1,605 results match your criteria urchin strongylocentrotus

The Diverse Transformer (Trf) Protein Family in the Sea Urchin Acts through a Collaboration between Cellular and Humoral Immune Effector Arms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Molecular Biology, Ariel University, Science Park, Ariel 40700, Israel.

Sea urchins are long-living marine invertebrates with a complex innate immune system, which includes expanded families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in sea urchins encodes the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family has been studied mainly in the purple sea urchin . Read More

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Characterization of Gangliosides in Three Sea Urchin Species by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29;69(27):7641-7651. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China.

Sea urchin gangliosides (SU-GLSs) are well acknowledged for their nerve regeneration activity and neuroprotective property. The present study sought to characterize and semi-quantitate different SU-GLS subclasses in three sea urchin species, including , and . A total of 14 SU-GLS subclasses were identified by a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-Q-Exactive tandem mass spectrometry method. Read More

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Energetic context determines the effects of multiple upwelling-associated stressors on sea urchin performance.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11313. Epub 2021 May 31.

Telonicher Marine Laboratory, Humboldt State University, Trinidad, USA.

Globally, kelp forests are threatened by multiple stressors, including increasing grazing by sea urchins. With coastal upwelling predicted to increase in intensity and duration in the future, understanding whether kelp forest and urchin barren urchins are differentially affected by upwelling-related stressors will give insight into how future conditions may affect the transition between kelp forests and barrens. We assessed how current and future-predicted changes in the duration and magnitude of upwelling-associated stressors (low pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) affected the performance of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) sourced from rapidly-declining bull kelp (Nereocystis leutkeana) forests and nearby barrens and maintained on habitat-specific diets. Read More

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Carryover effects of long-term high water temperatures on fitness-related traits of the offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jul 20;169:105371. Epub 2021 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China. Electronic address:

It is important to study the fitness of marine invertebrates in exposure to high water temperature. We studied whether the long-term high temperatures work on the fitness-related traits (righting behavior, covering behavior, foraging behavior, Aristotle's lantern reflex, body size) of S. intermedius whose parents (males and females) were exposed to ambient or high temperatures (~3 °C higher than the ambient) for a long period of time. Read More

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Integration of 1:1 orthology maps and updated datasets into Echinobase.

Database (Oxford) 2021 May;2021

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Echinobase (https://echinobase.org) is a central online platform that generates, manages and hosts genomic data relevant to echinoderm research. While the resource primarily serves the echinoderm research community, the recent release of an excellent quality genome for the frequently studied purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, v5. Read More

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Variation in purple sea urchin () morphological traits in relation to resource availability.

PeerJ 2021 27;9:e11352. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States.

Flexible resource investment is a risk sensitive reproductive strategy where individuals trade resources spent on reproduction for basic metabolic maintenance and survival. This study examined morphological variation in herbivorous sea urchin grazers across a mosaic landscape of macroalgae dominated habitats interspersed with patches of sea urchin barrens to determine whether sea urchins shift energy allocation in response to food limitation. Extensive underwater surveys of habitat attributes (e. Read More

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Interaction among sea urchins in response to food cues.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9985. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China.

Interaction among sea urchins remains largely uninvestigated, although the aggregation of sea urchins is common. In the present study, 1, 15 and 30 sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius (11.06 ± 0. Read More

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Quantitative study of the behavior of two broadcast spawners, the sea urchins and , during mass spawning events in situ.

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e11058. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Geochemistry and Ecology of the Ocean, V. I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

Background: The spatial distribution of spawners and temporal parameters of spawning in motile invertebrates with external fertilization might influence reproductive success. However, to date, data on the prespawning and spawning behaviors of broadcast spawners in the field have been scarce and mostly qualitative. The present study was intended to clarify the behavioral adaptations of two sea urchin species, and , using quantitative analysis of their behavior during mass spawning events under natural conditions. Read More

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Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea otter-urchin trophic cascade.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar 8;118(11). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060.

Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here, we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution of top-down forcing, depending on the spatial organization of ecosystem states. In 2014, a rapid and dramatic decline in the abundance of a mesopredator () and primary producer () coincided with a fundamental change in purple sea urchin () foraging behavior and condition, resulting in a spatial mosaic of kelp forests interspersed with patches of sea urchin barrens. Read More

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Complexation reduces nickel toxicity to purple sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), a test of biotic ligand principles in seawater.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 3;216:112156. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The potential for Ni toxicity in seawater is of concern because of mining and processing activities in coastal regions. Determining Ni speciation is vital to understanding and predicting Ni toxicity and for bioavailability-based nickel risk assessment. The goal of this study was to characterize the complexation of Ni in relation to toxicity using embryological development of purple sea urchin (S. Read More

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New Echinoderm-Crab Epibiotic Associations from the Coastal Barents Sea.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk, Russia.

During diving surveys for a Russian research project that monitored introduced species, red king crabs () were collected at a coastal site of the Barents Sea to study the structure and dynamics of this species. Sampling of the organisms colonizing the crabs was part of this research project. For the first time, the presence of relatively large specimens of the common starfish as epibionts of was observed in July 2010, 2018, and 2019. Read More

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Pulsed exposure toxicity testing: Baseline evaluations and considerations using copper and zinc with two marine species.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 23;277:130323. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Naval Information Warfare Center Pacific (NIWC Pacific), Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Code 71760, 53560 Hull St., San Diego, CA, 92152-5001, USA.

Methods to assess environmental impacts from episodic discharges on receiving water bodies need a more environmentally relevant and scientifically defensible toxicity test design. Many permittees are regularly required to conduct 96-h toxicity tests on discharges associated with events that are generally less than 24 h in duration. Current standardized methods do not adequately reflect these episodic discharge conditions at either the point of compliance nor as it mixes with the receiving environment. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis reveals a role for ABCB1 in gut immune responses to Vibrio diazotrophicus in sea urchin larvae.

J Exp Biol 2021 04 15;224(7). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

The ABC transporter ABCB1 plays an important role in the disposition of xenobiotics. Embryos of most species express high levels of this transporter in early development as a protective mechanism, but its native substrates are not known. Here, we used larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to characterize the early life expression and role of Sp-ABCB1a, a homolog of ABCB1. Read More

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Modularity and hierarchy in biological systems: Using gene regulatory networks to understand evolutionary change.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 5;141:39-73. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Modularity and hierarchy are important theoretical concepts in biology, and both are useful frameworks to understand the evolution of complex systems. Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provide a powerful mechanistic model for modularity in animal development, as they are made up of modular (or self-contained) circuits, which are deployed in a hierarchical manner over time. Over the years, studies in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, have provided an illustrative example of how these regulatory circuits are responsible for processes such as cell differentiation and cell state specificity. Read More

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February 2021

After 15 years, no evidence for trophic cascades in marine protected areas.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 02 17;288(1945):20203061. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9010, USA.

In marine ecosystems, fishing often targets predators, which can drive direct and indirect effects on entire food webs. Marine reserves can induce trophic cascades by increasing predator density and body size, thereby increasing predation pressure on populations of herbivores, such as sea urchins. In California's northern Channel Islands, two species of sea urchins are abundant: the red urchin , which is targeted by an economically valuable fishery, and the virtually unfished purple urchin . Read More

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February 2021

Sea Urchin as a Universal Model for Studies of Gene Networks.

Front Genet 2020 20;11:627259. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia.

The purple sea urchin has been used for over 150 years as a model organism in developmental biology. Using this model species, scientists have been able to describe, in detail, the mechanisms of cell cycle control and cell adhesion, fertilization, calcium signaling, cell differentiation, and death. Massive parallel sequencing of the sea urchin genome enabled the deciphering of the main components of gene regulatory networks during the activation of embryonic signaling pathways. Read More

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January 2021

Aquatic toxicity evaluations of PFOS and PFOA for five standard marine endpoints.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 21;273:129699. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Geosyntec Consultants, Milton, VT, USA.

