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Efficacy of bivalent vaccines of porcine circovirus type 2 and in specific pathogen-free pigs challenged with porcine circovirus type 2d.

J Vet Sci 2022 May;23(3):e49

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Background: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and (MHP) are economically significant pathogens in the pig industry. The use of combined vaccines against PCV2 and MHP is one of the most effective ways of protecting pigs from both diseases, and it has become a part of general management.

Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of two new bivalent vaccines of PCV2 and MHP (Myco-X and Myco-XD) in SPF pigs. Read More

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The unintended consequences of COVID-19 vaccine policy: why mandates, passports and restrictions may cause more harm than good.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 May;7(5)

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their potential unintended consequences. Here, we outline a comprehensive set of hypotheses for why these policies may ultimately be counterproductive and harmful. Read More

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Assessing the burden of COVID-19 in developing countries: systematic review, meta-analysis and public policy implications.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 May;7(5)

Western Sydney Diabetes, Western Sydney Local Health District, Blacktown, New South Wales, Australia

Introduction: The infection fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19 has been carefully measured and analysed in high-income countries, whereas there has been no systematic analysis of age-specific seroprevalence or IFR for developing countries.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature to identify all COVID-19 serology studies in developing countries that were conducted using representative samples collected by February 2021. For each of the antibody assays used in these serology studies, we identified data on assay characteristics, including the extent of seroreversion over time. Read More

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Variability in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 IgG Antibody Affinity to Omicron and Delta Variants in Convalescent and Community mRNA-Vaccinated Individuals.

Immunohorizons 2022 May 26;6(5):307-311. Epub 2022 May 26.

Liquid Diagnostics LLC, San Clemente, CA; and

The emergence of the omicron and delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun a number of discussions regarding breakthrough infection, waning immunity, need and timing for vaccine boosters, and whether existing mRNA vaccines for the original SARS-CoV-2 strain are adequate. Our work leverages a biosensor-based technique to evaluate the binding efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific salivary Abs to the omicron and delta variants using a cohort of mRNA-vaccinated ( = 109) and convalescent ( = 19) subjects. We discovered a wide range of binding efficacies to the variant strains, with a mean reduction of 60. Read More

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Comparative genomic analysis of Leptospira spp. isolated from Rattus norvegicus in Indonesia.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 May 23:105306. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Leptospirosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases caused by pathogenic spirochetes of Leptospira spp. The disease has become a public health concern in urban localities in the tropics, where rats serve as significant reservoir animals for leptospirosis transmission. In Indonesia, the occurrence of leptospirosis is underestimated, and information on the causative Leptospira genotypes and serotypes is limited. Read More

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Antiviral activity of brequinar against African swine fever virus infection in vitro.

Virus Res 2022 May 23:198826. Epub 2022 May 23.

Laboratory of Antiviral Drug Discovery, Institute of Molecular Biology of NAS, E. Hasratyan 7, 0014, Yerevan, Armenia; Denovo Sciences CJSC, H. Hakobyan 3, 0033, Yerevan, Armenia. Electronic address:

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes an acute and hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, resulting in significant economic losses to the global porcine industry. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs highlights the urgent need for antiviral studies against ASFV. Here, we report that brequinar (BQR), which is a specific inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, robustly inhibits ASFV replication in Vero cells, as well as in porcine macrophages. Read More

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Current vaccine strategies against SARS-CoV-2 - Promises and Challenges.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, PA-19107, United States; Jefferson Vaccine Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States. Electronic address:

In the years since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic began and spread across the globe, lessons have been learned about the challenges and opportunities a pandemic brings to humankind. Researchers have produced many vaccines at unprecedented speed to protect people but have also been cognizant of the challenges presented by a new and unexpected infectious disease. The scope of this review is to examine the path of vaccine discovery so far and identify potential targets. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in patients with cancer: remaining vulnerabilities and uncertainties.

Lancet Oncol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

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Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 breakthrough infections in patients with cancer (UKCCEP): a population-based test-negative case-control study.

