200 results match your criteria variation hox

Homeotic change in segment identity derives the human vertebral formula from a chimpanzee-like one.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.

Objectives: One of the most contentious issues in paleoanthropology is the nature of the last common ancestor of humans and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (panins). The numerical composition of the vertebral column has featured prominently, with multiple models predicting distinct patterns of evolution and contexts from which bipedalism evolved. Here, we study total numbers of vertebrae from a large sample of hominoids to quantify variation in and patterns of regional and total numbers of vertebrae in hominoids. Read More

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Relationship between sacral shape variation and phylogeny in Old World monkeys.

Sayaka Tojima

J Morphol 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan.

The sacrum, an essential skeletal element in the trunk, articulates with the ilium and lumbar and caudal vertebrae. While there are known morphological differences between hominoids and cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys), sacral morphological variations among cercopithecoids have rarely been studied outside of research on tail length variation. Increased knowledge regarding sacral variations in extant primates, however, could help in understanding and reconstructing their evolutionary development. Read More

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Evolutionary divergence of a Hoxa2b hindbrain enhancer in syngnathids mimics results of functional assays.

Dev Genes Evol 2021 Jul 18;231(3-4):57-71. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, 97403, USA.

Hoxa2 genes provide critical patterning signals during development, and their regulation and function have been extensively studied. We report a previously uncharacterized significant sequence divergence of a highly conserved hindbrain hoxa2b enhancer element in the family syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses, pipehorses, seadragons). We compared the hox cis-regulatory element variation in the Gulf pipefish and two species of seahorse against eight other species of fish, as well as human and mouse. Read More

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Hox dosage contributes to flight appendage morphology in Drosophila.

Nat Commun 2021 05 17;12(1):2892. Epub 2021 May 17.

IGFL, CNRS UMR5242, ENS Lyon, Lyon, France.

Flying insects have invaded all the aerial space on Earth and this astonishing radiation could not have been possible without a remarkable morphological diversification of their flight appendages. Here, we show that characteristic spatial expression profiles and levels of the Hox genes Antennapedia (Antp) and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) underlie the formation of two different flight organs in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We further demonstrate that flight appendage morphology is dependent on specific Hox doses. Read More

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HOTAIR plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer through microRNA and SNP.

Neoplasma 2021 May 28;68(3):465-471. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is a lncRNA with a length of 2,158 nucleotides and its two terminal domains could combine with different complexes to function at the level of transcription and translation. It overexpresses in many cancers including gastric cancer. HOTAIR could play an oncogenic role in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer through interaction with microRNAs, such as miR-330/618/126 in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Read More

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Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals a Gene Network Driving Mimetic Color Variation in a Bumble Bee.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Jun;13(6)

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

A major goal of evolutionary genetics and evo-devo is to understand how changes in genotype manifest as changes in phenotype. Bumble bees display remarkable color pattern diversity while converging onto numerous regional Müllerian mimicry patterns, thus enabling exploration of the genetic mechanisms underlying convergent phenotypic evolution. In western North America, multiple bumble bee species converge onto local mimicry patterns through parallel shifts of midabdominal segments from red to black. Read More

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All HPV-negative head and neck cancers are not the same: Analysis of the TCGA dataset reveals that anatomical sites have distinct mutation, transcriptome, hypoxia, and tumor microenvironment profiles.

Oral Oncol 2021 May 13;116:105260. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects various anatomical sites, which often dictates whether the cancer is managed with primary surgery or radiation. This study aimed to assess differences in single nucleotide variation (SNV), copy number, mRNA abundance, methylation, and tumor microenvironment (TME) between HPV-negative oral cavity (OC), oropharyngeal (OPC), hypopharyngeal (HPC), and laryngeal (LC) cancers within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Methods: We downloaded the clinical information and molecular data for the TCGA HNSCC cohort from the data portal and published literature. Read More

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The Number of Larval Molts Is Controlled by Hox in Caterpillars.

Curr Biol 2021 Feb 11;31(4):884-891.e3. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan; Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University, Fukushima 960-1296, Japan.

