42,175 results match your criteria variation body


Pharmacotherapy of obesity: an update.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 4:105649. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for the Study and the Integrated Management of Obesity, Padova University Hospital; and Department of Medicine, Internal Medicine 3, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Several pharmacological approaches to controlling body weight have been developed over the last decades, albeit with limited success. Currently available agents include centrally acting appetite suppressants and peripherally acting compounds. Efficacy and safety of these agents in the clinical setting require a difficult balance. Read More

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A deep learning-based auto-segmentation system for organs-at-risk on whole-body computed tomography images for radiation therapy.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Delineating organs at risk (OARs) on computed tomography (CT) images is an essential step in radiation therapy; however, it is notoriously time-consuming and prone to inter-observer variation. Herein, we report a deep learning-based automatic segmentation (AS) algorithm (WBNet) that can accurately and efficiently delineate all major OARs in the entire body directly on CT scans.

Materials And Methods: We collected 755 CT scans of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis and manually delineated 50 OARs on the CT images. Read More

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Naturalistic development of trait mindfulness: A longitudinal examination of victimization and supportive relationships in early adolescence.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0250960. Epub 2021 May 7.

Human Early Learning Partnership, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Scholars have only just begun to examine elements of young adolescents' social ecologies that explain naturalistic variation in trait mindfulness and its development over time. We argue that trait mindfulness develops as a function of chronically encountered ecologies that are likely to foster or thwart the repeated enactment of mindful states over time. Using data from 4,593 fourth and seventh grade students (50% female; MageG4 = 9. Read More

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Calcification Prevalence in Different Vascular Zones and Its Association With Demographics, Risk Factors, and Morphometry.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE, United Statesgrid.266815.e.

Vascular calcification is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events, but its prevalence in different vascular zones and the influence of demographics, risk factors, and morphometry remain insufficiently understood. Computerized Tomography Angiography scans from 211 subjects 5-93 years old (mean age 47±24 years, 127M/84F) were used to build 3D vascular reconstructions and measure arterial diameters, tortuosity, and calcification volumes in six vascular zones spanning from the ascending thoracic aorta to the pelvic arteries. A machine learning random forest algorithm was used to determine the associations between calcification in each zone with demographics, risk factors, and vascular morphometry. Read More

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Effects of advanced maternal age and acute prenatal alcohol exposure on mouse offspring growth and craniofacial phenotype.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario.

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in developmental defects including growth restriction, craniofacial anomalies and cognitive-behavioral deficits, though the presence and severity of these adverse outcomes varies dramatically. Preclinical animal models have demonstrated that dose and timing of PAE account for much but not all, of this phenotypic variation, suggesting that additional factors mitigate effects of PAE. Here we used a mouse model to investigate whether maternal age modulates the effects of PAE on the severity and variation of offspring growth and craniofacial outcomes. Read More

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Two new species of Hypostomus suckermouth armored catfishes (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from Central Brazil.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

We describe two new endemic Hypostomus species from central Brazil, which were previously identified as genetically distinct lineages in a recent genomic study that recommended their testing and potential description based on morphological data. A machine learning classification procedure (random forest) was used to investigate morphological variation and identify putatively diagnostic characters for these candidate species, and revealed that each is morphologically distinct. The new species Hypostomus cafuringa is characterized by small size, dark spots under a light background color, deeper caudal peduncle, and shorter first ray of the pectoral-fin and base of the dorsal-fin when compared to congeneric species from the region. Read More

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Putting Stress in Historical Context: Why It Is Important That Being Stressed Out Was Not a Way to Be a Person 2,000 Years Ago.