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are emerging contaminants that are coming under increasing scrutiny. Currently, there is a paucity of effects data for marine aquatic life, limiting the assessment of ecological risks and compliance with water quality policies. In the present study, the toxicity of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to four standard marine laboratory toxicity testing species, encompassing five endpoints, were evaluated: 1) 96-h embryo-larval normal development for the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus); 2) 48-h embryo-larval normal development and normal survival for the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); 3) 96-h survival of opossum shrimp (Americamysis bahia); and 4) 24-h light output for the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula. Read More

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Chronic Toxicity of Cobalt to Marine Organisms: Application of a Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach to Develop International Water Quality Standards.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 23;40(5):1405-1418. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Water quality standards for cobalt (Co) have yet to be developed for the European Union or the United States. The primary objective of the present study was to produce a data set comprising marine Co toxicity data that could be used by both the European Union and the United States to determine a predicted-no-effect concentration and ambient water quality criteria, respectively. Ten marine species, ranging from algae to fish, were subjected to chronic Co toxicity tests that were designed to meet international water quality testing standards. Read More

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microRNA-31 regulates skeletogenesis by direct suppression of Eve and Wnt1.

Dev Biol 2021 04 20;472:98-114. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in a variety of biological processes, including embryogenesis and the physiological functions of cells. Evolutionarily conserved microRNA-31 (miR-31) has been found to be involved in cancer, bone formation, and lymphatic development. We previously discovered that, in the sea urchin, miR-31 knockdown (KD) embryos have shortened dorsoventral connecting rods, mispatterned skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and shifted and expanded Vegf3 expression domain. Read More

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CRISPR-Cas9 editing of non-coding genomic loci as a means of controlling gene expression in the sea urchin.

Dev Biol 2021 04 19;472:85-97. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA. Electronic address:

We seek to manipulate gene function here through CRISPR-Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory sequences, rather than the more typical mutation of coding regions. This approach would minimize secondary effects of cellular responses to nonsense mediated decay pathways or to mutant protein products by premature stops. This strategy also allows for reducing gene activity in cases where a complete gene knockout would result in lethality, and it can be applied to the rapid identification of key regulatory sites essential for gene expression. Read More

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Sex-Specific Differences in the Toxic Effects of Heavy Fuel Oil on Sea Urchin ().

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 9;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the sex-specific differences in the toxic effects of water-accommodated fractions of 380# heavy fuel oil (HFO WAF) on the sea urchin . Sea urchins were acutely exposed to HFO WAF at different nominal concentrations (0%, 10% and 20%) for seven days. The results showed that females had a higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bioaccumulation in gonad tissues and that both the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the gonad tissues of females were much higher than those of males. Read More

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January 2021

Influence of environmentally relevant concentrations of Zn, Cd and Ni and their binary mixtures on metal uptake, bioaccumulation and development in larvae of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 3;230:105709. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Bamfield Marine Science Centre, Bamfield, British Columbia, V0R 1B0, Canada; University of British Columbia, Department of Zoology, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada; McMaster University, Dept. of Biology, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada.

Metal accumulation, disturbance of Ca homeostasis, and occurrence of abnormalities are well-established consequences of single metal exposure during early development stages of sea urchins. However, the effects caused by low concentrations of metals and metal mixtures need to be better understood in marine invertebrates. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Zn (9 μg/L), Cd (30 μg/L) and Ni (5 μg/L) in single and binary exposures (Zn + Cd, Cd + Ni and Ni + Zn) to the early life stages of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Read More

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January 2021

Predator-induced selection on urchin activity level depends on urchin body size.

Ethology 2019 Oct 4;125(10):716-723. Epub 2019 Aug 4.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 USA.

