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Arsenic compounds: The wide application and mechanisms applied in acute promyelocytic leukemia and carcinogenic toxicology.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 4;221:113519. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As), as well as its various compounds have been widely used for nearly 4000 years either as drugs or poisons. These compounds are valuable in the treatment of various diseases ranging from dermatosis to cancer, thereby emphasizing their important roles as therapeutic agents. The ability of As compounds, especially arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), has fundamentally altered people's understanding of the poison, and has become a major factor in the re-emergence of Western medicine candidates to treat leukemia and other solid tumors. Read More

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Tracking conflict and emotions with a computational qualitative discourse analytic support approach.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251186. Epub 2021 May 13.

Digital Media Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Accurate inferences of the emotional state of conversation participants can be critical in shaping analysis and interpretation of conversational exchanges. In qualitative analyses of discourse, most labelling of the perceived emotional state of conversation participants is performed by hand, and is limited to selected moments where an analyst may believe that emotional information is valuable for interpretation. This reliance on manual labelling processes can have implications for repeatability and objectivity, both in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of changes in emotional state that might go unnoticed. Read More

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Whole genome sequencing of a snailfish from the Yap Trench (~7,000 m) clarifies the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation to the deep sea.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009530. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of Oceanology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Hadal environments (depths below 6,000 m) are characterized by extremely high hydrostatic pressures, low temperatures, a scarce food supply, and little light. The evolutionary adaptations that allow vertebrates to survive in this extreme environment are poorly understood. Here, we constructed a high-quality reference genome for Yap hadal snailfish (YHS), which was captured at a depth of ~7,000 m in the Yap Trench. Read More

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Evaluation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Positive Psychosocial Constructs in Children and Adolescent/Young Adults with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer are a vulnerable population in whom improvements in psycho-oncology care would be valuable. We previously published a scoping review exploring what is known about positive psychological constructs in this population. A key finding was that evidence-based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were needed to standardize psycho-oncology research. Read More

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Targeting LIMK1 with luteolin inhibits the growth of lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

China-US (Henan) Hormel Cancer Institute, Zhengzhou, China.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. LIM domain kinase (LIMK) 1 is a member of serine/threonine kinase family and highly expressed in various cancers. Luteolin, a polyphenolic plant flavonoid, has been reported to suppress tumour proliferation through inducing apoptosis and autophagy via MAPK activation in glioma. Read More

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Putting Stakeholder Engagement at the Center of Health Economic Modeling for Health Technology Assessment in the United States.

Pharmacoeconomics 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Innovation and Value Initiative, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.

While evidence generated from health economic (HE) models is being used more commonly in health technology assessment (HTA) in the US, it is not consistently adopted by different stakeholder groups or across therapeutic areas. We hypothesize that actively engaging with multiple stakeholder groups throughout the model development process may result in models more widely considered by decision makers. To test this hypothesis, the Innovation and Value Initiative has launched a modeling effort to build an open-source HE model focusing on the disease state 'major depressive disorder'. Read More

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Wrinkle and near-resonance effects on the vibrational and electronic properties in compressed monolayer MoSe.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. and School of Physical Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Pressure has been considered as an effective technique to modulate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDs) materials. Here, by performing in situ high pressure Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements, we systematically investigated the vibrational and electronic properties evolution of monolayer MoSe2 grown on a SiO2/Si substrate under high pressure. When the pressure increased up to 4. Read More

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Optical Coherence Tomography of Peri-Ocular Skin Cancers: An Optical Biopsy.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021 Mar 2;7(2):149-158. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

The MUHC, McGill University Ocular Pathology and Translational Research Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool for retinal disease for several years, and OCT apparatuses are becoming increasingly powerful. However, OCT has yet to reach its full potential in ophthalmology clinics. Alike retinal layers, it has been shown that OCT is able to generate cross-sectional images of the skin and allows visualization of skin lesions in a histopathology-like manner. Read More

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Which Way to Choose for the Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:659442. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, Kidney and Urology Center, Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer among males in the world and the majority of patients will eventually progress to the metastatic phase. How to choose an effective way for the treatment of metastatic PCa, especially in the later stage of the disease is still confusing. Herein we reported the case of a patient diagnosed with metastatic PCa and conducted a literature review on this issue. Read More

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Staphylococcus epidermidis Phages Transduce Antimicrobial Resistance Plasmids and Mobilize Chromosomal Islands.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

is a leading opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections that is notable for its ability to form a biofilm and for its high rates of antibiotic resistance. It serves as a reservoir of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes that spread among the staphylococcal population by horizontal gene transfer such as transduction. While phage-mediated transduction is well studied in , transducing phages have not been described in detail yet. Read More

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Association between HIV infection and hypertension: a global systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

BMC Med 2021 May 13;19(1):105. Epub 2021 May 13.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, UK.

