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Reductions in tobacco use in naltrexone, relative to buprenorphine-maintained individuals with opioid use disorder: Secondary analysis from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 21;130:108489. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, One Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Background: Smoking prevalence in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) is over 80%. Research suggests that opioid use significantly increases smoking, which could account for the strikingly low smoking-cessation rates observed in both methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained patients, even with the use of first-line smoking-cessation interventions. If opioids present a barrier to smoking-cessation, then better smoking outcomes should be observed in OUD patients treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, an opioid antagonist) compared to those receiving buprenorphine (BUP-NX, a partial opioid agonist). Read More

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Smoking and obesity negatively affect the favourable outcome of varicocelectomy in sub-fertile men.

Andrologia 2021 Jun 12:e14131. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Urology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

We assessed the effect of smoking and/or obesity on semen parameters and testosterone/oestradiol (T/E) ratio among sub-fertile men treated with sub-inguinal varicocelectomy. In this prospective, controlled, clinical study, 80 sub-fertile men with clinical varicocele who were subjected to sub-inguinal varicocelectomy were assigned into four equal groups (n = 20/each), group A: obese and smokers, group B: obese and nonsmokers, group C: smokers and nonobese and group D: nonsmokers and nonobese. Semen parameters, serum testosterone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, prolactin and calculation of T/E ratio were assessed at baseline and 6 months post-varicocelectomy. Read More

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The role of perceived discrimination in predicting changes in health behaviours among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The Urban Health Collaborative, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: This study examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with health behaviours over time and whether associations of discrimination with behaviours varied by attribution of discrimination.

Methods: Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs for the associations of discrimination (everyday, lifetime, stress from lifetime discrimination) with health behaviours (cigarette smoking, alcohol use) over time among 3050 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study from visit 1 (2000-2004) to visit 3 (2009-2013). Smoking status was classified as persistent current, persistent former, persistent never, current to former and former/never to current smokers. Read More

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Quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's pictorial health warnings versus Zambia's single text-only warning: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project.

Tob Control 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Population studies in mostly high-income countries have shown that pictorial health warnings (PHWs) are much more effective than text-only warnings. This is the first quasi-experimental evaluation of the introduction of PHWs in Africa, comparing the change from text-only to PHWs in Kenya to the unchanged text-only health warning in Zambia.

Methods: Data were from International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Kenya (n=1495), and Zambia (n=1628), cohort surveys of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in each country. Read More

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Making smoking history: temporal changes in support for a future smoking ban and increasing taxes in the general population of Denmark.

Tob Control 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg, Denmark

Background: An end date for smoking has been adopted in several countries and is now being discussed by governments all over the world. However, little is known about temporal changes in citizens' support for a future smoking ban.

Aim: To examine temporal changes in support for a future smoking ban and for increasing taxes on tobacco in Denmark, and to explore whether these changes differ across sex, age, educational attainment, smoking status and between smokers with/without intention to quit. Read More

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Lifetime smoking history and cohort-based smoking prevalence in chronic pancreatitis.

Pancreatology 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background/objective: Smoking prevalence in patients with chronic pancreatitis [CP] is high. We aimed to understand lifetime history of smoking and cohort trends in CP patients to inform effective strategies for smoking cessation.

Method: Data on 317 CP patients from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 [NAPS2] Continuation and Validation Study and the NAPS2 Ancillary Study were analyzed. Read More

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A Brief Negotiation Interview Adherence Scale for Smoking Cessation: A psychometric evaluation.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Jul 20;126:108398. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Yale University School of Medicine Department of Emergency Medicine 464 Congress Avenue, Suite 260, New Haven, CT 06519, USA; Yale School of Public Health, 60 College St., New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Yale Cancer Center, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Practitioner adherence to the Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI) for high-risk alcohol consumption and opioid use disorder can be measured using the BNI Adherence Scale, for alcohol (BAS-A) and opioids (BAS-O), respectively. However, no psychometrically validated brief intervention adherence scale for smoking cessation has been reported in the literature. Our objective was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a BAS for smoking cessation (BASS). Read More

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Effects of the association between APOE rs405509 polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions on hand grip strength among middle-aged and elderly people in a rural population in southern China.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jun 11;16(1):372. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, 22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Background: Hand grip strength is a complex phenotype. The current study aimed to identify the effects of the association between APOE rs405509 polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions on hand grip strength among middle-aged and elderly people in a rural population in Gongcheng, southern China.

Methods: APOE rs405509 polymorphisms in 1724 participants (695 men and 1029 women, aged 45-97 years old) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Read More

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Smoking History as a Potential Predictor of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Efficacy in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Despite the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in a subset of patients, consistent and easily obtainable predictors of efficacy remain elusive.

Methods: This study was conducted on 644 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with ICI monotherapy between April 2013 and September 2020 at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patient smoking history, clinicopathological characteristics, tumor mutation burden (TMB) by clinical targeted next generation sequencing, and PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) by immunohistochemistry were prospectively collected. Read More

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Blood pressure-lowering effect of repeated Waon therapy in non-smokers with hypertension.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26266

Cardiac Rehabilitation Center.

