177,327 results match your criteria vaccination


[Preventive Check-ups and Routine Vaccinations in Pre-school Children - An Analysis of Mutual Participation Behaviour, Taking into Account Living Conditions].

Authors:
Heribert Stich

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Landratsamt Landshut, Abteilung 7 Gesundheitsamt.

Aim Of The Study: Preventive screenings and vaccinations are essential health protecting measures in childhood, but no quantitative data on mutual distribution patterns of acceptance are available. The aim of the study was the quantification of distribution patterns and the identification of associations between preventive check-ups and defined routine vaccinations for children starting school, taking into account the social environment.

Methods: The 2015 school entrance health checks included documented preventive screenings and routine vaccinations on a city-wide basis. Read More

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Influence of the COVID-19 epidemic on prevention and vaccination behaviors among Chinese children and adolescents: results from an online survey.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Mailbox 250, 138# Yixueyuan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, CN.

Background: The COVID-19 epidemic and the related containment strategies may affect parental and pediatric health behaviors.

Objective: To assess the change in children and adolescents' prevention and vaccination behaviors amid China's COVID-19 epidemic.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in mid-March 2020 using proportional quota sampling in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Shanghai (a non-epicenter). Read More

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Study of the SARS-CoV-2-specific immune T-cell responses in COVID-19-positive cancer patients.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Mar 26;150:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

INSERM, EFS BFC, UMR1098 RIGHT, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Biotechnology and Immune-oncology Platforme, University Hospital of Besançon, France; Department of Pharmacy, University Hospital of Besançon, France.

Background: Cancer patients are considered highly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, delaying cancer-specific therapies could have a deleterious effect on survival. The potential suppressive effects of chemotherapies or cancer-related microenvironment raised the question on how cancer patients' immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 virus. Read More

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BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21;384(20). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clalit Research Institute, Tel Aviv, Israel

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BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21;384(20). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Erasmus MC Transplant Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

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Vaccine Breakthrough Infections with SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-oncology (E.H., C.H., Y.S., N.E.B., M.B., E.G.C., R.B.D.), the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology (D.J.S.-B., C.G., M.C.N.), the Laboratory of Human Genetics and Genomics (R.L.), the Laboratory of Retrovirology (J.D., F.M., T.H., P.D.B.), and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (M.C.N., P.D.B., R.B.D.), Rockefeller University, New York.

Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of clinical concern. In a cohort of 417 persons who had received the second dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine at least 2 weeks previously, we identified 2 women with vaccine breakthrough infection. Despite evidence of vaccine efficacy in both women, symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 developed, and they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase-chain-reaction testing. Read More

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Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons.

N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) - all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).

Background: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

Methods: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

Results: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Read More

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Safe and effective two-in-one replicon-and-VLP minispike vaccine for COVID-19: Protection of mice after a single immunization.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 21;17(4):e1009064. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Max von Pettenkofer Institute Virology, and Gene Center, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Vaccines of outstanding efficiency, safety, and public acceptance are needed to halt the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Concerns include potential side effects caused by the antigen itself and safety of viral DNA and RNA delivery vectors. The large SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is the main target of current COVID-19 vaccine candidates but can induce non-neutralizing antibodies, which might cause vaccination-induced complications or enhancement of COVID-19 disease. Read More

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Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccination strategies with a delayed second dose.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 21;19(4):e3001211. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Infectious Disease Modeling and Analysis, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Two of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines currently approved in the United States require 2 doses, administered 3 to 4 weeks apart. Constraints in vaccine supply and distribution capacity, together with a deadly wave of COVID-19 from November 2020 to January 2021 and the emergence of highly contagious Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, sparked a policy debate on whether to vaccinate more individuals with the first dose of available vaccines and delay the second dose or to continue with the recommended 2-dose series as tested in clinical trials. We developed an agent-based model of COVID-19 transmission to compare the impact of these 2 vaccination strategies, while varying the temporal waning of vaccine efficacy following the first dose and the level of preexisting immunity in the population. Read More

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Bordetella pertussis in School-Age Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiology, Burden, and Mortality in Africa.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

inScience Communications, Chowley Oak Business Park, Chowley Oak Lane, Tattenhall, Cheshire, UK.

