2,384 results match your criteria uphill downhill

Optical configuration of an N ∶ 2 reversible decoder using a LiNbO-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(16):4544-4556

These days when integrated circuit (IC) designers are facing an uphill task in limiting energy/heat dissipation, reversible computing is emerging as a potential candidate with vast application in fields like nanotechnology, quantum-dot cellular automata, and low power IC. Optical reversible logics have turned up to offer high speed and low energy computations with almost no loss of input information when a certain (arithmetic or logical) operation is performed. This paper explores an optical implementation of an optimized Fredkin gate that is employed to design an $ N:2^N $ reversible decoder. Read More

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Semiclassical Modified Redfield and Generalized Förster Theories of Exciton Relaxation/Transfer in Light-Harvesting Complexes: The Quest for the Principle of Detailed Balance.

Thomas Renger

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria.

A conceptual problem of transfer theories that use a semiclassical description of the electron-vibrational coupling is the neglect of the correlation between momenta and coordinates of nuclei. In the Redfield theory of exciton relaxation, this neglect leads to a violation of the principle of detailed balance; equal "uphill" and "downhill" transfer rate constants are obtained. Here, we investigate how this result depends on nuclear reorganization effects, neglected in Redfield but taken into account in the modified Redfield theory. Read More

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Knee Joint Line Obliquity Causes Tibiofemoral Subluxation That Alters Contact Areas and Meniscal Loading.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jun 14:3635465211020478. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Biomechanics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Little scientific evidence is available regarding the effect of knee joint line obliquity (JLO) before and after coronal realignment osteotomy.

Hypotheses: Higher JLO would lead to abnormal relative position of the femur on the tibia, a shift of the joint contact areas, and elevated joint contact pressures.

Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Read More

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Fighting the uphill battle to cure type 1 diabetes.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 06591, Korea.

2021 marks the 100-year anniversary of the discovery of insulin, an historic breakthrough in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Insulin has helped save millions of lives. However, as Frederik G. Read More

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COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on peer review speed of anesthesiology journals: An observational study.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Mar;37(1):57-62. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background And Aims: Publication of a scientific article in a reputed journal is an uphill task that demands a significant amount of time and effort from the author and editorial team. It is a matter of great enthusiasm for all prospective researchers to know whether this daily evolving publication load of articles during this pandemic had changed the journal's inherent peer review or publication process. We aimed to compare the peer review speed of anesthesiology journal articles published during pandemic (2020) to the previous year and to analyze various factors affecting peer review speed. Read More

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Synthetic half-reactions.

Andrei K Yudin

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 9;11(46):12423-12427. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Davenport Chemistry Laboratories, Chemistry Department, University of Toronto 80 St. George Street Toronto ON M5S 3H6 Canada

This perspective on reactivity introduces Synthetic Half-Reactions (SHRs) as a way to analyze chemical transformations. SHRs denote either an uphill transformation leading to a higher energy state or a downhill transformation leading to a lower energy state. Using well-established processes, I show how the matching of different classes of SHRs offers a tool to classify chemical transformations. Read More

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September 2020

Beta-alanine did not improve high-intensity performance throughout simulated road cycling.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jun 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Applied Physiology and Nutrition Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport; Rheumatology Division; Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BR, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

This study investigated the effect of beta-alanine supplementation on short-duration sprints and final 4-km simulated uphill cycling time-trial performance during a comprehensive and novel exercise protocol representative of the demands of road-race cycling, and determined if changes were related to increases in muscle carnosine content. Seventeen cyclists (age 38 ± 9 y, height 1.76 ± 0. Read More

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Rolling uphill: in vivo reacquisition of pluripotency during cranial neural crest differentiation.

Commun Biol 2021 May 20;4(1):626. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

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Are Medial and Lateral Tibiofemoral Compressive Forces Different in Uphill Compared to Level Walking for Patients Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Biomech Eng 2021 Oct;143(10)

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation and Sport Studies, The University of Tennessee, 1914 Andy Holt Avenue Knoxville, TN 37996.

The purpose of this study was to determine how tibiofemoral joint compressive forces and knee joint-spanning muscle forces during uphill walking change compared to level walking in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A musculoskeletal model capable of resolving total (TCF), medial (MCF), and lateral (LCF) tibiofemoral compressive forces was used to determine compressive forces and muscle forces during level and uphill walking on a 10 deg incline for twenty-five post-TKA patients. A 2 × 2 (slope: level and 10 deg × limb: replaced and nonreplaced) repeated measures analysis of variance was used to detect differences in knee contact forces between slope and limb conditions and their interaction. Read More

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October 2021

The influence of social and cultural practices on maternal mortality: a qualitative study from South Punjab, Pakistan.

