-CoV-2 strains and their associated symptoms, thousands of SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been sequenced in dozens of countries. Read More

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Arabidopsis MORC proteins function in the efficient establishment of RNA directed DNA methylation.

Nat Commun 2021 07 13;12(1):4292. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The Microrchidia (MORC) family of ATPases are required for transposable element (TE) silencing and heterochromatin condensation in plants and animals, and C. elegans MORC-1 has been shown to topologically entrap and condense DNA. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of MORCs has been shown to reactivate silent methylated genes and transposons and to decondense heterochromatic chromocenters, despite only minor changes in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Read More

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Multi 'omic data integration: A review of concepts, considerations, and approaches.

Semin Perinatol 2021 Jun 17:151456. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Diversigen, Inc, 3 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1575, Houston, TX 77046, USA. Electronic address:

The application of 'omic techniques including, but not limited to genomics/metagenomics, transcriptomics/meta-transcriptomics, proteomics/meta-proteomics, and metabolomics to generate multiple datasets from a single sample have facilitated hypothesis generation leading to the identification of biological, molecular and ecological functions and mechanisms, as well as associations and correlations. Despite their power and promise, a variety of challenges must be considered in the successful design and execution of a multi-omics study. In this review, various 'omic technologies applicable to single- and meta-organisms (i. Read More

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Metabolic engineering strategies for sesquiterpene production in microorganism.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Jul 13:1-20. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, PR China.

Sesquiterpenes are a large variety of terpene natural products, widely existing in plants, fungi, marine organisms, insects, and microbes. Value-added sesquiterpenes are extensively used in industries such as: food, drugs, fragrances, and fuels. With an increase in market demands and the price of sesquiterpenes, the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by microbial fermentation methods from renewable feedstocks is acquiring increasing attention. Read More

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Rondonin: antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Center of Toxins, Immune-Response and Cell Signaling - CeTICS/CEPID, Laboratory for Applied Toxinology, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, 05503-900, SP, Brazil.

Infectious diseases are among the major causes of death in the human population. A wide variety of organisms produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of their first line of defense. A peptide from Acanthoscurria rondoniae plasma, rondonin - with antifungal activity, a molecular mass of 1,236 Da and primary sequence IIIQYEGHKH - was previously studied (Uniprot accession number B3EWP8). Read More

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