Authors:
Fabian Hutmacher

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:539799. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that scientists and Western societies began to label the combination of physiological and psychological responses that people display when things are getting too much and out of balance as "stress." However, stress is commonly understood as a universal mechanism that exists across times and cultures. In a certain sense, this universality claim is correct: the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms underlying the stress response are not a modern invention of our body. Read More

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Extreme Y chromosome polymorphism corresponds to five male reproductive morphs of a freshwater fish.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Loss of recombination between sex chromosomes often depletes Y chromosomes of functional content and genetic variation, which might limit their potential to generate adaptive diversity. Males of the freshwater fish Poecilia parae occur as one of five discrete morphs, all of which shoal together in natural populations where morph frequency has been stable for over 50 years. Each morph uses a different complex reproductive strategy and morphs differ dramatically in colour, body size and mating behaviour. Read More

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Detection of selection signatures in farmed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using dense genome-wide information.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9685. Epub 2021 May 6.

Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Animal domestication and artificial selection give rise to gradual changes at the genomic level in populations. Subsequent footprints of selection, known as selection signatures or selective sweeps, have been traced in the genomes of many animal livestock species by exploiting variation in linkage disequilibrium patterns and/or reduction of genetic diversity. Domestication of most aquatic species is recent in comparison with land animals, and salmonids are one of the most important fish species in aquaculture. Read More

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Butorphanol in combination with dexmedetomidine provides efficient pain management in adult burn patients.

Burns 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to compare the sedation and analgesic effects of butorphanol alone and butorphanol in combination with dexmedetomidine on dressing changes in adult burn patients.

Method: From June 2016 to May 2019, 44 adult burn patients from our department were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded study. Their total burn surface area (TBSA) varied from 10% to 30%; and the depth of burn injury ranged from second degree to third degree. Read More

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January 2021

Chronobiology of Natriuretic Peptides and Blood Pressure in Lean and Obese Individuals.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2291-2303

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Diurnal variation of natriuretic peptide (NP) levels and its relationship with 24-h blood pressure (BP) rhythm has not been established. Obese individuals have a relative NP deficiency and disturbed BP rhythmicity.

Objectives: This clinical trial evaluated the diurnal rhythmicity of NPs (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP], mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and the relationship of NP rhythm with 24-h BP rhythm in healthy lean and obese individuals. Read More

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Role of Microbes in the Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2021 May 3:100917. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare Center, West Haven, CT 06516, USA. Electronic address:

Microbes inhabit different anatomical sites of the human body including oral cavity, gut, and skin. A growing literature highlights how microbiome variation is associated with human health and disease. There is strong evidence of bidirectional communication between gut and brain mediated by neurotransmitters and microbial metabolites. Read More

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Life-History Evolution and the Genetics of Fitness Components in Drosophila melanogaster.

Authors:
Thomas Flatt

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):3-48

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700, Switzerland.

Life-history traits or "fitness components"-such as age and size at maturity, fecundity and fertility, age-specific rates of survival, and life span-are the major phenotypic determinants of Darwinian fitness. Analyzing the evolution and genetics of these phenotypic targets of selection is central to our understanding of adaptation. Due to its simple and rapid life cycle, cosmopolitan distribution, ease of maintenance in the laboratory, well-understood evolutionary genetics, and its versatile genetic toolbox, the "vinegar fly" Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most powerful, experimentally tractable model systems for studying "life-history evolution. Read More

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January 2020

Life-History Evolution and the Genetics of Fitness Components in Drosophila melanogaster.

Authors:
Thomas Flatt

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):3-48

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700, Switzerland.

Life-history traits or "fitness components"-such as age and size at maturity, fecundity and fertility, age-specific rates of survival, and life span-are the major phenotypic determinants of Darwinian fitness. Analyzing the evolution and genetics of these phenotypic targets of selection is central to our understanding of adaptation. Due to its simple and rapid life cycle, cosmopolitan distribution, ease of maintenance in the laboratory, well-understood evolutionary genetics, and its versatile genetic toolbox, the "vinegar fly" Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most powerful, experimentally tractable model systems for studying "life-history evolution. Read More

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January 2020

Sexual dimorphism in mud crabs: a tale of three sympatric species.