The Global Pertussis Initiative recommends diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccination of infants aged < 1 year for all African countries, and recommends the vaccination of pregnant women as a primary prevention strategy. However, the role of older children and adults in the transmission of pertussis in Africa is not clear. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and BIOSIS was undertaken to identify studies published between 1 January 1990 and 17 June 2019, with information on pertussis epidemiology, burden of illness, and mortality in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults in Africa. Read More

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Estimating population-level effects of the acellular pertussis vaccine using routinely collected immunization data.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle USA.

Background: Measuring and reporting the different population-level effects of the acellular pertussis vaccine on pertussis disease in addition to direct effects can increase the cost-effectiveness of a vaccine.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children born between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017, in King County, Washington, who were enrolled in the Washington State Immunization Information System. Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccination data from WA-IIS was linked with pertussis case data from Public Health Seattle and King County. Read More

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A prime/boost vaccine platform efficiently identifies CD27 agonism and depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells as therapies that rationally combine with checkpoint blockade in ovarian cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Immunotherapy, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Sts, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA.

Cancer immunotherapies have generated remarkable clinical responses for some patients with advanced/metastatic disease, prompting exploration of rational combination therapies to bolster anti-tumor immunity in patients with limited response or those who experience tumor progression following an initial response to immunotherapy. In contrast to other tumor indications, objective response rates to single-agent PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in ovarian cancer are limited, suggesting a need to identify combinatorial approaches that lead to tumor regression in a setting where checkpoint blockade alone is ineffective. Using a pre-clinical model of aggressive intraperitoneal ovarian cancer, we have previously reported on a heterologous prime/boost cancer vaccine that elicits robust anti-tumor immunity, prolongs survival of tumor-bearing mice, and which is further improved when combined with checkpoint blockade. Read More

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Vaccination boosts protective responses and counters SARS-CoV-2-induced pathogenic memory B cells.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Given the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the recent implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, we have much to learn about the duration of immune protection and the interface between the immune responses to infection and to vaccination. To address these questions, we monitored immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in convalescent individuals over seven months and following mRNA vaccination. Spike Receptor-Binding-Domain (RBD)-specific circulating antibodies and plasma neutralizing activity generally decreased over time, whereas RBD-specific memory B cells persisted. Read More

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Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Dialysis.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Background: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis represent a high risk, immune-compromised population with 15-25% COVID mortality rate who were unrepresented in clinical trials evaluated for mRNA vaccines' emergency use authorization.

Method: All patients receiving maintenance dialysis that received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines with antibody test results drawn ≥14 days after the second dose, as documented in the electronic health record through March 18, 2021 were included. We report seroresponse based on levels of immunoglobulin-G against the receptor binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen (seropositive ≥2) using FDA-approved semi-quantitative chemiluminescent assay (ADVIA Centaur® XP/XPT COV2G). Read More

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High coverage COVID-19 mRNA vaccination rapidly controls SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Long-Term Care Facilities.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCFs) represent a major share of COVID-19 deaths worldwide. Information on vaccine effectiveness in these settings is essential to improve mitigation strategies, but evidence remains limited. To evaluate the early effect of the administration of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines in LTCFs, we monitored subsequent SARS-CoV-2 documented infections and deaths in Catalonia, a region of Spain, and compared them to counterfactual model predictions from February 6th to March 28th, 2021, the subsequent time period after which 70% of residents were fully vaccinated. Read More

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Structural basis for enhanced infectivity and immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Several fast-spreading variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have become the dominant circulating strains that continue to fuel the COVID-19 pandemic despite intensive vaccination efforts throughout the world. We report here cryo-EM structures of the full-length spike (S) trimers of the B.1. Read More

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An mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine employing a novel delivery vehicle with a TLR-9 agonist induces neutralizing antibodies and T cell memory.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has necessitated the rapid development of prophylactic vaccines. Two mRNA vaccines have been approved for emergency use by the FDA and have demonstrated extraordinary effectiveness. The success of these mRNA vaccines establishes the speed of development and therapeutic potential of mRNA. Read More

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Revealing the threat of emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations to antibody therapies.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The ongoing massive vaccination and the development of effective intervention offer the long-awaited hope to end the global rage of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the rapidly growing SARS-CoV-2 variants might compromise existing vaccines and monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies. Although there are valuable experimental studies about the potential threats from emerging variants, the results are limited to a handful of mutations and Eli Lilly and Regeneron mAbs. Read More

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Variant SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines confer broad neutralization as primary or booster series in mice.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of a global pandemic that has led to more than 2.8 million deaths worldwide. Safe and effective vaccines are now available, including Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine (mRNA-1273) that showed 94% efficacy in prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 disease in a phase 3 clinical study. Read More

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High coverage COVID-19 mRNA vaccination rapidly controls SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Long-Term Care Facilities.

