93,559 results match your criteria variation environment


Seasonal variation in total and pollen-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Several small-scale studies limited to allergic patients have reported higher IgE sensitization rates or higher specific IgE (sIgE) level to pollens during or following the pollen season compared to out of pollen season . However, to the best of our knowledge, such studies have not been conducted in larger, more representative populations. Evidence shows that climate change may lead to changes in the pollen seasons for both grass and birch (earlier start and higher counts) but the likely impact of such changes on sensitisation to these pollens is unknown. Read More

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Intraspecific morphological variation of (Asteraceae) along a 1,155 m elevation gradient in the Tatra Mountains.

Authors:
Piotr Kiełtyk

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11286. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.

Plant species that inhabit large elevation gradients in mountain regions are exposed to different environmental conditions. These different conditions may influence plant morphology via plastic responses and/or via genetic adaptation to the local environment. In this study, morphological variation was examined for Cass. Read More

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Spatial cognitive ability is associated with transitory movement speed but not straightness during the early stages of exploration.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):201758. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QG, UK.

Memories about the spatial environment, such as the locations of foraging patches, are expected to affect how individuals move around the landscape. However, individuals differ in the ability to remember spatial locations (spatial cognitive ability) and evidence is growing that these inter-individual differences influence a range of fitness proxies. Yet empirical evaluations directly linking inter-individual variation in spatial cognitive ability and the development and structure of movement paths are lacking. Read More

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Marine soundscape variation reveals insights into baleen whales and their environment: a case study in central New Zealand.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201503. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Marine Science, Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, 160 Goat Island Road, Leigh 0985, New Zealand.

Baleen whales reliably produce stereotyped vocalizations, enabling their spatio-temporal distributions to be inferred from acoustic detections. Soundscape analysis provides an integrated approach whereby vocal species, such as baleen whales, are sampled holistically with other acoustic contributors to their environment. Acoustic elements that occur concurrently in space, time and/or frequency can indicate overlaps between free-ranging species and potential stressors. Read More

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Putting Stress in Historical Context: Why It Is Important That Being Stressed Out Was Not a Way to Be a Person 2,000 Years Ago.

Authors:
Fabian Hutmacher

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:539799. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that scientists and Western societies began to label the combination of physiological and psychological responses that people display when things are getting too much and out of balance as "stress." However, stress is commonly understood as a universal mechanism that exists across times and cultures. In a certain sense, this universality claim is correct: the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms underlying the stress response are not a modern invention of our body. Read More

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Mapping Evapotranspiration of Agricultural Areas in Ghana.

ScientificWorldJournal 2021 17;2021:8878631. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Remote Sensing and Climate Center, Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute, Accra, Ghana.

Climate change is having an adverse effect on the environment especially in sub-Sahara Africa, where capacity for natural resource management such as water is very low. The scope of the effect on land use types have to be estimated to inform proper remedy. A combined estimation of transpiration and evaporation from plants and soil is critical to determine annual water requirement for different land use. Read More

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Extreme Y chromosome polymorphism corresponds to five male reproductive morphs of a freshwater fish.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Loss of recombination between sex chromosomes often depletes Y chromosomes of functional content and genetic variation, which might limit their potential to generate adaptive diversity. Males of the freshwater fish Poecilia parae occur as one of five discrete morphs, all of which shoal together in natural populations where morph frequency has been stable for over 50 years. Each morph uses a different complex reproductive strategy and morphs differ dramatically in colour, body size and mating behaviour. Read More

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Genetic and environmental modulation of transposition shapes the evolutionary potential of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Genome Biol 2021 May 6;22(1):138. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale Supérieure, ENS, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75005, Paris, France.

Background: How species can adapt to abrupt environmental changes, particularly in the absence of standing genetic variation, is poorly understood and a pressing question in the face of ongoing climate change. Here we leverage publicly available multi-omic and bio-climatic data for more than 1000 wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions to determine the rate of transposable element (TE) mobilization and its potential to create adaptive variation in natural settings.

Results: We demonstrate that TE insertions arise at almost the same rate as base substitutions. Read More

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Remarkable intrapopulation venom variability in the monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) unveils neglected aspects of India's snakebite problem.

J Proteomics 2021 May 3:104256. Epub 2021 May 3.

Evolutionary Venomics Lab, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Interpopulation venom variation has been widely documented in snakes across large geographical distances. This variability is known to markedly influence the effectiveness of snakebite therapy, as antivenoms manufactured against one population may not be effective against others. In contrast, the extent of intrapopulation venom variability, especially at finer geographical scales, remains largely uninvestigated. Read More

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Contrasting Patterns of the Resident and Active Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities of Phragmites Australis.