Abstract: Waon therapy (WT) has been used as a thermal therapy in chronic heart failure patients. However, its effect in patients with hypertension is unclear. This study aimed to reveal the hypotensive effect of WT in patients with hypertension. Read More

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Lower educational status interferes with maternal iodine intake during both pregnancy and lactation.

Endocr Connect 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

E Nagy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Objective: To investigate factors affecting conscious iodine intake among pregnant and lactating women in a rural area in Hungary.

Methods: Pregnant women were studied and followed during lactation. Urinary and breast milk iodine concentration (UIC and MIC) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Read More

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Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors: Protocol for a Multiple Behavior Analysis of Data From the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 11;10(6):e24887. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Health behaviors such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, smoking tobacco, and alcohol use are leading risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases and play a central role in limiting health and life satisfaction. To date, however, health behaviors tend to be considered separately from one another, resulting in guidelines and interventions for healthy aging siloed by specific behaviors and often focused only on a given health behavior without considering the co-occurrence of family, social, work, and other behaviors of everyday life.

Objective: The aim of this study is to understand how behaviors cluster and how such clusters are associated with physical and mental health, life satisfaction, and health care utilization may provide opportunities to leverage this co-occurrence to develop and evaluate interventions to promote multiple health behavior changes. Read More

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Web-Based Self-management Program (SPACE for COPD) for Individuals Hospitalized With an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Nonrandomized Feasibility Trial of Acceptability.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 11;9(6):e21728. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Background: Hospital admissions due to the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are costly for individuals and health services. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is known to reduce hospital readmissions when delivered after hospitalization, but the uptake and completion of PR following hospitalization remains poor (<10% of those eligible in the UK audit data). A web-based platform of the SPACE (Self-management Program of Activity Coping and Education) for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) has previously shown promising results in patients with stable COPD but has not been tested following an AECOPD. Read More

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Psoriasis is associated with fissured tongue but not geographic tongue: a prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Teaching Hospital of the Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background And Objectives: It has been postulated that psoriasis is associated with tongue lesions and geographic tongue might be "oral psoriasis". However, reports are inconclusive, prevalence rates vary and data for Europe are sparse. In this prospective case-control study we investigated the point-prevalence of tongue conditions in an Austrian cohort. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 serology in 4000 health care and administrative staff across seven sites in Lombardy, Italy.

Sci Rep 2021 06 10;11(1):12312. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Lombardy is the Italian region most affected by COVID-19. We tested the presence of plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in 3985 employees across 7 healthcare facilities in areas of Lombardy with different exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Subjects filled a questionnaire to self-report on COVID-19 symptoms, comorbidities, smoking, regular or remote working, and the exposure to COVID-infected individuals. Read More

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Fourteen days of smoking cessation improves muscle fatigue resistance and reverses markers of systemic inflammation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12286. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Life Sciences, Centre of Musculoskeletal Sciences and Sport Medicine, Manchester Metropolitan University, John Dalton Building; Chester Street, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK.

Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on respiratory and skeletal muscle function and is a risk factor for various chronic diseases. To assess the effects of 14 days of smoking cessation on respiratory and skeletal muscle function, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. Spirometry, skeletal muscle function, circulating carboxyhaemoglobin levels, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), markers of oxidative stress and serum cytokines were measured in 38 non-smokers, and in 48 cigarette smokers at baseline and after 14 days of smoking cessation. Read More

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Analysis of the illicit tobacco market in Georgia in response to fiscal and non-fiscal tobacco control measures.

Tob Control 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Sociology and Social Work Department, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Background: Georgian illicit cigarette consumption was 1.5% in 2017. In 2018, a new tobacco control law took effect followed by a substantial cigarette excise tax increase in 2019. Read More

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Frequently Reported Adverse Events With Smoking Cessation Medications: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the incidence, severity, and clinical course of frequently reported adverse events (AEs) after treatment with smoking cessation pharmacotherapies.

Methods: This was a multinational, multicenter, post hoc analysis of frequently reported treatment-emergent AEs from a large, phase 4, double-blind, randomized, triple-dummy, placebo-controlled trial (EAGLES), conducted between November 30, 2011, and January 13, 2015, that included smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (N=8144). Treatments were varenicline 1 mg twice daily, bupropion sustained-release 150 mg twice daily, and nicotine patch 21 mg once daily with tapering (12-week treatment, 12-week nontreatment follow-up), with incidence, time to onset, and duration of frequently reported AEs (≥5% of participants in any treatment group) measured. Read More

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The effect of reproductive hormones on women's daily smoking across the menstrual cycle.

