456 results match your criteria vaccination latency

Induction of Immune Responses and Immune Evasion by Human Bocavirus.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Virology Research Group, Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Respiratory tract infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), a member of the Parvoviridae family causes a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases in children, and gastroenteritis in adults. The mechanisms of latency, persistence, and reinfection of Bocavirus are poorly understood at present due to the lack of permissive cell lines and efficient animal models. Read More

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Adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

Pract Neurol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, India

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a lethal slow viral disease of the central nervous system caused by a defective measles virus. The onset is mostly in childhood, manifesting clinically as decline in academic performance, behavioural changes, motor dysfunction and myoclonus. Adult-onset SSPE is rare and can present as rapidly progressive dementia. Read More

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Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on cervical disease: Status and future directions for the era of cervical cancer elimination.

Prev Med 2021 Mar 4;144:106363. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Yale School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, USA. Electronic address:

Post-licensure monitoring of the impact of HPV vaccines is critical to track the progress being made toward cervical cancer elimination and to identify areas where further progress can accelerate the achievement of this important public health goal. Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has revealed convincing benefits of HPV vaccination in preventing cervical infections and precancers at the individual-level (i.e. Read More

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Recent Approaches and Strategies in the Generation of Anti-human Cytomegalovirus Vaccines.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2244:403-463

Departments of Pediatrics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus is the largest human herpesvirus and shares many core features of other herpesviruses such as tightly regulated gene expression during genome replication and latency as well as the establishment of lifelong persistence following infection. In contrast to stereotypic clinical syndromes associated with alpha-herpesvirus infections, almost all primary HCMV infections are asymptomatic and acquired early in life in most populations in the world. Although asymptomatic in most individuals, HCMV is a major cause of disease in hosts with deficits in adaptive and innate immunity such as infants who are infected in utero and allograft recipients following transplantation. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Felid Herpesvirus-1 Deletion Mutants in Cats.

Viruses 2021 01 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, 784 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Felid herpesvirus-1 (FeHV-1) is an important respiratory and ocular pathogen of cats and current vaccines are limited in duration and efficacy because they do not prevent infection, viral nasal shedding and latency. To address these shortcomings, we have constructed FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- deletion mutants (gE-TK- and PK-) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mutagenesis and shown safety and immunogenicity in vitro. Here, we compare the safety and efficacy of a prime boost FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- vaccination regimen with commercial vaccination in cats. Read More

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January 2021

Influenza Vaccination and Myo-Pericarditis in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Investigating the Likelihood of Interaction through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and VigiBase.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jan 4;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Background: Evidence on whether the influenza vaccine could exacerbate immune-related adverse events, including myopericarditis (MP), in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), is still conflicting. We explored this issue through a global real-world approach.

Methods: We queried the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and VigiBase to retrieve cases of MP in which the influenza vaccine and ICIs were recorded as suspect and were concomitantly reported. Read More

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January 2021

Modeling the immune response to Salmonella during typhoid.

Int Immunol 2021 Apr;33(5):281-298

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Several facets of the host immune response to Salmonella infection have been studied independently at great depths to understand the progress and pathogenesis of Salmonella infection. The circumstances under which a Salmonella-infected individual succumbs to an active disease, evolves as a persister or clears the infection are not understood in detail. We have adopted a system-level approach to develop a continuous-time mechanistic model. Read More

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Potential Effects of Human Papillomavirus Type Substitution, Superinfection Exclusion and Latency on the Efficacy of the Current L1 Prophylactic Vaccines.

Viruses 2020 12 24;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester Viral Oncology Labs, Research Floor, St Marys Hospital, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

There are >200 different types of human papilloma virus (HPV) of which >51 infect genital epithelium, with the ~14 of these classed as high-risk being more commonly associated with cervical cancer. During development of the disease, high-risk types have an increased tendency to develop a truncated non-replicative life cycle, whereas low-risk, non-cancer-associated HPV types are either asymptomatic or cause benign lesions completing their full replicative life cycle. HPVs can also be present as non-replicative so-called "latent" infections and they can also show superinfection exclusion, where cells with pre-existing infections with one type cannot be infected with a different HPV type. Read More

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December 2020

Deletion of immune evasion genes provides an effective vaccine design for tumor-associated herpesviruses.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 Nov 5;5(1):102. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Vaccines based on live attenuated viruses often induce broad, multifaceted immune responses. However, they also usually sacrifice immunogenicity for attenuation. It is particularly difficult to elicit an effective vaccine for herpesviruses due to an armament of immune evasion genes and a latent phase. Read More

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November 2020

Single center analysis of patients with H1N1 vaccine-related narcolepsy and sporadic narcolepsy presenting over the same time period.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May;17(5):885-895

Sleep Clinic, Mater Private Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Study Objectives: We aimed to describe the clinical features of narcolepsy in patients referred to our sleep center between 2009 and 2016, and to compare these features across age groups and between sporadic vs AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccine-related patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective, consecutive study of adult and pediatric narcolepsy patients in the Republic of Ireland. All participants underwent structured assessments, including polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Read More

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Outbreak of equid herpesvirus 1 abortions at the Arabian stud in Poland.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Oct 6;16(1):374. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Virology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.