Lancet Oncol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: People with cancer are at increased risk of hospitalisation and death following infection with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we aimed to conduct one of the first evaluations of vaccine effectiveness against breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients with cancer at a population level.

Methods: In this population-based test-negative case-control study of the UK Coronavirus Cancer Evaluation Project (UKCCEP), we extracted data from the UKCCEP registry on all SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results (from the Second Generation Surveillance System), vaccination records (from the National Immunisation Management Service), patient demographics, and cancer records from England, UK, from Dec 8, 2020, to Oct 15, 2021. Read More

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Brain temperature as an indicator of neuroinflammation induced by typhoid vaccine: Assessment using whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a randomised crossover study.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 May 19;35:103053. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand.

Prior studies indicate a pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric disorders; however, there are no accepted methods that can reliably measure low-level neuroinflammation non-invasively in these individuals. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a versatile, non-invasive neuroimaging technique that demonstrates sensitivity to brain inflammation. MRSI in conjunction with echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) measures brain metabolites to derive whole-brain and regional brain temperatures, which may increase in neuroinflammation. Read More

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Multi-target potential of Indian phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2: A docking, molecular dynamics and MM-GBSA approach extended to Omicron B.1.1.529.

J Infect Public Health 2022 May 13;15(6):662-669. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan 45412, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Background: SARS-CoV-2, an emerged strain of corona virus family became almost serious health concern worldwide. Despite vaccines availability, reports suggest the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection even in a vaccinated population. With frequent evolution and expected multiple COVID-19 waves, improved preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures are required. Read More

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Heterologous ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 vaccination induces stronger immune response than homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination: The pragmatic, multi-center, three-arm, partially randomized HEVACC trial.

EBioMedicine 2022 May 23;80:104073. Epub 2022 May 23.

Institute of Virology, Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Public Health, Medical University of Innsbruck, Peter-Mayr-Str. 4b, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved. The mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (Comirnaty, BNT162b2; BNT) and the vector vaccine from AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria, ChAdOx1; AZ) have been widely used. mRNA vaccines induce high antibody and T cell responses, also to SARS-CoV-2 variants, but are costlier and less stable than the slightly less effective vector vaccines. Read More

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The effect of sickle cell genotype on the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether-lumefantrine in Tanzanian children.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2022 May 20;19:31-39. Epub 2022 May 20.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia; Wesfarmers Centre for Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, PathWest, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Since there are inconsistent data relating to the effect of haemoglobinopathies on disposition of artemisinin antimalarial combination therapy, and none in sickle cell trait (SCT) or sickle cell disease (SCD), the aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether-lumefantrine (ARM-LUM) in children with SCD/SCT. Thirty-eight Tanzanian children aged 5-10 years with normal (haemoglobin AA; n = 12), heterozygous (haemoglobin AS; n = 14) or homozygous (haemoglobin SS; n = 12) sickle genotypes received six ARM-LUM doses (1.7 mg/kg plus 10 mg/kg, respectively) over 3 days. Read More

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A multidrug efflux protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tap as a potential drug target for drug repurposing.

Comput Biol Med 2022 May 16;146:105607. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Chemistry, Shiv Nadar University, Greater Noida, 201314, India.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious communicative disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there are vaccines and drugs available to treat the disease, they are not efficient, moreover, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) become a major hurdle in its therapy. These MDR strains utilize the multidrug efflux pump as a decisive weapon to fight against antitubercular drugs. Read More

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Mandatory vaccination against COVID-19: A Twitter poll analysis on public health opinion.

JMIR Form Res 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Section for Outcomes Research, Medical Universtiy of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, Vienna, AT.

Background: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Committee declared the rapid worldwide spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global health emergency. By December 2020, the safety and efficacy of the first COVID-19 vaccines had been demonstrated. However, international vaccination coverage rates have remained below expectations (in Europe, at manuscript submission). Read More

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Robust Hepatitis A Vaccination Response Within the United States Veterans Health Administration in the Wake of State Outbreaks.

