280 results match your criteria vaccination rainbow


Characterisation and analysis of IFN-gamma producing cells in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. Electronic address:

IFN-γ is one of the key cytokines involved in Th1 immune responses. It is produced mainly by T cells and NK cells, which drive both innate and adaptive responses to promote protection against infections. IFN-γ orthologues have been discovered to be functionally conserved in fish, suggesting that type I immunity is present in early vertebrates. Read More

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Collaborating to offer HPV vaccinations in jails: results from a pre-implementation study in four states.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 7;21(1):309. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Population Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

Background: Correctional facilities are an underutilized venue for reaching young adults who have not vaccinated for human papillomavirus (HPV). The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with jail and local health department (LHD) interest in partnering to offer HPV vaccinations to young adults in jail.

Methods: Consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR)-guided surveys were conducted with jail administrators in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska, September 2017-October 2018. Read More

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Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)-3, but Not PRV-2, Cross-Protects against PRV-1 and Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Fish Health, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), caused by infection with (PRV-1), is a common disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (). Both an inactivated whole virus vaccine and a DNA vaccine have previously been tested experimentally against HSMI and demonstrated to give partial but not full protection. To understand the mechanisms involved in protection against HSMI and evaluate the potential of live attenuated vaccine strategies, we set up a cross-protection experiment using PRV genotypes not associated with disease development in Atlantic salmon. Read More

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In vitro evaluation of novel (nanoparticle) oral delivery systems allow selection of gut immunomodulatory formulations.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 18;113:125-138. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:

Oral delivery is the most convenient way to vaccinate cultured fish, however it is still problematic, primarily due to a lack of a commercially valid vaccine vehicle to protect the antigen against gastric degradation and ensure its uptake from the intestine. With the goal of advancing the potential to vaccinate orally, this study evaluates a novel silicon nanoparticle-based vehicle (VacSaf carrier). Aeromonas salmonicida antigens were formulated with the VacSaf carrier using different preparation methods to generate dry powder and liquid formulations. Read More

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Clinical and Molecular Findings in Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases: Experience From India.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:631298. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Superspeciality Hospital, Noida, India.

Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a group of innate immune defects with more than 17 genes and 32 clinical phenotypes identified. Defects in the IFN-γ mediated immunity lead to an increased susceptibility to intracellular pathogens like mycobacteria including attenuated -Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains and non-tuberculous environmental mycobacteria (NTM), , fungi, parasites like and some viruses, in otherwise healthy individuals. Mutations in the gene are the commonest genetic defects identified. Read More

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February 2021

Clinical Profile, Yield of Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (GeneXpert), and Outcome in Children with Tubercular Meningitis.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):224-230. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of pediatric Neurology and Neuro-rehabilitation, Rainbow Children's Hospital and Perinatal Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a test for early, rapid diagnosis of tubercular meningitis (TBM).

Aim: The aim of this article was to study the clinical profile, radiological features, yield of GeneXpert, neurosurgical interventions, and outcome of TBM in children.

Settings And Design: This was a retrospective and prospective observational study. Read More

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November 2020

50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Combating Varicella Through Drugs and Vaccination.

J Pediatr 2021 02;229:190

Department of Pediatrics Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.

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February 2021

Genomic analysis of a second rainbow trout line (Arlee) leads to an extended description of the IGH VDJ gene repertoire.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 12;118:103998. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, UVSQ, VIM, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:

High-throughput sequencing technologies brought a renewed interest for immune repertoires. Fish Ab and B cell repertoires are no exception, and their comprehensive analysis can both provide new insights into poorly understood immune mechanisms, and identify markers of protection after vaccination. However, the lack of genomic description and standardized nomenclature of IG genes hampers accurate annotation of Ig mRNA deep sequencing data. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised patients.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 02 11;40(2):797-798. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic Health System, 1400 Bellinger Street, Eau Claire, WI, 54701, USA.

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February 2021

Full recombinant flagellin B from Vibrio anguillarum (rFLA) and its recombinant D1 domain (rND1) promote a pro-inflammatory state and improve vaccination against P. salmonis in Atlantic salmon (S. salar).

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 23;117:103988. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Peces, Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Flagellin is the major component of the flagellum, and a ligand for Toll-like receptor 5. As reported, recombinant flagellin (rFLA) from Vibrio anguillarum and its D1 domain (rND1) are able to promote in vitro an upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) macrophages. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo stimulatory/adjuvant effect for rFLA and rND1 during P. Read More

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Analysis of 44 Vibrio anguillarum genomes reveals high genetic diversity.