Background: Improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy has meant that people living with HIV (PLHIV) are surviving to older ages. However, PLHIV may be ageing differently to HIV-negative individuals, with dissimilar burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension. While some observational studies have reported a higher risk of prevalent hypertension among PLHIV compared to HIV-negative individuals, others have found a reduced burden. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of pediatric lungs.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

In addition to radiography, ultrasound (US) has long proved to be a valuable imaging modality to evaluate the pediatric lung and pleural cavity. Its many inherent advantages, including real-time performance, high spatial resolution, lack of ionizing radiation and lack of need for sedation make it preferable over other imaging modalities such as CT. Since the introduction of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become a valuable complementary US technique, with many well-established uses in adults and evolving uses in children. Read More

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Analysis of paralogs in target enrichment data pinpoints multiple ancient polyploidy events in Alchemilla s.l. (Rosaceae).

Syst Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 1445 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Target enrichment is becoming increasingly popular for phylogenomic studies. Although baits for enrichment are typically designed to target single-copy genes, paralogs are often recovered with increased sequencing depth, sometimes from a significant proportion of loci, especially in groups experiencing whole-genome duplication (WGD) events. Common approaches for processing paralogs in target enrichment data sets include random selection, manual pruning, and mainly, the removal of entire genes that show any evidence of paralogy. Read More

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Dynamics of bird assemblages in response to temporally and spatially variable resources in arid Australia.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 17;11(9):3977-3990. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods Charles Darwin University Alice Springs NT Australia.

Bird assemblages in arid Australia are often characterized as being highly variable through time in response to boom and bust dynamics, although the importance of habitat in structuring assemblages at a local-scale is also recognized. We use a novel approach to investigate the importance of rainfall variability in structuring bird assemblages in a resource-limited environment. Monthly bird surveys were conducted at ten plots for 8 years at a botanical and zoological park in central Australia, including five irrigated plots within a fenced area and five natural plots outside. Read More

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Antagonistic selection on body size and sword length in a wild population of the swordtail fish, : Potential for intralocus tactical conflict.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 20;11(9):3941-3955. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Instituto de Ecología AC Red de Biología Evolutiva Xalapa, Veracruz México.

Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) have provided valuable insights into how sexual selection and life history trade-offs can lead to variation within a sex. However, the possibility that tactics may constrain evolution through intralocus tactical conflict (IATC) is rarely considered. In addition, when IATC has been considered, the focus has often been on the genetic correlations between the ARTs, while evidence that the ARTs have different optima for associated traits and that at least one of the tactics is not at its optimum is often missing. Read More

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Enhanced differentiation of functional human T cells in NSGW41 mice with tissue-specific expression of human interleukin-7.

Leukemia 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Humanized mouse models have become increasingly valuable tools to study human hematopoiesis and infectious diseases. However, human T-cell differentiation remains inefficient. We generated mice expressing human interleukin-7 (IL-7), a critical growth and survival factor for T cells, under the control of murine IL-7 regulatory elements. Read More

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Cholinergic calcium responses in cultured antennal lobe neurons of the migratory locust.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10018. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15/102, 30173, Hannover, Germany.

Locusts are advantageous organisms to elucidate mechanisms of olfactory coding at the systems level. Sensory input is provided by the olfactory receptor neurons of the antenna, which send their axons into the antennal lobe. So far, cellular properties of neurons isolated from the circuitry of the olfactory system, such as transmitter-induced calcium responses, have not been studied. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 gene content and COVID-19 mutation impact by comparing 44 Sarbecovirus genomes.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2642. Epub 2021 May 11.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Despite its clinical importance, the SARS-CoV-2 gene set remains unresolved, hindering dissection of COVID-19 biology. We use comparative genomics to provide a high-confidence protein-coding gene set, characterize evolutionary constraint, and prioritize functional mutations. We select 44 Sarbecovirus genomes at ideally-suited evolutionary distances, and quantify protein-coding evolutionary signatures and overlapping constraint. Read More

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RNA-seq analysis of laser micro-dissected Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermis, mesophyll and vasculature defines tissue-specific transcriptional responses to multiple stress treatments.

Plant J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, AgriBio Building La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia.

Acclimation of plants to adverse conditions requires the coordination of gene expression and signalling pathways between tissues and cell types. As the energy and carbon capturing organs, leaves are significantly affected by abiotic and biotic stresses. However, tissue- or cell type-specific analyses of stress responses have focussed on the Arabidopsis root. Read More

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Equity should know no borders: The role of Australasian radiation oncologists in supporting radiation oncology services in low- and middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The rapid rise in cancer incidence within the world's poorest nations highlights the need for equitable access to evidence-based cancer care. It has been previously demonstrated that radiotherapy is a cost-effective and necessary tool in cancer treatment. However, globally there is a growing divide between demand and supply of radiotherapy services. Read More

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Microneurosurgery for Paraclinoid Aneurysms in the Context of Flow Diverters.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;132:47-53