Res Sq 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCFs) represent a major share of COVID-19 deaths worldwide. Information on vaccine effectiveness in these settings is essential to improve mitigation strategies, but evidence remains limited. To evaluate the early effect of the administration of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines in LTCFs, we monitored subsequent SARS-CoV-2 documented infections and deaths in Catalonia, a region of Spain, and compared them to counterfactual model predictions from February 6th to March 28th, 2021, the subsequent time period after which 70% of residents were fully vaccinated. Read More

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Stability analysis of SEIR model related to efficiency of vaccines for COVID-19 situation.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 15;7(4):e06812. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Science, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

This work is aimed to formulate and analyze a mathematical modeling, model, for COVID-19 with the main parameters of vaccination rate, effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Global and local stability of the model are investigated and also numerical simulation. Local stability of equilibrium points are classified. Read More

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Behaviours and attitudes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from a cross-national Facebook survey.

EPJ Data Sci 2021 14;10(1):17. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 1, Rostock, Germany.

Background: In the absence of medical treatment and vaccination, individual behaviours are key to curbing the spread of COVID-19. Here we describe efforts to collect attitudinal and behavioural data and disseminate insights to increase situational awareness and inform interventions.

Methods: We developed a rapid data collection and monitoring system based on a cross-national online survey, the "COVID-19 Health Behavior Survey". Read More

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Inflammatory Arthritis following Hepatitis B Vaccination in an Infant.

Case Rep Rheumatol 2021 7;2021:5598217. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Bernard and Millie Duker Children's Hospital at Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA.

Inflammatory arthritis in children may be idiopathic in nature or may be due to or follow infections. Rare reports identify inflammatory arthritis temporally related to vaccination in children. Herein, we describe the first reported case of an infant who developed inflammatory arthritis following hepatitis B vaccination. Read More

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Osteomyelitis: An Uncommon Complication of BCG Vaccination.

Malays Orthop J 2021 Mar;15(1):144-145

Department of Paediatric, Tung Shin Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Paediatric viral gastroenteritis and regional predominant viral pathogens in the post-rotavirus vaccination year: prospective Irish regional study.

Authors:
Zakaria Barsoum

Sudan J Paediatr 2021 ;21(1):36-41

Consultant Paediatrician, South West Acute Hospital-Paediatric Department, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Acute gastroenteritis harbours a significant global burden. Rotavirus is the primary cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We aim to determine the predominant enteric viral pathogens detected in the post-rotavirus vaccine period (2016-2017) in our region in county Mayo (west of Ireland), United Kingdom. Read More

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January 2021

The incidence of herpes zoster in patients with diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25292

College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien.

Abstract: The research has correlated the risk factors of herpes zoster with some chronic diseases. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the incidence of herpes zoster in patients with diabetes mellitus.We conducted a literature search using Web of Science and PubMed for articles published from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2019. Read More

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Vaccine hesitancy and COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Med J 2021 Apr;27(2):90-91

The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

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IL-6 signaling in macrophages is required for immunotherapy-driven regression of tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Medical Oncology, Oncode institute, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

Background: High serum interleukin (IL-6) levels may cause resistance to immunotherapy by modulation of myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment. IL-6 signaling blockade is tested in cancer, but as this inflammatory cytokine has pleiotropic effects, this treatment is not always effective.

Methods: IL-6 and IL-6R blockade was applied in an IL-6-mediated immunotherapy-resistant TC-1 tumor model (TC-1. Read More

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Antigen Expression Regulates CD4 T Cell Differentiation and Vaccine Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

mBio 2021 Apr 20;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

New vaccines are urgently needed against (Mtb), which kills more than 1.4 million people each year. CD4 T cell differentiation is a key determinant of protective immunity against Mtb, but it is not fully understood how host-pathogen interactions shape individual antigen-specific T cell populations and their protective capacity. Read More

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Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells (moDCs) Differentiate into Bcl6 Mature moDCs to Promote Cyclic di-GMP Vaccine Adjuvant-Induced Memory T Cells in the Lung.

J Immunol 2021 May 19;206(9):2233-2245. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Induction of lung mucosal immune responses is highly desirable for vaccines against respiratory infections. We recently showed that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are responsible for lung IgA induction. However, the dendritic cell subset inducing lung memory T cells is unknown. Read More

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