PeerJ 2021 12;9:e10936. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Sexual dimorphism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. To test the consistency of sexual dimorphism patterns among sympatric species of the same genus, ten morphometric characteristics of mud crabs , and were measured and compared using Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). The descriptive analysis revealed that in all three species, body size dimensions and cheliped dimensions were significantly larger in males whereas the abdomen width was female-biased. Read More

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Respiratory capacity is twice as important as temperature in explaining patterns of metabolic rate across the vertebrate tree of life.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Earth to Ocean Research Group, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6, Canada.

Metabolic rate underlies a wide range of phenomena from cellular dynamics to ecosystem structure and function. Models seeking to statistically explain variation in metabolic rate across vertebrates are largely based on body size and temperature. Unexpectedly, these models overlook variation in the size of gills and lungs that acquire the oxygen needed to fuel aerobic processes. Read More

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Associations of specific-age and decade recall body mass index trajectories with obesity-related cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 5;21(1):502. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Health Informatics, Division of Informatics, Imaging and Data Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Excess body fatness, commonly approximated by a one-off determination of body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of at least 13 cancers. Modelling of longitudinal BMI data may be more informative for incident cancer associations, e.g. Read More

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Hydration and glycogen affect T relaxation times of liver tissue.

NMR Biomed 2021 May 5:e4530. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

T mapping is a useful tool for the assessment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but still suffers from a large unexplained variance in healthy subjects. This study aims to characterize the potential effects of liver glycogen concentration and body hydration status on liver shortened modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (shMOLLI) T measurements. Eleven glycogen phantoms and 12 healthy volunteers (mean age: 31 years, three females) were scanned at 3 T using inversion recovery spin echo, multiple contrast spin echo (in phantoms), shMOLLI T mapping, multiple-echo spoiled gradient recalled echo and C spectroscopy (in healthy volunteers). Read More

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Animal experimental research assessing urogynecologic surgical mesh implants: Outcome measures describing the host response, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Amsterdam Reproduction and Development, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: Before the introduction of new biomaterials for prolapse surgery, animal studies on the host response are required. Unfortunately, large variation in study design hampers obtaining an overview of the safety and efficacy, and translation to clinical practice. Our aim is to systematically review the literature on all outcome measures describing the host response in animal studies assessing the biocompatibility of urogynecologic surgical mesh implants for prolapse surgery. Read More

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Molecular rotors as intracellular probes of red blood cell stiffness.

Soft Matter 2021 May;17(17):4525-4537

Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, UMR 7057 CNRS - Université de Paris, 75013 Paris, France.

The deformability of red blood cells is an essential parameter that controls the rheology of blood as well as its circulation in the body. Characterizing the rigidity of the cells and their heterogeneity in a blood sample is thus a key point in the understanding of occlusive phenomena, particularly in the case of erythrocytic diseases in which healthy cells coexist with pathological cells. However, measuring intracellular rheology in small biological compartments requires the development of specific techniques. Read More

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Compositional and functional properties of milk and dairy products derived from cows fed pasture or concentrate-based diets.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Food Chemistry and Technology, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Cork, Ireland.

Worldwide milk production is predominantly founded on indoor, high-concentrate feeding systems, whereas pasture-based feeding systems are most common in New Zealand and Ireland but have received greater attention recently in countries utilizing conventional systems. Consumer interest in 'pasture-fed' dairy products has also increased, arising from environmental, ethical, and nutritional concerns. A substantial body of research exists describing the effect of different feeding strategies on the composition of milk, with several recent studies focusing on the comparison of pasture- and concentrate-based feeding regimes. Read More

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Genetically-determined variations of are associated with antioxidant, muscular, and lipid biomarkers in response to Brazil nut consumption by patients using statins.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 5:1-21. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Health Sciences, Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo - FMRP/USP, Brazil.

Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could indirectly, as well directly, influence metabolic parameters related to health effects in response to selenium (Se) supplementation. This study aimed to investigate whether the selenoprotein SNPs were associated with the response of Se status biomarkers to the Brazil nut consumption in patients using statins, and if the variation in Se homeostasis could affect antioxidant protection, lipid profile, muscle homeostasis, and selenoproteins mRNA. The study was performed in the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital. Read More

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Impact of mixed meal tolerance test composition on measures of beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 May 4;18(1):47. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Application of mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTT) to measure beta-cell function in long-term studies is limited by modification of the commercial products occurring over time. This study assessed the intra-individual reliability of MMTTs and compared the effects of liquid meals differing in macronutrient composition on the estimation of beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: To test the reliability of MMTTs, 10 people with T2DM (age 58 ± 11 years, body mass index 30. Read More

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Repeated loss of variation in insect ovary morphology highlights the role of development in life-history evolution.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 May 5;288(1950):20210150. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

The number of offspring an organism can produce is a key component of its evolutionary fitness and life history. Here we perform a test of the hypothesized trade-off between the number and size of offspring using thousands of descriptions of the number of egg-producing compartments in the insect ovary (ovarioles), a common proxy for potential offspring number in insects. We find evidence of a negative relationship between egg size and ovariole number when accounting for adult body size. Read More

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Breastfeeding Practices Influence the Breast Milk Microbiota Depending on Pre-Gestational Maternal BMI and Weight Gain over Pregnancy.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), 46980 Valencia, Spain.

Breastfeeding is critical for adequate neonatal microbial and immune system development affecting neonate health outcomes in the short and long term. There is a great interest in ascertaining which are the maternal factors contributing to the milk microbiota and the potential relevance for the developing infant. Thus, our study aimed to characterize the effect of mixed and exclusive breastfeeding practices on the milk microbiota and to determine the impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain over pregnancy on its composition. Read More

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Noninvasive detection of human dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone and testosterone using LC-MS/MS revealed effects of birth control pills/devices and body weight on ovulatory prediction.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 21;1174:122716. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States; Department of Pathology, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been increasingly used to measure steroids in human saliva. We studied the performance of a conventional LC-MS/MS for measuring dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone and progesterone in human saliva. These three steroids were co-extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and derivatized. Read More

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The extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for pure aqueduct tumors: surgical technique and case series.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University Kosuyolu Hospital, Kosuyolu Mah, Kosuyolu Cad. No: 168, 34718, Kadiköy, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purely aqueductal tumors represent a rare but distinct entity of neoplasms with characteristic morphology and clinical presentation. This study aims to describe the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach as a surgical option for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper part of the cerebral aqueduct and present the surgical results. Prospectively collected data of 4 patients undergoing the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper cerebral aqueduct was analyzed. Read More

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Is There An Association Between Bundled Payments and "Cherry Picking" and "Lemon Dropping" in Orthopaedic Surgery? A Systematic Review.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 04 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

D. N. Bernstein, R. W. Poolman, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The goal of bundled payments-lump monetary sums designed to cover the full set of services needed to provide care for a condition or medical event-is to provide a reimbursement structure that incentivizes improved value for patients. There is concern that such a payment mechanism may lead to patient screening and denying or providing orthopaedic care to patients based on the number and severity of comorbid conditions present associated with complications after surgery. Currently, however, there is no clear consensus about whether such an association exists. Read More

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Evaluation of pharmacokinetics of single-dose primaquine in undernourished versus normally nourished children diagnosed with malaria in Mumbai.

J Postgrad Med 2021 Apr-Jun;67(2):75-79

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: The pharmacokinetics of primaquine [PQ] have been the subject of studies in both adults and healthy participants. However, there is no study on its pharmacokinetics in a setting of undernourishment. In India, there is evidence to show considerable malnourishment in children that in turn can affect drug pharmacokinetics. Read More

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Variation in publicly funded bariatric surgery in New Zealand by ethnicity: cohort study of 328,739 patients.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: New Zealand health services are responsible for equitable health service delivery, particularly for Māori, the Indigenous peoples of New Zealand. Recent research has indicated the presence of inequities in publicly funded bariatric surgery in New Zealand by ethnicity, but it is unclear whether these inequities persist after adjustment for co-morbidities.

Objectives: To determine whether receipt of publicly funded bariatric surgery varies by ethnicity, after adjustment for co-morbidities. Read More

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