Am J Public Health 2022 May 26:e1-e5. Epub 2022 May 26.

Andrew M. Moon is with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill. Joleen A. Borgerding and Elliott Lowy are with Health Services Research & Development, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, WA. Ronald G. Hauser is with the Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Department, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare, New Haven. Maggie Chartier is with the Office of Specialty Care Services, VA HIV, Hepatitis, and Related Conditions Program, Washington, DC. Marissa M. Maier is with the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine at Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland. Timothy Morgan is with the Gastroenterology Section, VA Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA. Adam Ruege is with Community Solutions, New York, NY. Jillian Weber is with the Homeless Program Office, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Washington, DC. Lauren A. Beste is with the Division of General Internal Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System.

We assessed hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine receipt among susceptible individuals in outbreak and matched nonoutbreak states. Difference-in-differences models and multivariable logistic regression were used to compare HepA vaccination rates in these states. In the postoutbreak year, there was a 112% increase in HepA vaccinations in outbreak states versus a 6% decrease in nonoutbreak states. Read More

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Modulation of Colloidal Particle Stiffness for the Exploration of Bio-Nano Interactions.

Langmuir 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.

Tuning the physicochemical parameters (e.g., size, shape, and surface chemistry) of colloidal particles (CPs) for the engineering of drug carriers has proven to be a promising approach to improve drug delivery efficacy. Read More

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Safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boost immunization with an adenovirus type-5-vectored and protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (Convidecia/ZF2001): A randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

PLoS Med 2022 May 26;19(5):e1003953. Epub 2022 May 26.

NHC Key Laboratory of Enteric Pathogenic Microbiology, Jiangsu Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, PR China.

Background: Heterologous boost vaccination has been proposed as an option to elicit stronger and broader, or longer-lasting immunity. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous immunization with a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Convidecia, hereafter referred to as CV) and a protein-subunit-based COVID-19 vaccine (ZF2001, hereafter referred to as ZF).

Methods And Findings: We conducted a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, in which healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who have received 1 dose of Convidecia, with no history of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were recruited in Jiangsu, China. Read More

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A case of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA) developed after first dose of Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Dermatology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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Which hospital workers do (not) want the jab? Behavioral correlates of COVID-19 vaccine willingness among employees of Swiss hospitals.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0268775. Epub 2022 May 26.

University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

In many countries, the current vaccination rates are stagnating, to the extent that vaccine hesitancy-the delay or refusal to take recommended vaccinations-forms a major obstacle to ending the COVID-19 pandemic. This tendency is particularly concerning when observed among healthcare workers who are opinion leaders on medical matters for their patients and peers. Our study surveys 965 employees of two large Swiss hospitals and profiles vaccine-hesitant hospital employees using not only socio-demographic characteristics, but also a comprehensive set of standard behavioral preference measures: (i) Big-5 personality traits, (ii) risk-, time- and social preferences, and (iii) perceived prevailing social norms. Read More

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High prevalence of an alpha variant lineage with a premature stop codon in ORF7a in Iraq, winter 2020-2021.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0267295. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Since the first reported case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide. Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has had a critical role in tracking the emergence, introduction, and spread of new variants, which may affect transmissibility, pathogenicity, and escape from infection or vaccine-induced immunity. As anticipated, the rapid increase in COVID-19 infections in Iraq in February 2021 is due to the introduction of variants of concern during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Cross-reactive antibodies targeting surface-exposed non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus-infected cells recognize epitopes on the spaghetti loop of the β-ladder domain.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0266136. Epub 2022 May 26.

Molecular Biology of Dengue and Flaviviruses Research Team, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a glycoprotein component of dengue virus (DENV) that is essential for viral replication, infection and immune evasion. Immunization with NS1 has been shown to elicit antibody-mediated immune responses which protect mice against DENV infections. Here, we obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human subjects with secondary dengue infections, which were used to construct a dengue immune phage library displaying single-chain variable fragments. Read More

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in an Adolescent Following SARS-CoV-2 Exposure Despite Three Doses of a COVID-19 Vaccine.

