Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 3;230:105709. Epub 2020 Dec 3.
Bamfield Marine Science Centre, Bamfield, British Columbia, V0R 1B0, Canada; University of British Columbia, Department of Zoology, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada; McMaster University, Dept. of Biology, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada.
Metal accumulation, disturbance of Ca homeostasis, and occurrence of abnormalities are well-established consequences of single metal exposure during early development stages of sea urchins. However, the effects caused by low concentrations of metals and metal mixtures need to be better understood in marine invertebrates. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Zn (9 μg/L), Cd (30 μg/L) and Ni (5 μg/L) in single and binary exposures (Zn + Cd, Cd + Ni and Ni + Zn) to the early life stages of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Read More