Temporally consistent individual differences in behavior impact many ecological processes. We simultaneously examined the effects of individual variation in prey activity level, covering behavior, and body size on prey survival with predators using an urchin-lobster system. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that slow-moving purple sea urchins () and urchins who deploy extensive substrate (pebbles and stones) covering behavior will out-survive active urchins that deploy little to no covering behavior when pitted against a predator, the California spiny lobster (). Read More

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October 2019

Functional properties of gonad protein isolates from three species of sea urchin: a comparative study.

J Food Sci 2020 Nov 29;85(11):3679-3689. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, 116034, P.R. China.

Sea urchin Mesocentrotus nudus, Glyptocidaris crenularis, and Strongylocentrotus intermedius gonad protein isolates (mnGPIs, gcGPIs, and siGPIs) were extracted by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) from the defatted gonads, and their functional properties were compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed the similar protein pattern between each protein isolate and defatted gonad, indicating the high efficiency of ISP processing for protein recovery. Amino acid profileconfirmed that the mnGPIs and siGPIs could be potential sources of essential amino acid in nature. Read More

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November 2020

Toxicity of Carbon, Silicon, and Metal-Based Nanoparticles to Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus Intermedius.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Sep 13;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, 690950 Vladivostok, Russia.

With the increasing annual production of nanoparticles (NPs), the risks of their harmful influence on the environment and human health are rising. However, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Prior studies have shown that echinoderms, and especially sea urchins, represent one of the most suitable models for risk assessment in environmental nanotoxicology. Read More

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September 2020

Effect of dopamine on early larvae of sea urchins, Mesocentrotus nudus and Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2020 09 9;334(6):373-380. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

A. V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

Larvae of many echinoids are known to be phenotypically plastic and capable of changing the growth rate of their post-oral arms depending on the microalgae concentration in their habitat. As literature data show, developing larvae use chemosensation to detect algae in the environment and "adjust" the rate of growth of their post-oral arms through dopamine signaling. According to our results, dopamine has a significant effect on the post-oral arm growth in early larvae of two sea urchin species, Mesocentrotus nudus and Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Read More

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September 2020

A single cell RNA sequencing resource for early sea urchin development.

Development 2020 09 11;147(17). Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of BioMedicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA

Identifying cell states during development from their mRNA profiles provides insight into their gene regulatory network. Here, we leverage the sea urchin embryo for its well-established gene regulatory network to interrogate the embryo using single cell RNA sequencing. We tested eight developmental stages in , from the eight-cell stage to late in gastrulation. Read More

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September 2020

Regulation of dynamic pigment cell states at single-cell resolution.

Elife 2020 08 19;9. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Division of Biology and Medicine Brown University, Providence, United States.

Cells bearing pigment have diverse roles and are often under strict evolutionary selection. Here, we explore the regulation of pigmented cells in the purple sea urchin an emerging model for diverse pigment function. We took advantage of single cell RNA-seq (scRNAseq) technology and discovered that pigment cells in the embryo segregated into two distinct populations, a mitotic cluster and a post-mitotic cluster. Read More

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Distant hybrids of Heliocidaris crassispina (♀) and Strongylocentrotus intermedius (♂): identification and mtDNA heteroplasmy analysis.

BMC Evol Biol 2020 08 11;20(1):101. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023, People's Republic of China.

Background: Distant hybridization between the sea urchin Heliocidaris crassispina (♀) and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (♂) was successfully performed under laboratory conditions. A new variety of hybrid sea urchin (HS hybrid) was obtained. However, the early-development success rates for the HS hybrids were significantly lower than those of purebred H. Read More

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Comparative metabolome analysis provides new insights into increased larval mortality under seawater acidification in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 26;747:141206. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China's Sea, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, PR China. Electronic address:

Mortality and metabolic responses of four-armed larvae of Strongylocentrotus intermedius under CO-induced seawater acidification were investigated. Gametes of S. intermedius were fertilized and developed to the four-armed larval stage in either current natural seawater pH levels (as Control; pH = 7. Read More

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December 2020