Clin Pract 2021 Feb 25;11(1):110-123. Epub 2021 Feb 25.
Department of Pathology, Cruces University Hospital, Biocruces-Bizkaia Health Research Institute, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain.
A broad spectrum of lesions, including hyperplastic, metaplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and reactive, may mimic cancer all along the urinary tract. This narrative collects most of them from a clinical and pathologic perspective, offering urologists and general pathologists their most salient definitory features. Together with classical, well-known, entities such as urothelial papillomas (conventional (UP) and inverted (IUP)), nephrogenic adenoma (NA), polypoid cystitis (PC), fibroepithelial polyp (FP), prostatic-type polyp (PP), verumontanum cyst (VC), xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XI), reactive changes secondary to BCG instillations (BCGitis), schistosomiasis (SC), keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia (KSM), post-radiation changes (PRC), vaginal-type metaplasia (VM), endocervicosis (EC)/endometriosis (EM) (müllerianosis), malakoplakia (MK), florid von Brunn nest proliferation (VB), cystitis/ureteritis cystica (CC), and glandularis (CG), among others, still other cellular proliferations with concerning histological features and poorly understood etiopathogenesis like IgG4-related disease (IGG4), PEComa (PEC), and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations (post-operative spindle cell nodule (POS), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT)), are reviewed. Read More