R I Med J (2013) 2022 Jun 1;105(5):41-45. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a known complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the pediatric population. Recent studies have demonstrated high efficacy of a two-dose vaccine series in preventing MIS-C among adolescents. To date, such studies have only included children exposed to SARS-CoV-2 prior to the emergence of the Omicron variant (B. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Attack Rate and Population Immunity in Southern New England, March 2020 to May 2021.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2214171. Epub 2022 May 2.

Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Importance: In emergency epidemic and pandemic settings, public health agencies need to be able to measure the population-level attack rate, defined as the total percentage of the population infected thus far. During vaccination campaigns in such settings, public health agencies need to be able to assess how much the vaccination campaign is contributing to population immunity; specifically, the proportion of vaccines being administered to individuals who are already seropositive must be estimated.

Objective: To estimate population-level immunity to SARS-CoV-2 through May 31, 2021, in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Read More

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Factors associated with intention to receive vaccines for bacterial sexually transmitted infections among young HPV-vaccinated Canadian women.

Can J Public Health 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

BC Women's Hospital and Health Service, Women's Health Research Institute, Box 42, Room H203G - 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3N1, Canada.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the acceptability of bacterial STI vaccines among young HPV-vaccinated Canadian women to inform future vaccine program implementation.

Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional questionnaire was administered from June 2019 to June 2020 to HPV-vaccinated participants of the pan-Canadian QUEST cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed interest in chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea vaccines using a priori variables and factors significant in bivariate analysis. Read More

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Shigella-Controlled Human Infection Models: Current and Future Perspectives.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Shigella-controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are an invaluable tool utilized by the vaccine community to combat one of the leading global causes of infectious diarrhea, which affects infants, children and adults regardless of socioeconomic status. The impact of shigellosis disproportionately affects children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) resulting in cognitive and physical stunting, perpetuating a cycle that must be halted. Shigella-CHIMs not only facilitate the early evaluation of enteric countermeasures and up-selection of the most promising products but also provide insight into mechanisms of infection and immunity that are not possible utilizing animal models or in vitro systems. Read More

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Structuring Equity Into Minnesota's COVID-19 Response: Lessons Learned and Future Investments.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2022 Jul-Aug 01;28(4 Suppl 4):S159-S165

Minnesota Department of Health, St Paul, Minnesota.

Background: The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) integrated 3 intentional teams into their novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) response to ensure equity was not lost in the speed of response.

Implementation: These teams-the Cultural, Faith, and Disability Communities Branch, Tribal COVID-19 Healthcare Team, and Vaccine Equity Branch were able to reach communities through trusted partners, elevate the voices of communities most impacted, respect tribal sovereignty, establish equity leadership, and set equity goals and metrics.

Lessons Learned: The top-down nature of incident command, combined with pre-COVID-19 systems and structures that impede equity, led to both barriers and opportunities for centering equity in response efforts. Read More

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How COVID-19 has impacted immunisation service delivery in Australia: a national study.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Victoria.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact the COVID-19 pandemic had on the delivery of adult, maternal and childhood immunisation services in Australia in 2020 prior to the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines, and to understand the adaptations made at a service delivery level that may have contributed to the successful delivery of immunisation services during the first year of the pandemic.

Methods: An electronic survey was sent to immunisation providers and pharmacists in all states and territories in Australia between November 2020 and December 2020. It explored interruption to the delivery of immunisation services, strategies implemented to maintain services, prioritisation of populations, and self-reported challenges and solutions initiated by providers. Read More

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Relative Virulence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Individuals Hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The rapid development of safe and effective vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been a singular scientific achievement. Confounding due to health seeking behaviours, circulating variants, and differential testing by vaccination status may bias analyses towards an apparent increase in infection severity following vaccination.

Methods: We used data from Ontario, Canada's Case and Contact Management database, merged to a provincial vaccination dataset (COVaxON) to create a time-matched cohort of individuals who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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