Reprod Health 2021 May 18;18(1):97. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Public Health, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: A disproportionately high rate of maternal deaths is reported in developing and underdeveloped regions of the world. Much of this is associated with social and cultural factors, which form barriers to women utilizing appropriate maternal healthcare. A huge body of research is available on maternal mortality in developing countries. Read More

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Few changes in native Australian alpine plant morphology, despite substantial local climate change.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 2;11(9):4854-4865. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences UNSW Sydney Sydney NSW Australia.

Rapid evolution is likely to be an important mechanism allowing native species to adapt to changed environmental conditions. Many Northern Hemisphere species have undergone substantial recent changes in phenology and morphology. However, we have little information about how native species in the Southern Hemisphere are responding to climate change. Read More

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An uphill battle: A case example of government policy and activist dissent on the death penalty for drug-related offences in Indonesia.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jun 5;92:103265. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, St Cross Building St. Cross Rd, Oxford OX1 3UL, United Kingdom; Columbia School of Social Work, Columbia University, 1255 Amsterdam Ave, New York, NY 10027, United States.

In 2014, newly-elected President Joko Widodo announced that Indonesia was facing a national 'emergency' due to high levels of drug use that necessitated harsh criminal justice responses, including the ultimate punishment of death. On April 29, 2015 Indonesia executed eight prisoners condemned to death for drug-related offences, including seven foreigners, eliciting widespread international criticism. This commentary explores the strategies employed and obstacles faced by national anti-death penalty advocates that opposed the 2015 executions, primarily focusing on their efforts between 2015 and 2017. Read More

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A Novel mHealth Monitoring System during Cycling in Elite Athletes.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sports Medicine Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: Cycling is a very demanding physical activity that may create various health disorders during an athlete's career. Recently, smart mobile and wearable technologies have been used to monitor physiological responses and possible disturbances during physical activity. Thus, the application of mHealth methods in sports poses a challenge today. Read More

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Particle number emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 6;773:145663. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Food Chain Pollution Control, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China; Key Laboratory of Cleaner Production and Integrated Resource Utilization of China National Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

Humans are more likely to be exposed to ultrafine particles (UFPs) emitted by light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) in urban road traffic, which can cause serious bodily harm. In this study, we conducted on-road measurement of the Particle Number (PN) emissions from 18 China-3, China-4, and China-5 LDGVs on representative roads in Beijing. To clarify the impact of key parameters (standards, driving conditions, and technology) on the PN emissions, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the emission results. Read More

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Effect of Uphill Running on VO, Heart Rate and Lactate Accumulation on Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmills.

Sports (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Sports Science, Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin, Germany.

Lower body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPTs) as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal load are becoming more common as part of sports conditioning, although the requisite physiological parameters are unclear. To elucidate their role, ten well-trained runners (30.2 ± 3. Read More

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Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Muscle Specific Analysis of Intensity and Fatigue during Cross-Country Skiing Competition-A Case Report.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department for Elite Sport, Swiss Federal Institute of Sport, 2532 Magglingen, Switzerland.

The aims of the study were to assess the robustness and non-reactiveness of wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to monitor exercise intensity during a real race scenario, and to compare oxygenation between muscle groups important for cross-country skiing (XCS). In a single-case study, one former elite XCS (age: 39 years, peak oxygen uptake: 65.6 mL/kg/min) was equipped with four NIRS devices, a high-precision global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and a heart rate (HR) monitor during the Vasaloppet long-distance XCS race. Read More

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The Oxygen Uptake Plateau-A Critical Review of the Frequently Misunderstood Phenomenon.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department Medicine, Training and Health, Institute of Sports Science and Motologie, Philipps-University Marburg, Jahnstr. 12, 35037, Marburg, Germany.

A flattening of the oxygen uptake-work rate relationship at severe exercise indicates the achievement of maximum oxygen uptake [Formula: see text]. Unfortunately, a distinct plateau [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]is not found in all participants. The aim of this investigation was to critically review the influence of research methods and physiological factors on the [Formula: see text] incidence. Read More

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Vision Affects Gait Speed but not Patterns of Muscle Activation During Inclined Walking-A Virtual Reality Study.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 9;9:632594. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center of Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

While walking, our locomotion is affected by and adapts to the environment based on vision- and body-based (vestibular and proprioception) cues. When transitioning to downhill walking, we modulate gait by braking to avoid uncontrolled acceleration, and when transitioning to uphill walking, we exert effort to avoid deceleration. In this study, we aimed to measure the influence of visual inputs on this behavior and on muscle activation. Read More

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Physiological responses and cycle characteristics during double-poling versus diagonal-stride roller-skiing in junior cross-country skiers.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.

Purpose: This study aimed to compare physiological factors and cycle characteristics during cross-country (XC) roller-skiing at matched inclines and speeds using the double-poling (DP) and diagonal-stride (DS) sub-techniques in junior female and male XC skiers.

Methods: Twenty-three well-trained junior XC skiers (11 women, 12 men; age 18.2 ± 1. Read More

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Structures and General Transport Mechanisms by the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS).

Chem Rev 2021 May 22;121(9):5289-5335. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Structural Biology Research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan.