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The advent of flow diverter (FD) stents has apparently reduced the role of microneurosurgery for paraclinoid aneurysms despite sparse high-quality evidence about their long-term effects.The present study critically reviews the overall results of a microneurosurgical series of 57 paraclinoid aneurysms.Of these aneurysms, 47. Read More

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January 2021

Ecological insights into the elevational biogeography of antibiotic resistance genes in a pristine river: Metagenomic analysis along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 10;286:117101. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

Presently, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is regarded as an emerging environmental issue, and many studies have illuminated biogeographical patterns of the antibiotic resistome. However, few studies have investigated elevational biogeography and associated assembly mechanisms of ARGs in natural river systems. Accordingly, in the present study, we used metagenomics approaches to analyze the biogeographical pattern of ARGs along the pristine Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau. Read More

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Beyond cognitive templates: re-examining template metaphors used for animal recognition and navigation.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati.

The term 'cognitive template' originated from work in human-based cognitive science to describe a literal, stored, neural representation used in recognition tasks. As the study of cognition has expanded to non-human animals, the term has diffused to describe a wider range of animal cognitive tools and strategies that guide action through the recognition of and discrimination between external states. One potential reason for this non-standardized meaning and variable employment is that researchers interested in the broad range of animal recognition tasks enjoy the simplicity of the cognitive template concept and have allowed it to become shorthand for many dissimilar or unknown neural processes without deep scrutiny of how this metaphor might comport with underlying neurophysiology. Read More

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Tourniquets as a haemorrhage control measure in military and civilian care settings: An integrative review.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Pre-Department of Nursing, Jaume I University, Castellon de la Plana, Spain.

Aims And Objectives: The aim of review was to describe and synthesise the evidence on the use of tourniquets to control haemorrhages, summarising both civilian and military use.

Background: Trauma-related haemorrhage constitutes one of the most preventable deaths among injured patients, particularly in multi-casualty incidents and disasters. In this context, safe instruments such as tourniquets are essential to help healthcare professionals to minimise loss of life and maximise patient recovery. Read More

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Using Machine Learning to Identify and Investigate Moderators of Alcohol Use Intervention Effects in Meta-Analyses.

Alcohol Alcohol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Counseling Psychology and Human Services, University of Oregon, 5251 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Aims: To illustrate a machine learning-based approach for identifying and investigating moderators of alcohol use intervention effects in aggregate-data meta-analysis.

Methods: We illustrated the machine learning technique of random forest modeling using data from an ongoing meta-analysis of brief substance use interventions implemented in general healthcare settings. A subset of 40 trials testing brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) was used; these trials provided 344 estimates of post-intervention effects on participants' alcohol use as well as data on 20 potential moderators of intervention effects. Read More

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Innovation for Positive Sustainable Legacy From Mega Sports Events: Virtual Reality as a Tool for Social Inclusion Legacy for Paris 2024 Paralympic Games.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 21;3:625677. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of New Brunswick Fredericton, Fredericton, NB, Canada.

There is significant interest in how sports events and their associated legacies could act as a platform to address global challenges and engender social change. The United Nations (UN) has acknowledged the important role that sport plays in supporting the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Olympic movement could be argued as central to that objective. Yet critical questions and concerns have been raised about the growing expenditure, viability, long term legacy, and impacts of mega sports events such as the Olympic Games. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of (Xueshuantong) in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke (EXPECT) Trial: Rationale and Design.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:648921. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Although revascularization treatment is recommended as the first-line therapy for patients with non-minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS), it only benefits a minority of patients. Previous studies have reported the positive effects of (PNS) (Xueshuantong lyophilized powder) on AIS, however, there have been no rigorous trials. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of PNS therapy for patients with AIS. Read More

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[CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Intracranial Extra-cerebral Chondroma:A Case Report].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):300-304

Department of Radiology,Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital,Sanya,Hainan 572013,China.

Intracranial intradural chondroma is a rare disorder,the imaging findings of which have been rarely reported.The current study reported a case of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma and described the detailed CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings,which would provide valuable imaging evidence for the diagnosis of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma. Read More

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Overexpression of Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to the internalization and elimination of Escherichia coli in sheep by enhancing caveolae-dependent endocytosis.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 May 10;12(1):63. Epub 2021 May 10.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Gram-negative bacterial infections have a major economic impact on both the livestock industry and public health. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a crucial role in host defence against Gram-negative bacteria. Exploring the defence mechanism regulated by TLR4 may provide new targets for treatment of inflammation and control of bacterial infections. Read More

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Pesticide residues in the pollen and nectar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and their potential risks to honey bees.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147443. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China; Western Agricultural Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changji, China. Electronic address:

Research evidence suggests that pesticide residues are one of the leading potential causes of the decline in pollinators, especially during vulnerable periods such as foraging in the early springtime. In China, no research quantifies pesticide residues in the nectar and pollen of honey bee colonies during this period or examines the potential risks and toxicity of pesticides to honey bees. Oilseed rape is one of the first and primary bee-attractive plants in most parts of China. Read More

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