Background: Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infections are endemic worldwide, including Poland. Many are subclinical, but some are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal foal death, or neurological disease. We describe an outbreak of abortions in Arabian mares at a well-managed State stud farm in Poland. Read More

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October 2020

Twelve Children with Varicella Vaccine Meningitis: Neuropathogenesis of Reactivated Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Virus.

Viruses 2020 09 25;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Virology Laboratory, Children's Hospital, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Varicella vaccine is a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Like its parental strain called VZV pOka, the vaccine virus vOka retains some neurotropic properties. To better understand vOka neuropathogenesis, we reassessed 12 published cases of vOka meningitis that occurred in once-immunized and twice-immunized children, all of whom had bouts of herpes zoster preceding the central nervous system infection. Read More

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September 2020

Treatment and Prevention of Lung Cancer Using a Virus-Infected Reprogrammed Somatic Cell-Derived Tumor Cell Vaccination (VIReST) Regime.

Front Immunol 2020 13;11:1996. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

National Center for International Research in Cell and Gene Therapy, Sino-British Research Centre for Molecular Oncology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer and despite therapeutic advances, mortality remains high. The long period of clinical latency associated with lung cancer provides an ideal window of opportunity to administer vaccines to at-risk individuals that can prevent tumor progression and initiate long-term anti-tumor immune surveillance. Here we describe a personalized vaccination regime that could be applied for both therapeutic and prophylactic prevention of lung cancer, based on the derivation of lung cancer cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Read More

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Marek's disease virus oncogene Meq expression in infected cells in vaccinated and unvaccinated hosts.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Sep 14;248:108821. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Canada. Electronic address:

Marek's disease (MD) vaccines are unique in their capability to prevent MD lymphomas as early as a few days after vaccination, despite the fact that they do not eliminate virulent viruses from the host. To help understand the mechanism behind this unique MD vaccine effect, we compared the expression of MDV oncoprotein Meq among CD4+ T cells between vaccinated and unvaccinated birds. Chickens were vaccinated by an MD vaccine, herpesvirus of turkeys, and then challenged by a recombinant virulent MDV that expresses green fluorescent protein simultaneously with Meq. Read More

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September 2020

Development of vaccines against the sexually transmitted infections gonorrhoea, syphilis, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Zika virus.

Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother 2020 27;8:2515135520923887. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

FEO - Faculty Education Office (Medicine), Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

The success in preventing hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus infections by means of vaccination paves the way for the development of other vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Zika virus. The current status of vaccine development for these infections will be explored in this review. The general principles for success include the need for prevention of latency, persistence and repeat infections. Read More

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Vaccination Route as a Determinant of Protective Antibody Responses against Herpes Simplex Virus.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 5;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are significant global health problems associated with mucosal and neurologic disease. Prior experimental vaccines primarily elicited neutralizing antibodies targeting glycoprotein D (gD), but those that advanced to clinical efficacy trials have failed. Preclinical studies with an HSV-2 strain deleted in gD (ΔgD-2) administered subcutaneously demonstrated that it elicited a high titer, weakly neutralizing antibodies that activated Fcg receptors to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and completely protected mice against lethal disease and latency following vaginal or skin challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Read More

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Natural and trained innate immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Immunobiology 2020 05 27;225(3):151951. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Biosciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, remains a major global health emergency. It is estimated that one third of global population are affected, predominantly with latent granuloma form of the disease. Mtb co-evolved with humans, for its obligatory intra-macrophage phagosome habitat and slow replication, balanced against unique mycobacterial innate immunity, which appears to be highly complex. Read More

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Analgesic effects of breast- and formula feeding during routine childhood immunizations up to 1 year of age.

Pediatr Res 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Pediatrics Section, Medical School, University of Salerno "Scuola Medica Salernitana", 84081, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy.

Background: Data on analgesic effects of breast/formula milk sucking while receiving routine childhood immunizations are available only in early infancy, have rarely been compared in the same study, and are not accompanied by information on mothers' satisfaction/acceptance. Here we aimed to compare the analgesic effect of both methods vs. held-only controls up to 1 year of age, and verify mothers' satisfaction. Read More

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A therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine reduces markers of systemic immune activation and latent infection in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Vaccine 2020 06 6;38(27):4336-4345. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Miami Center for AIDS Research, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

HIV infection is characterized by chronic immune activation and the establishment of a pool of latently infected cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can suppress viral load to undetectable levels in peripheral blood by standard measure, however immune activation/chronic inflammation and latent infection persist and affect quality of life. We have now shown that a novel therapeutic HIV vaccine consisting of replication-defective HIV (HIVAX), given in the context of viral suppression under ART, can reduce both immune activation/chronic inflammation and latent infection. Read More

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Measuring the Success of HIV-1 Cure Strategies.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 7;10:134. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

HIV-1 eradication strategies aim to achieve viral remission in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of an HIV-1 cure remains challenging due to the latent reservoir (LR): long-lived CD4 T cells that harbor transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus. The LR is stable despite years of suppressive ART and is the source of rebound viremia following therapy interruption. Read More

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Infectious laryngotracheitis: Etiology, epidemiology, pathobiology, and advances in diagnosis and control - a comprehensive review.