Animals with exoskeletons molt for further growth. In insects, the number of larval (or nymphal) molts varies inter- and intra-specifically, and it is widely accepted that the variation in the number of larval molts is an adaptive response to diverse environmental conditions. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies the variety and plasticity in the number of larval molts is largely unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Measurement of tropospheric HO radical using fluorescence assay by gas expansion with low interferences.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jan 28;99:40-50. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Optics and Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui, China.

An instrument to detect atmospheric HO radicals using fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) technique has been developed. HO is measured by reaction with NO to form OH and subsequent detection of OH by laser-induced fluorescence at low pressure. The system performance has been improved by optimizing the expansion distance and pressure, the influence factors of HO conversion efficiency are also studied. Read More

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January 2021

Transcriptome and epigenome diversity and plasticity of muscle stem cells following transplantation.

PLoS Genet 2020 10 30;16(10):e1009022. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Stem Cells & Development, Department of Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Paris, France.

Adult skeletal muscles are maintained during homeostasis and regenerated upon injury by muscle stem cells (MuSCs). A heterogeneity in self-renewal, differentiation and regeneration properties has been reported for MuSCs based on their anatomical location. Although MuSCs derived from extraocular muscles (EOM) have a higher regenerative capacity than those derived from limb muscles, the molecular determinants that govern these differences remain undefined. Read More

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October 2020

PCR-Free Detection of Long Non-Coding HOTAIR RNA in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines and Plasma Samples.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 10;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

School of Environment and Science (ESC), Griffith University, Nathan Campus, QLD 4111, Australia.

Long non-coding RNA HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is one of the promising biomarkers that has widely been used in determining the stages of many cancers, including ovarian cancer. In cancer diagnostics, the two key analytical challenges for detecting long non-coding RNA biomarkers are i) the low concentration levels (nM to fM range) in which they are found and ii) the analytical method where broad dynamic range is required (four to six orders of magnitude) due to the large variation in expression levels for different HOTAIR RNAs. To meet these challenges, we report on a biosensing platform for the visual (colorimetric) estimation and subsequent electrochemical quantification of ovarian-cancer-specific HOTAIR using a screen-printed gold electrode (SPE-Au). Read More

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Further evidence for paternal DNA transmission in gynogenetic grass carp.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Sep 12;63(9):1287-1296. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, China.

Gynogenesis is an important breeding method in aquaculture and has been widely applied to many fish species. If gynogenetic progenies are to inherit paternal partial genomic DNA, this will increase genetic variation and will provide a useful outcome for breeding. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation in homeobox (Hox) gene clusters (HoxA4a, HoxA9a, HoxA11b, HoxB1b, HoxC4a, HoxC6b, and HoxD10a) among koi carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, KOC; the stimulation sperm source), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and gynogenetic grass carp (GGC). Read More

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September 2020

Contributions of HOX genes to cancer hallmarks: Enrichment pathway analysis and review.

Tumour Biol 2020 May;42(5):1010428320918050

Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Homeobox genes function as master regulatory transcription factors during development, and their expression is often altered in cancer. The HOX gene family was initially studied intensively to understand how the expression of each gene was involved in forming axial patterns and shaping the body plan during embryogenesis. More recent investigations have discovered that HOX genes can also play an important role in cancer. Read More

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Hox genes reveal variations in the genomic DNA of allotetraploid hybrids derived from Carassius auratus red var. (female) × Cyprinus carpio L. (male).

BMC Genet 2020 03 4;21(1):24. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hox transcription factors are master regulators of animal development. Although highly conserved, they can contribute to the formation of novel biological characteristics when modified, such as during the generation of hybrid species, thus potentially serving as species-specific molecular markers. Here, we systematically studied the evolution of genomic sequences of Hox loci in an artificial allotetraploid lineage (4nAT, 4n = 200) derived from a red crucian carp (♀, RCC, 2n = 100) × common carp (♂, CC, 2n = 100) cross and its parents (RCC and CC). Read More

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Genes Polymorphism Depicts Developmental Disruption of Common Sole Eggs.