The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest known superfamily of secondary active transporters. MFS transporters are responsible for transporting a broad spectrum of substrates, either down their concentration gradient or uphill using the energy stored in the electrochemical gradients. Over the last 10 years, more than a hundred different MFS transporter structures covering close to 40 members have provided an atomic framework for piecing together the molecular basis of their transport cycles. Read More

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A novel treadmill protocol for uphill running assessment: the incline incremental running test (IIRT).

Res Sports Med 2021 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Physical Effort Laboratory, Sports Centre, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the maximal and submaximal aerobic parameters between two incremental running tests, one being horizontal and the other an incline-based test, namely the incline incremental running test (IIRT). Twenty endurance-trained trail runners completed two incremental treadmill tests, until exhaustion. The first test was performed using an incline of 1%, with speed increments. Read More

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Deterministic model of battery, uphill currents, and nonequilibrium phase transitions.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032119

Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin, Italy.

We consider point particles in a table made of two circular cavities connected by two rectangular channels, forming a closed loop under periodic boundary conditions. In the first channel, a bounce-back mechanism acts when the number of particles flowing in one direction exceeds a given threshold T. In that case, the particles invert their horizontal velocity, as if colliding with vertical walls. Read More

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Recurrent Hematemesis From Downhill Esophageal Varices: A Therapeutic Challenge for Gastroenterologists.

Cureus 2021 Mar 11;13(3):e13840. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Internal Medicine, Federal Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, PAK.

Downhill or upper esophageal varices have an etiology that differs from that of the "uphill" varices secondary to portal hypertension. Approximately 0.1% of all cases of variceal hemorrhage are due to downhill varices. Read More

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A QTL for conformation of back and croup influences lateral gait quality in Icelandic horses.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 14;22(1):267. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: The back plays a vital role in horse locomotion, where the spine functions as a spring during the stride cycle. A complex interaction between the spine and the muscles of the back contribute to locomotion soundness, gait ability, and performance of riding and racehorses. Conformation is commonly used to select horses for breeding and performance in multiple horse breeds, where the back and croup conformation plays a significant role. Read More

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Comparative first principles-based molecular dynamics study of catalytic mechanism and reaction energetics of water oxidation reaction on 2D-surface.

J Comput Chem 2021 Jun 13;42(16):1138-1149. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Telangana, India.

The study of the water-splitting process, which can proceed in 2e as well as 4e pathway, reveals that the process is entirely an uphill process, and the third step, that is, the oxooxo bond formation is the rate-determining step. The kinetic barrier of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on the 2D material catalysts in the presence of explicit solvents is scarcely studied. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the OER on the undoped graphene and the activation energy barrier of each step using first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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Long-term gait biomechanics in level, uphill, and downhill conditions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Apr 31;84:105345. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Program in Human Movement Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA; Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Altered gait biomechanics have been linked to post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis development following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, but the persistence of aberrant gait biomechanics after the first year post-surgery is inconsistent in the literature. Gait biomechanics are typically evaluated on a level surface, but this task may not elucidate discrepancies in individuals further removed from surgery due to the simplicity of the task. Graded surfaces are common in real-world ambulation and may exacerbate aberrant gait biomechanics due to greater mechanical demands. Read More

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Physiological and Biomechanical Determinants of Sprint Ability Following Variable Intensity Exercise When Roller Ski Skating.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:638499. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

The most common race format in cross-country (XC) skiing is the mass-start event, which is under-explored in the scientific literature. To explore factors important for XC skiing mass-starts, the main purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and biomechanical determinants of sprint ability following variable intensity exercise when roller ski skating. Thirteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated mass-start competition while roller ski skating on a treadmill. Read More

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Comparison of Physiological and Biomechanical Responses to Flat and Uphill Cross-Country Sit-Skiing in Able-Bodied Athletes.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Purpose: To compare peak work rate (WRpeak) and associated physiological and biomechanical performance-determining variables between flat and uphill cross-country (XC) sit-skiing.

Methods: Fifteen able-bodied male XC skiers completed 2 test sessions, each comprising four 4-minute submaximal stages, followed by an incremental test to exhaustion and a verification test in a sit-ski on a roller-ski treadmill. The test sessions were counterbalanced by the incline, being either 0. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate medical students in Poonch Medical College, Azad Kashmir.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 02;71(2(A)):524-527

Poonch Medical College, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of breast self-examination (BSE) among female undergraduate medical students in Poonch Medical College, Azad Kashmir. Out of 306 respondents, 250 completed the 16-item questionnaire (response rate of 81.7%). Read More

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February 2021

Function Trumps Form in Two Sugar Symporters, and .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Physiology Department, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA.

Active transport of sugars into bacteria occurs through symporters driven by ion gradients. is the most well-studied proton sugar symporter, whereas is the most characterized sodium sugar symporter. These are members of the major facilitator (MFS) and the amino acid-Polyamine organocation (APS) transporter superfamilies. Read More

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