Microb Ecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Rhizosphere microbes play a key role in maintaining plant health and regulating biogeochemical cycles. The active bacterial community (ABC) in rhizosphere, as a small fraction of the rhizosphere resident bacterial community (RBC), has the potential to actively participate in nutrient cycling processes at the root-sediment interface. Here, we investigated the ABC and RBC within the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis (P. Read More

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Mammals with small populations do not exhibit larger genomes.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA.

Genome size in cellular organisms varies by six orders of magnitude, yet the cause of this large variation remains unexplained. The influential Drift-Barrier Hypothesis proposes that large genomes tend to evolve in small populations due to inefficient selection. However, to our knowledge no explicit tests of the Drift-Barrier Hypothesis have been reported. Read More

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What can lifespan variation reveal that life expectancy hides? Comparison of five high-income countries.

J R Soc Med 2021 May 6:1410768211011742. Epub 2021 May 6.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objectives: In most countries, life expectancy at birth (e0) has improved for many decades. Recently, however, progress has stalled in the UK and Canada, and reversed in the USA. Lifespan variation, a complementary measure of mortality, increased a few years before the reversal in the USA. Read More

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Variation of the response to metal ions and Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay across different Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic backgrounds.

Yeast 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biology, One Bear Place #97388, Baylor University, Waco, TX, 76798, USA.

Regulation of mRNA steady state levels is important in controlling gene expression particularly in response to environmental stimuli. This allows cells to rapidly respond to environment changes. The highly conserved nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway was initially identified as a pathway that degrades aberrant mRNAs. Read More

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Selective Sweep at a QTL in a Randomly Fluctuating Environment.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):987-1005

Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), CNRS, University of Montpellier, University of Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, EPHE, IRD, France.

Adaptation is mediated by phenotypic traits that are often near continuous, and undergo selective pressures that may change with the environment. The dynamics of allelic frequencies at underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on their own phenotypic effects, but also possibly on other polymorphic loci affecting the same trait, and on environmental change driving phenotypic selection. Most environments include a substantial component of random noise, characterized both by its magnitude and its temporal autocorrelation, which sets the timescale of environmental predictability. Read More

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November 2019

Selective Sweep at a QTL in a Randomly Fluctuating Environment.

Genetics 2019 Nov;213(3):987-1005

Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), CNRS, University of Montpellier, University of Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, EPHE, IRD, France.

Adaptation is mediated by phenotypic traits that are often near continuous, and undergo selective pressures that may change with the environment. The dynamics of allelic frequencies at underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) depend on their own phenotypic effects, but also possibly on other polymorphic loci affecting the same trait, and on environmental change driving phenotypic selection. Most environments include a substantial component of random noise, characterized both by its magnitude and its temporal autocorrelation, which sets the timescale of environmental predictability. Read More

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November 2019

Evolution of Reproductive Behavior.

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):49-73

Laboratory of Systems Genetics, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Behaviors associated with reproduction are major contributors to the evolutionary success of organisms and are subject to many evolutionary forces, including natural and sexual selection, and sexual conflict. Successful reproduction involves a range of behaviors, from finding an appropriate mate, courting, and copulation, to the successful production and (in oviparous animals) deposition of eggs following mating. As a consequence, behaviors and genes associated with reproduction are often under strong selection and evolve rapidly. Read More

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January 2020

Evolution of Reproductive Behavior.

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):49-73

Laboratory of Systems Genetics, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Behaviors associated with reproduction are major contributors to the evolutionary success of organisms and are subject to many evolutionary forces, including natural and sexual selection, and sexual conflict. Successful reproduction involves a range of behaviors, from finding an appropriate mate, courting, and copulation, to the successful production and (in oviparous animals) deposition of eggs following mating. As a consequence, behaviors and genes associated with reproduction are often under strong selection and evolve rapidly. Read More

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January 2020

The Genomic Basis for Short-Term Evolution of Environmental Adaptation in Maize.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1479-1494

Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.

The geographical distribution of many crop species spans far beyond their centers of origin and the native range of their wild ancestors. Maize is exemplary of this adaptability, which has contributed to its agricultural.. Read More

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December 2019

The Genomic Basis for Short-Term Evolution of Environmental Adaptation in Maize.

Genetics 2019 Dec;213(4):1479-1494

Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.