Open Life Sci 2019 Jan 31;14:549-563. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Fytokou str, 38446, Volos, Greece.

In sole aquaculture production, consistency in the quality of produced eggs throughout the year is unpredictable. genes have a crucial role in controlling embryonic development and their genetic variation could alter the phenotype dramatically. In teleosts genome duplication led paralog genes to become diverged. Read More

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January 2019

Too hip for two sacral vertebrae.

Elife 2019 12 19;8. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States.

A complex pelvic morphology has been discovered in the fossils of one of the largest crocodylians. Read More

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December 2019

Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians.

Elife 2019 11 27;8. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

University of Zurich, Palaeontological Institute and Museum, Zurich, Switzerland.

The number of precaudal vertebrae in all extant crocodylians is remarkably conservative, with nine cervicals, 15 dorsals and two sacrals, a pattern present also in their closest extinct relatives. The consistent vertebral count indicates a tight control of axial patterning by genes during development. Here we report on a deviation from this pattern based on an associated skeleton of the giant caimanine , a member of crown Crocodylia, and several other specimens from the Neogene of the northern neotropics. Read More

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November 2019

Rapid genomic DNA variation in newly hybridized carp lineages derived from Cyprinus carpio (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

BMC Genet 2019 11 28;20(1):87. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Distant hybridization can generate changes in phenotypes and genotypes that lead to the formation of new hybrid lineages with genetic variation. In this study, the establishment of two bisexual fertile carp lineages, including the improved diploid common carp (IDC) lineage and the improved diploid scattered mirror carp (IDMC) lineage, from the interspecific hybridization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 2n = 100) (♀) × blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, 2n = 48) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate the genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies.

Result: In this study, we investigated the genetic variation of 12 Hox genes in the two types of improved carp lineages derived from common carp (♀) × blunt snout bream (♂). Read More

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November 2019

Patterns of intracolumnar size variation inform the heterochronic mechanisms underlying extreme body shape divergence in microcephalic sea snakes.

Evol Dev 2020 05 15;22(3):283-290. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) that specialize on burrowing eel prey have repeatedly evolved tiny heads and reduced forebody relative to hindbody girths. Previous research has found that these "microcephalic" forms have higher counts of precaudal vertebrae, and postnatal ontogenetic changes cause their hindbodies to reach greater girths relative to their forebodies. We examine variation in vertebral size along the precaudal axis of neonates and adults of three species. Read More

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Rationale and Design for a GRADE Substudy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2019 12 4;21(12):682-690. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Advanced Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The lycemia eduction pproaches in iabetes: A Comparative ffectiveness (GRADE) study has enrolled a racially and ethnically diverse population with type 2 diabetes, performed extensive phenotyping, and randomly assigned the participants to one of four second-line diabetes medications. The continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) substudy has been added to determine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between average glucose (AG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). CGM will also be used to compare time in target range, glucose variability, and the frequency and duration of hypoglycemia across study groups. Read More

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December 2019

A homeotic shift late in development drives mimetic color variation in a bumble bee.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 06 1;116(24):11857-11865. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802;

Natural phenotypic radiations, with their high diversity and convergence, are well-suited for informing how genomic changes translate to natural phenotypic variation. New genomic tools enable discovery in such traditionally nonmodel systems. Here, we characterize the genomic basis of color pattern variation in bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, ), a group that has undergone extensive convergence of setal color patterns as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Read More

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Functional polymorphisms in LncRNA HOTAIR contribute to susceptibility of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2019 28;19:47. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, No. 1882 Zhonghuan South Road, Jiaxing, 314001 Zhejiang People's Republic of China.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide. However, genetic factors underlying PC susceptibility remain largely unclear. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) acts as an oncogene and its genetic variation has been linked to many cancers. Read More

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February 2019

Expanding the miRNA Repertoire in Atlantic Salmon; Discovery of IsomiRs and miRNAs Highly Expressed in Different Tissues and Developmental Stages.