Biol Sex Differ 2021 Jun 10;12(1):41. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background: Women attempt to quit smoking less often than men and are less likely to maintain abstinence. Reproductive hormones have been postulated as a reason for this sex difference, though this remains to be clarified. Research suggests that estradiol and progesterone may influence nicotine addiction, though various methodologies have led to inconsistent findings. Read More

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Smartphone addiction and associated factors among postgraduate students in an Arabic sample: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 Jun 10;21(1):302. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Smartphone addiction, as with other behavioral addictions, is associated with social, physical, and mental health issues. In this article, we investigated the prevalence of smartphone addiction among postgraduate students and evaluated its correlation with social demographics, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nicotine dependence.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smartphone addiction among Middle Eastern postgraduate students, determine the factors associated with smartphone addiction, and estimate the incidence rate of major depressive disorder (MDD), ADHD, insomnia, and nicotine addiction among postgraduate students with smartphone addiction. Read More

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Tobacco use in the Myeloproliferative neoplasms: symptom burden, patient opinions, and care.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 10;21(1):691. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ, 85259, USA.

Background: Patients with Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) suffer from numerous symptoms and decreased quality of life. Smoking is associated with an increased symptom burden in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and MPN-related symptom burden and explore MPN patients' opinions on smoking. Read More

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Clinical and economic impact of current ALK rearrangement testing in Spain compared with a hypothetical no-testing scenario.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 10;21(1):689. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hospital Universitario Fundacion Jimenez Diaz - CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Currently biomarkers play an essential role in diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) determination of biomarkers such as ALK, EGFR, ROS1 or PD-L1 is mandatory for an adequate treatment decision. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and economic impact of current anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing scenario in Spain. Read More

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Primary high-grade myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung: A study of three cases illustrating frequent SMARCB1-deficiency and review of the literature.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 May 8;53:151759. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pathology, Rambam Health Care Campus, 31096 Haifa, Israel.

Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung is exceptionally rare and, hence, remained poorly characterized. We present 3 tumors affecting 2 males and 1 female aged 60 to 84 years. Tumor size ranged from 4 to 10 cm. Read More

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Increasing cannabis use is associated with poorer cigarette smoking cessation outcomes: Findings from the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys, 2016-2018.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Concurrent use (co-use) of tobacco and cannabis may impede successful cigarette smoking cessation. This study examined whether changes in cannabis use frequency were associated with smoking cessation.

Methods: Nationally representative samples of adult cigarette smokers from Canada (n=1455), the United States (n=892), England (n=1416), and Australia (n=717) were surveyed in 2016 and 2018. Read More

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Life-time tobacco consumption and oral cancer among citizens of a high incidence metropolis.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1588-1591

Department of Pathology, Ziauddin University, Clifton Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To analyse dose-response relationship between the common risk factor of tobacco consumption and oral lesions like squamous cell carcinoma and pre-cancerous lesions.

Methods: The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted at Ziauddin University, Karachi from 2011 to 2016, and comprised histologically-confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in group A, clinically-diagnosed oral pre-cancerous lesions in group B, and habit-matched controls in group C. The subjects were enrolled from 2011 to 2016. Read More

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What influences demand for cigars among African American adult cigar smokers? Results from a hypothetical purchase task.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Health Behavior and Policy.

African Americans (AA) have historically been targeted by the tobacco industry and have the highest rates of current cigar use among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Yet, there is limited evidence on other factors influencing cigar use. Read More

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Anhedonia in tobacco withdrawal among African-American smokers.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine.

Anhedonia-diminished interest and pleasure in response to rewards-may be a symptom of tobacco withdrawal that is understudied in priority populations. This experiment investigated the magnitude and correlates of various dimensions of anhedonia during tobacco withdrawal among African-American (AA) smokers-a population subject to health disparities. AA smokers ( = 607; ≥ 10 cigarettes/day, 37. Read More

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Evidence from an fMRI study that dessert-flavored e-cigarettes engage taste-related, but not smoking-related, brain circuitry for female daily smokers.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery.

Regulations limiting the sale of flavored e-cigarette products are controversial for their potential to interfere with e-cigarette use as a cessation aid in addition to curbing youth use. Limited research suggests that flavor might enhance the addictive potential of e-cigarettes; however, the acute effects of flavored aerosols on brain function among humans have not been assessed. The present study aimed to isolate and compare the neural substrates of flavored and unflavored e-cigarette aerosols on brain function among nine female daily smokers. Read More

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Novel 4-Hydroxybenzyl Adducts in Human Hemoglobin: Structures and Mechanisms of Formation.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

Humans are exposed to large numbers of electrophiles from their diet, the environment, and endogenous physiological processes. Adducts formed at the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin are often used as biomarkers of human exposure to electrophilic compounds. We previously reported the formation of hemoglobin N-terminal valine adducts (added mass, 106. Read More

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Inflammatory biomarkers in the pathogenesis of respiratory dysfunction in people living with HIV.

Curr HIV Res 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Infectious Diseases Unit, General University Hospital of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

Background: Although the association between HIV infection and airway obstruction is well known, its etiopathogenesis is not clear.

Objectives: Our aim was to analyze the association between biomarkers of systemic inflammation and bacterial translocation and pulmonary function tests in HIV-infected patients and compare the results between smokers and non-smokers.

Method: It was a cross-sectional, observational study. Read More

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