274,748 results match your criteria usa boston


Understanding the genetics of adult-onset dilated cardiomyopathy: what a clinician needs to know.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jun;42(24):2384-2396

National Heart Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK.

There is increasing understanding of the genetic basis to dilated cardiomyopathy and in this review, we offer a practical primer for the practising clinician. We aim to help all clinicians involved in the care of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy to understand the clinical relevance of the genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy, introduce key genetic concepts, explain which patients and families may benefit from genetic testing, which genetic tests are commonly performed, how to interpret genetic results, and the clinical applications of results. We conclude by reviewing areas for future research in this dynamic field. Read More

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Differential trajectories of hypometabolism across cognitively-defined Alzheimer's disease subgroups.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 12;31:102725. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Disentangling biologically distinct subgroups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may facilitate a deeper understanding of the neurobiology underlying clinical heterogeneity. We employed longitudinal [F]FDG-PET standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) to map hypometabolism across cognitively-defined AD subgroups. Participants were 384 amyloid-positive individuals with an AD dementia diagnosis from ADNI who had a total of 1028 FDG-scans (mean time between first and last scan: 1. Read More

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Modularity and granularity across the language network-A primary progressive aphasia perspective.

Cortex 2021 May 24;141:482-496. Epub 2021 May 24.

Mesulam Center for Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA.

Tests of grammar, repetition and semantics were administered to 62 prospectively enrolled right-handed participants with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Structural brain images were obtained at the time of testing. Regression analyses uncovered 3 clearly delineated non-overlapping left hemisphere clusters where cortical thinning (atrophy) was significantly correlated with impaired performance. Read More

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On the origin of germ cell neoplasia in situ: Dedifferentiation of human adult Sertoli cells in cross talk with seminoma cells in vitro.

Neoplasia 2021 Jun 18;23(7):731-742. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany; Department of Lung Development and Remodelling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Member of the DZL, Member of CPI, Bad Nauheim, Germany; Institute for Lung Health (ILH), Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) is the noninvasive precursor of testicular germ cell tumors type II, the most common cancer in young men, which originates from embryonic germ cells blocked in their maturation. GCNIS is associated with impaired Sertoli cells (SCs) that express fetal keratin 18 (KRT18) and the pluripotency factor SRY-Box transcription factor 2 (SOX2). According to the current theory concerning the origin of GCNIS, these SCs are prepubertal cells arrested in their maturation due to (epi)genetic anomalies and/or environmental antiandrogens. Read More

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Black-White racial health disparities in inflammation and physical health: Cumulative stress, social isolation, and health behaviors.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 8;131:105251. Epub 2021 May 8.

Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Black Americans have vastly increased odds and earlier onsets of stress- and age-related disease compared to White Americans. However, what contributes to these racial health disparities remains poorly understood. Using a sample of 1577 older adults (32. Read More

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High-throughput microfluidic 3D biomimetic model enabling quantitative description of the human breast tumor microenvironment.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Cancer is driven by both genetic aberrations in the tumor cells and fundamental changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These changes offer potential targets for novel therapeutics, yet lack of in vitro 3D models recapitulating this complex microenvironment impedes such progress. Here, we generated several tumor-stroma scaffolds reflecting the dynamic in vivo breast TME, using a high throughput microfluidic system. Read More

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The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Several landmark phase 3 trials led to new drug approvals and rapid changes in therapy options for patients, including drugs with distinct mechanisms of action (e.g. Read More

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Targeting immunometabolism of neoplasms by interleukins: A promising immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, USA; Department of Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA. Electronic address:

In recent years, tumor metabolism has become a prevalent research topic for scientists and pharmaceutical companies. As research in the field has progressed, the metabolism-based therapy of tumors has ushered in new opportunities. Most tumors emerge and evolve under selective pressure from their microenvironment, which promotes the diversification of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic compartments of the tumor microenvironment (TME), and finally reaches a certain degree of intratumoral heterogeneity. Read More

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Mixed effect modelling of dose and Linear Energy Transfer correlations with brain image changes after intensity modulated proton therapy for skull base head and neck cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston, USA.

Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) could yield high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in critical structures and increased biological effect. For head and neck cancers at the skull base this could potentially result in radiation associated brain image change (RAIC). The purpose of the current study was to investigate voxel-wise dose and LET correlations with RAIC after IMPT. Read More

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Perioperative Outcomes Between Single-Port and "Multi-Port" Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Where do we stand?

Urology 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Urology Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: To report the results of the first quantitative synthesis of literature data from studies comparing Single-Port Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy performed using the novel SP surgical platform (SP-RARP) versus RARP performed by using multi-arms robotic systems (MP-RARP).

Methods: Studies comparing the use of da Vinci SP versus that of other available multi-arms da Vinci platforms were eligible for inclusion in the present review. From selected studies, data were extracted by using a standardized data extraction form. Read More

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INTERPLAY BETWEEN IMMUNITY AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS: CLINICAL IMPACT.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology and ALS Centre, University of Piemonte Orientale, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara, 28100, Italy. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. Despite decades of research and many new insights into disease biology over the 150 years since the disease was first described, causative pathogenic mechanisms in ALS remain poorly understood, especially in sporadic cases. Our understanding of the role of the immune system in ALS pathophysiology, however, is rapidly expanding. Read More

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Current Penetration, Completeness, and Representativeness of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) is the largest cardiac surgical database in the world. Linked data from STS ACSD and the CMS Medicare database were used to determine contemporary completeness, penetration, and representativeness of STS ACSD.

Methods: Using variables common to both STS and CMS databases, STS procedures were linked to CMS data for all CMS CABG discharges between 2000 and 2018, inclusive. Read More

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Routine use of continuous positive airway pressure after major abdominal surgery.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

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Long COVID has exposed medicine's blind-spot.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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Early Convalescent Plasma Therapy and Mortality among US Veterans Hospitalized with Non-Severe COVID-19: An Observational Analysis Emulating a Target Trial.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with non-severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of United States Veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between May 1 and November 17, 2020 with non-severe COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Read More

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Novel strategy of cartilage repairing via application of P. atlantica with stem cells and collagen.

Artif Organs 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Stem Cells Technology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint condition, still lacking effective treatments. Some factors consider as the main causes of OA, including biochemical, mechanical, and genetic factors. The growth of studies confirmed that modern medicine in combination with folk medicine regarding the arrival of reliable, efficient, and safe therapeutic products against OA. Read More

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Internationally educated dermatologists in the active Medicare workforce.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

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Loss of neuronal Miro1 disrupts mitophagy and induces hyperactivation of the integrated stress response.

EMBO J 2021 Jun 21:e100715. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.

Clearance of mitochondria following damage is critical for neuronal homeostasis. Here, we investigate the role of Miro proteins in mitochondrial turnover by the PINK1/Parkin mitochondrial quality control system in vitro and in vivo. We find that upon mitochondrial damage, Miro is promiscuously ubiquitinated on multiple lysine residues. Read More

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Client and Provider Experiences in Uganda Suggest Demand for and Highlight the Importance of Addressing HIV Stigma and Gender Norms Within Safer Conception Care.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama At Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Safer conception counseling supports HIV-serodifferent couples to meet reproductive goals while minimizing HIV transmission risk, but has not been integrated into routine HIV care. We piloted a novel safer conception program in an established public-sector HIV clinic in Uganda to inform future implementation. In-depth interviews and counseling observations explored experiences of program clients and healthcare providers to assess program acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility. Read More

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Concept confirmation of the Treatment Administration Satisfaction Questionnaire (TASQ) in rare paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Jun 21;5(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc., 121 Seaport Blvd, Boston, MA, 02210, USA.

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate content validity of the IntraVenous and SubCutaneous Treatment Administration Satisfaction Questionnaires (TASQ-IV and TASQ-SC), for use in a clinical trial population of participants with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) undergoing eculizumab treatment.

Methods: Participants underwent semi-structured combined brief introduction to disease history and full cognitive debriefing interviews to establish symptoms and key impacts of PNH and to explore the clarity and relevance of both sets of instructions (TASQ-IV and TASQ-SC). The clarity, relevance, response options, and recall period of the TASQ-IV items were also explored. Read More

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Types of carbohydrate intake and breast cancer survival.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To investigate the associations of different types of carbohydrate intake after breast cancer diagnosis with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality.