The geographical distribution of many crop species spans far beyond their centers of origin and the native range of their wild ancestors. Maize is exemplary of this adaptability, which has contributed to its agricultural.. Read More

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December 2019

Interpreting Coronary Artery Disease Risk Through Gene-Environment Interactions in Gene Regulation.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):651-663

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological and genome-wide association studies have identified environmental and genetic risk factors for CVD. Using human vascular endothelial cells treated with dexamethasone, retinoic acid, caffeine, and selenium. Read More

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October 2019

Adaptation by Loss of Heterozygosity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Clones Under Divergent Selection.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):665-683

Technology Development and Transfer Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is observed during vegetative growth and reproduction of diploid genotypes through mitotic crossovers, aneuploidy caused by nondisjunction, and gene conversion. We aimed to test the role that LOH plays during adaptation of two highly heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes to multiple environments over a short time span in the laboratory. We hypothesized that adaptation would be observed through parallel LOH events across replicate populations. Read More

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October 2019

Adaptation by Loss of Heterozygosity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Clones Under Divergent Selection.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):665-683

Technology Development and Transfer Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is observed during vegetative growth and reproduction of diploid genotypes through mitotic crossovers, aneuploidy caused by nondisjunction, and gene conversion. We aimed to test the role that LOH plays during adaptation of two highly heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes to multiple environments over a short time span in the laboratory. We hypothesized that adaptation would be observed through parallel LOH events across replicate populations. Read More

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October 2019

Interpreting Coronary Artery Disease Risk Through Gene-Environment Interactions in Gene Regulation.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):651-663

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological and genome-wide association studies have identified environmental and genetic risk factors for CVD. Using human vascular endothelial cells treated with dexamethasone, retinoic acid, caffeine, and selenium. Read More

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October 2019

A visual analytic approach for the identification of ICU patient subpopulations using ICD diagnostic codes.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 6;7:e430. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT) STADIUS Center for Dynamical Systems, Signal Processing and Data Analytics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

A large number of clinical concepts are categorized under standardized formats that ease the manipulation, understanding, analysis, and exchange of information. One of the most extended codifications is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) used for characterizing diagnoses and clinical procedures. With formatted ICD concepts, a patient profile can be described through a set of standardized and sorted attributes according to the relevance or chronology of events. Read More

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An interlaboratory evaluation of the variability in arsenic and lead relative bioavailability when assessed using a mouse bioassay.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 May 5:1-15. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Animal bioassays have been developed to estimate oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of metals in soil, dust, or food for accurate health risk assessment. However, the comparability in RBA estimates from different labs remains largely unclear. Using 12 soil and soil-like standard reference materials (SRMs), this study investigated variability in lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) RBA estimates employing a mouse bioassay in 3 labs at Nanjing University, University of Jinan, and Shandong Normal University. Read More

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Assembly strategies of the wheat root-associated microbiome in soils contaminated with phenanthrene and copper.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 5;412:125340. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Life Science, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000, China.

Plants can cope with stressful conditions by indirectly regulating root-associated microbial structures. However, the recruitment strategies of the root-associated microbiome in combined organic and inorganic contaminated soils are not well known, especially for common agricultural crops. In this study, we performed greenhouse experiments to investigate the interactive effects of joint copper (Cu) and phenanthrene (PHE) pollution on wheat growth and microbial detoxication processes. Read More

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Does Auditory Environment Predict Speech Perception Outcomes in Elderly Cochlear Implant Patients?

Audiol Neurootol 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Ear Institute, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) is a reliable and safe means by which sensorineural hearing loss can be ameliorated in the elderly population. However, a high degree of variation exists in postimplantation hearing outcomes for which some modifiable factors of the daily natural auditory environment may be contributory. In this study, we analyze the relationship between cochlear implant patient age, natural auditory environment, and postimplantation speech perception among older adults. Read More

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Structure and species composition of diatom community during the wet season in three floodplain lakes of Brazilian Pantanal.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251063. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centro de Estudos Florestais, CEF, Instituto Superior de Agronomia de Lisboa, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

In order to access environmental conditions, the use of bioindicators that have a close relationship with environmental stressors is a largely common practice, but when evaluating environmental inferences, the individual dominant taxa need to be interpreted. Humid regions such as the marshlands are fragile ecosystems and sustain communities of microalgae, often used as bioindicators, of which diatoms are a good example. Although they provide an excellent response to chemical and physical changes in water, diatom studies in surface sediments in wetlands are scarce worldwide. Read More

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Corn Stalk-Derived Carbon Quantum Dots with Abundant Amino Groups as a Selective-Layer Modifier for Enhancing Chlorine Resistance of Membranes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China.

Low permeability and chlorine resistance of normal thin-film composite (TFC) membranes restrict their practical applications in many fields. This study reports the preparation of a high chlorine-resistant TFC membrane for forward osmosis (FO) by incorporating corn stalk-derived N-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) into the selective polyamide (PA) layer to construct a polydopamine (PDA) sub-layer (PTFC). Membrane modification is characterized by surface morphology, hydrophilicity, Zeta potential, and roughness. Read More

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Evolutionary dynamics of the OR gene repertoire in teleost fishes: evidence of an association with changes in olfactory epithelium shape.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement et Écologie, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Teleost fishes perceive their environment through a range of sensory modalities, among which olfaction often plays an important role. Richness of the olfactory repertoire depends on the diversity of receptors coded by homologous genes classified into four families: OR, TAAR, VR1 and VR2. Herein, we focus on the OR gene repertoire. Read More

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