Cells 2019 01 11;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Life Sciences and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet⁻Oslo Metropolitan University, Pilestredet 50, N-0130 Oslo, Norway.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators. Here, 448 different miRNA genes, including 17 novel miRNAs, encoding for 589 mature Atlantic salmon miRNAs were identified after sequencing 111 samples (fry, pathogen challenged fry, various developmental and adult tissues). This increased the reference miRNAome with almost one hundred genes. Read More

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January 2019

Timed Collinear Activation of Hox Genes during Gastrulation Controls the Avian Forelimb Position.

Curr Biol 2019 01 13;29(1):35-50.e4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France; CNRS UMR3738, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Limb position along the body is highly consistent within one species but very variable among vertebrates. Despite major advances in our understanding of limb patterning in three dimensions, how limbs reproducibly form along the antero-posterior axis remains largely unknown. Hox genes have long been suspected to control limb position; however, supporting evidences are mostly correlative and their role in this process is unclear. Read More

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January 2019

Functional and developmental influences on intraspecific variation in catarrhine vertebrae.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 01 8;168(1):131-144. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.

Objectives: We tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in catarrhine vertebral shape are consistent with developmental or functional predictions. Intraspecific variation was compared across column regions, morphological features, and species. Transitional regions and later ossifying morphological features were predicted to exhibit increased variation. Read More

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January 2019

A survey of inter-individual variation in DNA methylation identifies environmentally responsive co-regulated networks of epigenetic variation in the human genome.

PLoS Genet 2018 10 1;14(10):e1007707. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America.

While population studies have resulted in detailed maps of genetic variation in humans, to date there are few robust maps of epigenetic variation. We identified sites containing clusters of CpGs with high inter-individual epigenetic variation, termed Variably Methylated Regions (VMRs) in five purified cell types. We observed that VMRs occur preferentially at enhancers and 3' UTRs. Read More

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October 2018

Differential gene regulation underlies variation in melanic plumage coloration in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

Mol Ecol 2018 11 22;27(22):4501-4515. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

National Museum of Natural Sciences, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Colour plays a prominent role in species recognition; therefore, understanding the proximate basis of pigmentation can provide insight into reproductive isolation and speciation. Colour differences between taxa may be the result of regulatory differences or be caused by mutations in coding regions of the expressed genes. To investigate these two alternatives, we studied the pigment composition and the genetic basis of coloration in two divergent dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) subspecies, the slate-coloured and Oregon juncos, which have evolved marked differences in plumage coloration since the Last Glacial Maximum. Read More

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November 2018

Evolution, kidney development, and chronic kidney disease.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 07 5;91:119-131. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800386, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:

There is a global epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by a progressive loss of nephrons, ascribed in large part to a rising incidence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a ten-fold variation in nephron number at birth in the general population, and a 50% overall decrease in nephron number in the last decades of life. The vicious cycle of nephron loss stimulating hypertrophy by remaining nephrons and resulting in glomerulosclerosis has been regarded as maladaptive, and only partially responsive to angiotensin inhibition. Read More

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C7 vertebra homeotic transformation in domestic dogs - are Pug dogs breaking mammalian evolutionary constraints?

J Anat 2018 08 14;233(2):255-265. Epub 2018 May 14.

School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is almost constant at seven, regardless of their neck length, implying that there is selection against variation in this number. Homebox (Hox) genes are involved in this evolutionary mammalian conservation, and homeotic transformation of cervical into thoracic vertebrae (cervical ribs) is a common phenotypic abnormality when Hox gene expression is altered. This relatively benign phenotypic change can be associated with fatal traits in humans. Read More

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Elevated DNA methylation across a 48-kb region spanning the HOXA gene cluster is associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.

Alzheimers Dement 2018 12 15;14(12):1580-1588. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Institute of Clinical and Biomedical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD Building, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital Campus, Exeter, Devon, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is hypothesized to involve epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in the brain.

Methods: We performed an epigenome-wide association study to identify differential DNA methylation associated with neuropathology in prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus samples from 147 individuals, replicating our findings in two independent data sets (N = 117 and 740).

Results: We identify elevated DNA methylation associated with neuropathology across a 48-kb region spanning 208 CpG sites within the HOXA gene cluster. Read More

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December 2018