Vet Q 2020 Dec;40(1):140-161

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious upper respiratory tract disease of chicken caused by a Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) belonging to the genus and subfamily within family. The disease is characterized by conjunctivitis, sinusitis, oculo-nasal discharge, respiratory distress, bloody mucus, swollen orbital sinuses, high morbidity, considerable mortality and decreased egg production. It is well established in highly dense poultry producing areas of the world due to characteristic latency and carrier status of the virus. Read More

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December 2020

Effects of Romidepsin on T-Cell Activation, Apoptosis and Function in the BCN02 HIV-1 Kick&Kill Clinical Trial.

Front Immunol 2020 20;11:418. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute-HIVACAT, Badalona, Spain.

Romidepsin (RMD) is a well-characterized histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. and studies have demonstrated that it is able to induce HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected CD4 T cells from HIV-1 individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. However, experiments suggested that RMD could also impair T-cell functionality, particularly of activated T cells. Read More

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Assessing the impact of AGS-004, a dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, and vorinostat on persistent HIV-1 Infection.

Sci Rep 2020 03 20;10(1):5134. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

University of North Carolina HIV Cure Center, UNC Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Approaches to deplete persistent HIV infection are needed. We investigated the combined impact of the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) and AGS-004, an autologous dendritic cell immunotherapeutic, on the HIV reservoir. HIV+, stably treated participants in whom resting CD4 T cell-associated HIV RNA (rca-RNA) increased after VOR exposure ex vivo and in vivo received 4 doses of AGS-004 every 3 weeks, followed by VOR every 72 hours for 30 days, and then the cycle repeated. Read More

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Toll-like receptor 7/8-matured RNA-transduced dendritic cells as post-remission therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia: results of a phase I trial.

Clin Transl Immunology 2020 3;9(3):e1117. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine III University Hospital, LMU Munich Munich Germany.

Objectives: Innovative post-remission therapies are needed to eliminate residual AML cells. DC vaccination is a promising strategy to induce anti-leukaemic immune responses.

Methods: We conducted a first-in-human phase I study using TLR7/8-matured DCs transfected with RNA encoding the two AML-associated antigens WT1 and PRAME as well as CMVpp65. Read More

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Prevention and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: lessons from hepatitis B story!

Int J Neurosci 2020 Nov 27;130(11):1151-1155. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Hasbro Children's Hospital/Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common pathological substrate of TLE. Considering the significant consequences of uncontrolled seizures (e.g. Read More

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November 2020

Immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane-associated antigens including alpha crystallin can potentially discriminate between latent infection and active tuberculosis disease.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(1):e0228359. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Changes in expression of membrane antigens may accompany the transition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) from 'dormant' to 'active' states. We have determined whether antibody and T cell responses to Mtb membrane (MtM)-associated antigens, especially the latency-induced protein alpha crystallin (Acr), can discriminate between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active TB (ATB) disease. Study subjects comprised a previously described cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs, n = 43) and smear-positive ATB patients (n = 10). Read More

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Limited protection against γ-herpesvirus infection by replication-deficient virus particles.

J Gen Virol 2020 04 27;101(4):420-425. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The γ-herpesviruses have proved hard to vaccination against, with no convincing protection against long-term latent infection by recombinant viral subunits. In experimental settings, whole-virus vaccines have proved more effective, even when the vaccine virus itself establishes latent infection poorly. The main alternative is replication-deficient virus particles. Read More

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Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Associations with Neurological Diseases and the Need for Vaccine Development.

Peter A C Maple

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jan 20;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Clinical Neurology Research Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.

Herpesviruses have been isolated from a wide range of hosts including humans-for which, nine species have been designated. The human herpesviruses are highly host adapted and possess the capacity for latency, allowing them to survive in the host for life, effectively hidden from the immune system. This ability of human herpesviruses to modulate the host immune response poses particular challenges for vaccine development but at the same time proves attractive for the application of human herpesvirus vaccines to certain spheres of medicine. Read More

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January 2020

ORF6 and ORF61 Expressing MVA Vaccines Impair Early but Not Late Latency in Murine Gammaherpesvirus MHV-68 Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 18;10:2984. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Institute for Virology, Düsseldorf University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are important pathogens causing persistent infections which lead to several malignancies in immunocompromised patients. Murine γHV 68 (MHV-68), a homolog to human EBV and KSHV, has been employed as a classical pathogen to investigate the molecular pathogenicity of γHV infections. γHV express distinct antigens during lytic or latent infection and antigen-specific T cells have a significant role in controlling the acute and latent viral infection, although the quality of anti-viral T cell responses required for protective immunity is not well-understood. Read More

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November 2020