PeerJ 2020 3;8:e10451. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

National Institute of Aquatic Resources Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Vibriosis, a hemorrhagic septicemic disease caused by the bacterium , is an important bacterial infection in Danish sea-reared rainbow trout. Despite of vaccination, outbreaks still occur, likely because the vaccine is based on strains from abroad/other hosts than rainbow trout. Information about the genetic diversity of specifically in Danish rainbow trout, is required to investigate this claim. Read More

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December 2020

Cellular Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout () Following Vaccination and Challenge Against Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV).

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Dec 2;8(4). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Infectology, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Viral disease outbreaks remain a significant limiting factor for aquaculture. The majority of licensed vaccines used in the industry are administered as oil-adjuvanted formulations carrying inactivated whole pathogens. Cell-mediated immune responses, in particular those based on virus-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) to conventional inactivated oil-based vaccines, are largely unexplored. Read More

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December 2020

Plasma Proteome Responses in Salmonid Fish Following Immunization.

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:581070. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Vaccination plays a critical role in the protection of humans and other animals from infectious diseases. However, the same vaccine often confers different protection levels among individuals due to variation in genetics and/or immunological histories. While this represents a well-recognized issue in humans, it has received little attention in fish. Read More

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Vaccination Route Determines the Kinetics and Magnitude of Nasal Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout ().

Biology (Basel) 2020 Oct 1;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Many pathogens infect animal hosts via the nasal route. Thus, understanding how vaccination stimulates early nasal immune responses is critical for animal and human health. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent disease outbreaks in farmed fish. Read More

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October 2020

Genomic architecture and repertoire of the rainbow trout immunoglobulin light chain genes.

Dev Comp Immunol 2020 12 20;113:103776. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Biology University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA. Electronic address:

The genomic loci encoding the four immunoglobulin light chains (IgL1, IgL2, IgL3, and IgL4) in the Swanson trout genome assembly were annotated in order to provide a measurement of the potential IgL repertoire. IgL1 and IgL3 gene segments are co-localized on chromosomes 21, 18, 15, and 7 while IgL2 and IgL4 were found on chromosomes 13 and 17, respectively. In total, 48 constant (C), 87 variable (V), and 59 joining (J) productive genes are described. Read More

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December 2020

Comparative effects of Novirhabdovirus genes on modulating constitutive transcription and innate antiviral responses, in different teleost host cell types.

Virol J 2020 07 20;17(1):110. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 235 Diggs Laboratory / 134 Oelman Hall, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH, 45435, USA.

Background: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are highly contagious, pathogenic Novirhabdoviruses affecting fish and are thusly notifiable diseases with the World Organization for Animal Health. This study assessed the relative capacities of IHNV and VHSV genes to modulate host general transcription and explores the abilities of specific IHNV genes to interfere with the interferon pathway in heterogenous teleost cell-lines.

Methods: Optimized protocols allowed for efficient transient transfections in EPC, BF-2, RTG-2 and RTgill-W1 cell lines of plasmids encoding IHNV (M genogroup) and VHSV (-IVb genotype) genes, including N, P, M, G and NV. Read More

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Resistant and susceptible rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) lines show distinctive immune response to Lactococcus garvieae.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Oct 13;105:457-468. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta (IZSPLV), via Bologna 148, 10154, Torino, TO, Italy.

Lactococcosis is one of the main bacterial diseases affecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with significant economic and sanitary repercussion. Vaccination and antibiotic treatments are commonly used to prevent and control the infection outbreaks; however, these strategies have some drawbacks including limited coverage, handling costs, induction of antibiotic resistance and chemical residues in the environment. Selective breeding programs represent a promising complementary approach for increasing fish disease resistance in commercial farms and some immunological parameters may be tentatively used as indirect indicators for this purpose. Read More

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October 2020

Oral immunization of trout fry with recombinant Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 expressing G gene of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Oct 6;105:62-70. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Iranian Veterinary Organization, Central Veterinary Laboratory, Tehran, Iran.

This study has investigated the ability of Lactococcus lactic (NZ3900) carried G gene of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) under nisin-controlled gene expression (NICE) system in rainbow trout (O.Mykiss). Two groups of trout fry (7 ± 0. Read More

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October 2020

Duration of Cellular and Humoral Responses after Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Healthy Female Adults with or without Prior Type 16 and/or 18 Exposure.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;8(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 500 Irvin Court Suite 200, Decatur, GA 30030, USA.

Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines aim to provide durable protection and are ideal to study the association of cellular with humoral responses. We assessed the duration and characteristics of immune responses provided by the quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine in healthy female adults with or without prior exposure with type 16 and 18 HPV. In a prospective cohort, vaccine naïve females received three doses of 4vHPV vaccine and were followed for two years to assess cellular (intracellular cytokine staining, proliferation and B cell ELISpot assays) and humoral (multiplex L1/L2 viral-like particles (VLP) and M4 ELISAs) responses. Read More

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Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Oct 30;105:16-23. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by the Gram negative enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri, affects farming of salmonids, but vaccination against ERM confers a certain degree of protection dependent on the administration route. Recent studies on oral vaccination of rainbow trout suggest that immunological tolerance may be induced by primary immunization using a low antigen dosage. We have examined if low dosages of Y. Read More

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October 2020

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide (LPS), encapsulated by alginate-chitosan micro/nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Sep 27;104:25-35. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Considering the many advantages of oral vaccines in aquaculture, several studies have been conducted in this area recently. In this study, immunization and protective power of the oral vaccine of Yersinia ruckeri encapsulated with Alginate-Chitosan micro/nanoparticles were evaluated in rainbow trout. For this purpose, 720 juvenile rainbow trout (9 ± 1. Read More

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September 2020

Impact of Vaccination and Pathogen Exposure Dosage on Shedding Kinetics of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) in Rainbow Trout.

J Aquat Anim Health 2020 09 29;32(3):95-108. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William & Mary, Post Office Box 1346, 1370 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062, USA.

Vaccine efficacy in preventing clinical disease has been well characterized. However, vaccine impacts on transmission under diverse field conditions, such as variable pathogen exposure dosages, are not fully understood. We evaluated the impacts of vaccination on disease-induced host mortality and shedding of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Read More

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September 2020

Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida, a potential vaccine candidate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Microb Pathog 2020 Aug 22;145:104211. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province, Qingdao, 266104, China; Shandong Key Laboratory of Disease Control in Mariculture, Qingdao, 266104, China. Electronic address:

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. masoucida (ASM) is an important bacterial pathogen of salmonid fish, which can cause huge economic losses to the fish farming industry. In order to screen effective vaccine candidate proteins, four outer membrane proteins of ASM, including OmpA, OmpC, OmpK and OmpW, were selected and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Read More

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Pre-conception management.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Apr;70(4):762-763

Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India.

This communication shares two frameworks which help conceptualize the vast spectrum of pre-conception care. A 3x3 rubric classifies pre-conception assessment and interventions into gynaeco-obstetric, biomedical and psychosocial. Yet another creative checklist uses the letters A through I to present 9 aspects of pre-conception management. Read More

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Characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida and A. sobria isolated from cultured salmonid fish in Korea and development of a vaccine against furunculosis.

J Fish Dis 2020 May 20;43(5):609-620. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Marine Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

Previously, Aeromonas sobria and A. salmonicida were identified to be the most prevalent species in salmonid farms in Korea. In this study, we evaluated the biochemical characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of A. Read More

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Effects of multicomponent primary care-based intervention on immunization rates and missed opportunities to vaccinate adults.

BMC Fam Pract 2020 02 29;21(1):46. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

DARTNet Institute, 12635 East Montview Blvd, Suite 127, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Background: Adult immunization rates are below Healthy People 2020 targets. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve adult immunization rates.

Methods: This prospective interventional before-and-after non-randomized study was conducted through the American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network with 43 primary care physicians from a large multi-specialty healthcare organization (multicomponent intervention group n = 23; comparator group n = 20) in the United States. Read More

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February 2020

High efficacy and economical procedure of oral vaccination against Lactococcus garvieae/Streptococcus iniae in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 22;99:505-513. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of chitosan-alginate coated vaccines against pathogenicity of Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae in rainbow trout. Fish were divided into four groups including: Group A: fish immunized by chitosan-alginate coated vaccine, Group B: fish immunized by non-coated vaccine, Group C: fish feed by chitosan-alginate coated pellets without vaccine and Group D: fish feed by basic diet (non-coated and without vaccine). In groups A and B, the vaccination was carried out for 14 days and after that supplemented with fundamental diet (control diet). Read More

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Barriers and facilitators of implementing a collaborative HPV vaccine program in an incarcerated population: A case study.

Vaccine 2020 03 8;38(11):2566-2571. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

University of Kansas School of Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Men and women in county jails make up a population that is difficult to reach with traditional preventive health interventions. Collaborations between local health departments and county jails represent an opportunity to enhance public health by reaching a vulnerable population with services like vaccinations. The objective of this study was to coordinate planning and implementation of a collaborative program between a local health department (HD) and a county jail to offer human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations to adolescents (ages 10-17) and young adults (ages 18-26) in the jail and to identify facilitators and barriers to inform future program development. Read More

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Chromatin extracellular trap release in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 25;99:227-238. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Institute of Aquaculture, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Neutrophils release nuclear chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins into the extracellular milieu as an innate immune defence mechanism to counter invading microbes. These chromatin structures, called extracellular traps (ETs) and released by a process called NETosis, have been detected in mammals, certain invertebrates and some fish species, including fathead minnow, zebrafish, common carp, turbot, sole and barramundi. However, there have been no previous studies of ETs in the Salmonidae. Read More

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