Methods: We prospectively assessed post-diagnostic intake of total sugar, added sugar, and natural sugar as well as carbohydrate from different sources, among 8932 women with stage I-III breast cancer that were identified in the Nurses' Health Study from 1980 to 2010 and Nurses' Health Study II from 1991 to 2011. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire every four years after diagnosis and were followed up for death. Read More

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Evaluation of class II cystic renal masses proposed in Bosniak classification version 2019: a systematic review of supporting evidence.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Radiology, University of Ottawa, Room c159 Ottawa Hospital Civic Campus, 1053 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4E9, Canada.

Purpose: The Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses version 2019 (v.2019) includes an expanded number of types of masses in class II; such masses are considered benign in clinical practice. Data supporting these additions have not been well-documented. Read More

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Prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnant and postpartum women in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Panzi General Referral Hospital, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The objective was to describe the prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnant and postpartum women in the Democratic Republic of Congo and to identify factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in these populations.

Methods: We interviewed eligible women who sought prenatal or postnatal reproductive health clinic consultations over a 2-year period. Interviews collected information about demographics, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence symptoms, as well as the impact on the quality of life, via a validated questionnaire. Read More

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Mechanosensitive expression of lamellipodin promotes intracellular stiffness, cyclin expression and cell proliferation.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 21;134(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.

Cell cycle control is a key aspect of numerous physiological and pathological processes. The contribution of biophysical cues, such as stiffness or elasticity of the underlying extracellular matrix (ECM), is critically important in regulating cell cycle progression and proliferation. Indeed, increased ECM stiffness causes aberrant cell cycle progression and proliferation. Read More

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Association of mitochondrial variants and haplogroups identified by whole exome sequencing with Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Medicine (Biomedical Genetics), Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 02118, USA.

Introduction: Findings regarding the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are inconsistent.

Methods: We developed a pipeline for accurate assembly and variant calling in mitochondrial genomes embedded within whole exome sequences (WES) from 10,831 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). Association of AD risk was evaluated with each mtDNA variant and variants located in 1158 nuclear genes related to mitochondrial function using the SCORE test. Read More

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Using ethnographic methods to classify the human experience in medicine: a case study of the presence ontology.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Objective: Although social and environmental factors are central to provider-patient interactions, the data that reflect these factors can be incomplete, vague, and subjective. We sought to create a conceptual framework to describe and classify data about presence, the domain of interpersonal connection in medicine.

Methods: Our top-down approach for ontology development based on the concept of "relationality" included the following: 1) a broad survey of the social sciences literature and a systematic literature review of >20 000 articles around interpersonal connection in medicine, 2) relational ethnography of clinical encounters (n = 5 pilot, 27 full), and 3) interviews about relational work with 40 medical and nonmedical professionals. Read More

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Practical development and operationalization of a 12-hour hospital census prediction algorithm.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Hospital census prediction has well-described implications for efficient hospital resource utilization, and recent issues with hospital crowding due to CoVID-19 have emphasized the importance of this task. Our team has been leading an institutional effort to develop machine-learning models that can predict hospital census 12 hours into the future. We describe our efforts at developing accurate empirical models for this task. Read More

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Towards gender equity in artificial intelligence and machine learning applications in dermatology.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

There has been increased excitement around the use of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) in dermatology for the diagnosis of skin cancers and assessment of other dermatologic conditions. As these technologies continue to expand, it is essential to ensure they do not create or widen sex- and gender-based disparities in care. While desirable bias may result from the explicit inclusion of sex or gender in diagnostic criteria of diseases with gender-based differences, undesirable biases can result from usage of datasets with an underrepresentation of certain groups. Read More

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Effects of prenatal and postnatal maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on child growth and morbidity in Tanzania: a double-blind, randomized-controlled trial.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Maternal micronutrient status is critical for child growth and nutrition. It is unclear whether maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) during pregnancy and lactation improves child growth and prevents child morbidity.

Methods: This study aimed to determine the effects of prenatal and postnatal maternal MMS on child growth and morbidity. Read More

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